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The battle (which happened at Flod. The Royal Company of Archers den field) was bloody, and termi- in the month of August 1790, shoe nated in the total defeat of the Scots, on the banks of the Tweed for the whose King, with the Archbishop of ancient arrow belonging to the towa St Andrews, two Abbots, twelve of Peebles, when Lord Elibank gainEarls, and seventeen Lords, were flain ed the prize. in the battle.

The Loyal Archers assembled on The use of the bow has, Gince the St George's day, at Lewisham, to coninvention of gunpowder, gradually de-' test for the prize, which was won by created; but archery has lately been W. Foster, Esq. drawn from obscurity, by societies of The Yorkshire Archers, at their the nobility and gentry, who honour September meeting, shot for their the memory of their ancestors so far as medals; the gold medal was gained by to patronize a science by which they W. Lee, Esq; and the two silver me.. attain so much renown.

dals by ). Dixon, and J. P. Neville; The first dawn of mudern society Esqrs. The Countess of Mexbro of Archers was, upwards of twenty prelided as patroness, and Earl Fitzyears ago, instituted under the title william as patron. of Finsbury Archers, now obsolete : The Bowmen of Chevy Chace are not more than two of the members

a society formed in Northumberland; are at present in being ; one of which, the patron, the Duke of that county, Mr Constable, is at present consider- who presented them with a silver ared as Father of Archers ; and if nu row. merous prize arrows, &c. won by him, Other societies bear the following ought to confer that title, it is un- appellations : doubtedly his.

The late Sir Alhton Lever was the Robert Ketish Bowmen, cause of the revival of the science, and Robin Hood Powmen, the society of Toxophiliies owe their John of Gaunt Bowmen, origin to him. Many other institu Woodmen of Arden, tutions rose under different titles, as, Woodmen of Hornsey, the Hatfield Archers, under the pa

Henault Foresters, tronage of Lady Salisbury; the Royal Surry Archers, British Bowmen, which suciety shot for Southampton Archers; the prizes given by His Royal High- and several others, which I omit, not ness the Prince of Wales, on the 3d through design, but want of informaof Sept. 1790. The ladies prize, tion. a gold medallion, was won by Lady The annual meeting of all the ArCupliff; and the gentleman's, a filver chers in England is held on Blackheath. bugle horn, was gained by R. Her The only books published on Ara keth, Esq.

chery (my friend informed me of) The Caledonian, or Edinborough are, Wood's Bowman's Glory, and Archers (the molt nunierous of Ascam's Toxophilus ; the former society, being above nine hundred in about a century ago, the latter near number), at whose grand match in thirty years. 1789 Lord Aylesford attended ; and The manufactory for implements the fame of his dexterity was blown of Archery is at Leicester House, so high, that the Caledonian band established by Mr Waring. dreaded the issue of the encounter. This extract from the rules and Mr Gray, the writer to the signet, orders of one of the above societies who is an incomparable shot, won the will serve as a general description of prize.

their uniform. Cc VOL. XIV. No. 81.

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“ That every member of this co- coloured leather belt, with a pouch anti oiety shall provide himself a Uniform, green taffel, and blak leather brace. and deceffary accourrements for shoot: 66. That no member be allowed to: ing, which fliallconsist of a green shoot at a General Meeting, unlesscoat, white waistcoat andi breeches, he is dressed in his uniform and acwith metal buttons, having the arrow. coutrements complete, nor at any and bugle horn engraved thereon, a other meeting, unless in his uniform black hat, green and white feathers, coat and' waistcoats white stockings, half baots, a buff

Instance of the Tyranny exercised. by Henry the Vilt in a Lettër to Sir Ralf

Eure *


following introduction is thereof, first, with us of his grace's

the puffcript of a letter from council, whom his majesty, according, the council to the Earl of Shrewsbury, unto our most bounded duties, found lord lieutenant in the North of Eng: in such conformity as we trust was tai land.]

his grace's contentation ; and from • We send herewith a letter to be us proceeding unto the citizens of conveyed with diligence to the war. London, found them alfo, upon fuchi den of the Middle Märches, by the declaration as, was made unto them contents-whereof your lordship may of the necessity of the thing, as hoperceive our proceedings with one nestly inclined to the utternsoft of Reed, an aftermany of London, who their powers, as they faw the request repaireth down thither to serve in to be grounded upon most reafonable those parts; praying your lord ship, at caufes. Only one there was, samed his palling by you northwards, to make Richard Reed, alderman of London, inhim as strange countenance as the the said city, who (notwithstanding letter appointeth 'him strange service both fub necessary persuasions and for a man of that fort. Signed Tho- declarations as for the purpose at great 'mas Wriothesly, cancel, Charles Saf length were thewed unto him, and the folk, William Påget.**.

consent also and the conformity there, s-Indorsed Copy of the Letter to Sir in the refusal of the same, not only

unto of all. his company). ftood alone Ralf Eure.

himself, upon a disobedient : stomach, After our right hearty commen. utterly denying to give therein to the dations. Whereas the King's High- accomplishment of his duty in that nels being burthened, as you know, part, but thereby also giving example: with the inestimable his wars as much as in one man mightly to (which his grace hath prosperously breed a like difformity in a great many followed the space almost of one of: the rest. And forasmuch as for whole year, and must perforce, for the the defence of the realm and himself, neceffary defence of the realm, there, and for the continuance of his quiet in continue, it is not known how long) life, he would not find in his heart hath, for the maintenance thereof, re. to disburse a little quantity of hisquired lately a contribution by way of substance, his majesty hath thought benevolence of his highness's loving it much reason to cause him to do subjects ; and began the execution fome service for his country with his

body From " Lodge': Hlustrations of British History, &c."

body, whereby he might somewhat place for the doing of any enterprize be instructed of the difference between upon the enemies, to cause him to ride the fitting quietly in his house, and forth to the fame, and to do in all things the travel and danger which others as other soldiers are appointed to do dayly do sustain, whereby. he hath been without respect, but also to bestow him hitherto maintained in the same ; and in such a place in garrison as he may. for this purpose his grace hath thought feel what pains other poor soldiers abide good to send him unto your school, abroad in the king's service, and know as you shall perceive by such letters the smart of his folly and sturdy disoas he thall deliver unto you, there to bedience. Finally, you must use him serve as a soldier, and yet both he in all things. after the sharp discipline and his men, at his own charge, re- military of the northern Wars. And quiring you, not only as you thall thus, &c.' bave occasion, to fend forth to any

Reflections on the late Prospect of a War with Rullia.

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ces of Great Britain with Ruf rope, appears on examination to be fia appear now likely to be deter- mere political bugbear, calculated for mined, as reason and found policy the meridian of the English, whose fhould di&tate, without having recourse purses are ever open for a minister to the ralh and fatal.expedient of com- ivho keeps their minds in terror and mencing hoftilities-wet, as these alarm. Ruffia is, and ever must be, kingdoms have but lately and criti a most useful ally, but can never be cally escaped, engaging in a war con- a dangerous rival to Great Britain. trary to their clearest interests, as well The insular Sitaation of all her Euroas to every principle becoming a free pean dominions renders them unala and enlightened people, a few ob: failable by the most powerful land forservatious on the avowed purpose, and ces ---While her Acets, riding trium probable consequences of the officious phant over the ocean, mock all idea mediation of the allied Courts with of fear from the naval power of Eu. Russia in favour of the Turkish Emo rope if.combined. Secure in her impire, cannot be uninteresting to any pregnable situation-invalnerable on person of a liberal mind, and more every side, and incapable of injury from especially to an Englishman, who external violence, her only motive for feels for the honour of his country, engaging in a war is, or ought to be, to and whose heart glows with enlarged vindicate her honour, or to potect and and general benevolence. Little in- extend her.commerce. But neither her deed need be advanced to prove the commerce nor her honour now calls unpopularity of a war with Rufiia.. op her in their defence. Her friendship very respe&table minority in the is fought, nay courted by Ruilia, and House of Commons on that important the intereits of her commerce are maquestion, fupported by numerous ad- nifeftly opposed to a war in wiich dreffes from without, are a sufficient much may be loft, and nothing can indication of the public opinion-while be gained. The strong remonftranthe absurdity and bad policy of such ces from many of the most respectable a measure are amply exposed by the trading towns, who all declare the unanswerable arguments which have commerce with Russia to be more lubeen urged by its opponents. The crative to England than that with any a tensible, yet fimly pretext of pre other nation in Europe, are decisive CC 2


of the question, and must raise the come less firm, and could never ope. astonishment of every impartial perfon rate with that unity of design, and at that oblique and perverted policy, energy of action, as to injure, much which thus rafhly throws away folid less endanger, other European powers. and immediate advar tages, and ha. A striking instance of the force of zards an expensive complicated war, this observation occurs in the hiftory for remote, contingent, and imaginary of this century ; the alarm which was benefits ;--administering to the inte- general on account of the House of refted ambition of a foreign Stare, Bourbon possessing both France' and and regardless of the happiness and Spain, has proved visionary, and Eutranquillity of our own. But waring rope now despises the formerly terrific the peculiar situation of England, and phantom of universal Monarchy. considering the question on a larger But considering the question even in scale, as it interests the other nations this point of view, surely the Chrifof Europe ; this epidemic dread of the tian Sovereign of Constantinople would Russian power appears euqally futile be much less formidable than the Suland absurd. Even should the successes tan, aided as he is, by the wealth and of their arms finally terminate in the population of his Asiatic territories, expulsion of the Turks from Europe, and supported by the whole force of and the establishment of a Christian the Barbary States, and numerous and civilized power in Constanti. hords of Tartars. This vast mass of nople, it is hard to divine in what power, roused into exertion at some manner the rest of Europe could be critical and favourable period, by fainjured. Indeed, the causes of the naticism and religious zeal, by the general alarm, which the very appre. memory of pristine conquefts, and by hension of this event seems to excite, the prospect of Paradise opened to all are difficult to ascertain. Were one who die Martyrs to their faith, might Sovereign to reign over the united perhaps be more than Europe could empires of Russia and European Tur- withstand. key, his power would undoubtedly be Ioftead, therefore, of considering too great, although perhaps not great- Rusia as likely to become the oper than that of the Sultan is at pre- presfor, we should rather regard her

but it could not long sublift en as the defender of Europe, as its tire.- Natural and moral causes would great bulwark against this truly formi. combine to decompose such an un- dable and tremendous force of the wieldy mass formed of discordant parts, Turks, a barbarous, fierce, and bloody The most that could be apprehended enemy, who have always surveyed it would be, that the present Empress's as their destined prey, and affected to two grandsons would share the do- permit it to exist only by sufferance, minion between them, with however We should not lightly elteem the Ot. great deductions, which the claims of toman Power, because it is at present all the neighbouring States, and per- from mismanagement inert and inhaps some remote ones would occa- effective, ror praise the Turkish mofion, from the territories of the Turks deration, because their haughty man. as at prefent established. But even ners and barbarous insolence have been were a grandson of the Empress to humbled by defeat. The fame bigotfound a Monarchy at Conftantinople ted, rancorous hatred of Chriftians, over the whole of European lur, the same fierce and savage manners, key, what is to be feared at the ut- the fame frantic zeal for extending moft, but a family compact, which, as their superstition (as it is said, their the ties of consanguinity abated of Sultan's motto expresses it) don-c totum their force, and partial interests creat- impleat orbem, remain in as full force ed separate views, would gradually be, as ever, or rather are from restraint be



not more

come more violent, as the fury of a Roman Empire from the irruption of wild beast is fiercer from confinement. Barbarians. How narrow ther, how In order to understand the genius and wretched this policy, that would, for fpirit of that barbarous empire, letussur- fome paltry iilufive advantage, check vey it, not at the time of humiliation, the progressive improvement of manbut of success : would our modern poli- kind, and restrain the only power ticians, who feel so tremblingly alive that can subdue the fierce and bloody for the balance of power but turn to Tartar, change the brute into a man, the bistory of the rise and progress of and cheer the desolate regions of Asia, this formidable, people, they might with agriculture, with arts, in future find indeed an object 'of terror. perhaps with science—thus, as far as When their vast armies overspread the in us lies, confirming the reign of finest provinces of Europe, defolation ignorance, of barbatism, and of misemarked their course ; their conquelis ry.—But turning our eyes from the have ever been attended by all the ra- drcary wastes of Tartary, let us convages of fire and sword: “ Before template the condition of those wřetchthem the land was as the garden of ed European provinces which have Eden, and behind them a desolate for some centuries groaned under wilderness.”—-While their regular the Ottoman yoke, whose fituation is forces encountered armies, and de. the best comment on, and amply unstroyed cities, their favage Tartar folds the nature and principles of the allies, like a devouring fire, laid waste government of the Turks. Their the country, levelled with the ground original corquells were every monument of human art or in- destructive than is their permanent, dustry; and, after the massacre of the established fway : their first invasion husband and the father, carried the desolates, their confirmed power de. wretched mother and child into hope. presses and degrades, by levere and less captivity ; to! those are the allies cruel bondage; their bai barous and of our refined our polished nation! exclusive maxims of policy preventing -On the contrary, civilization and that affimilarion, that incorporation of improvement attend the successes of the conquering and the conquered, the Russian arms; and the advance- which in almoft all other instances ment of their power may be traced in has at length blended them into one the dowufall of barbarism, It is an people; but these tyrants, after being opinion of the celebrated Gibbons, poffeffed for centuries of that unand it well deserves the most serious happy country, still oppress it with all consideration, that the progressive in- the outrages and evils of recent corcrease of the Russian dominion over quest, and the present inhabitants feel the uncivilized Tartars, is to be esti. the yoke of slavery as heavy as did mated as one of the greatest blessings, their forefathers. Are those a peoof the most fortunate circumstances of ple to be supported and pro:ected by the present age. By the gradual in. ihę

of Europe? croachments of civilization on the The fame contracted policy which wilds of Tartary, both on the fide of now prevents

their overthro'n China and of Russia, the favage and in- originally coniributed to their suce dependent tribes are confined within cess; and if in the various and one comparatively narrow limits, and from forcfeen revolution is of human affairs that principally, among other favourą. their discipline should arrive at equal ble events, does he vensure to felici: perfeciion with ourş, the immense tate Europe, on the improbability of momentum of their mighty enpire, her ever again undergoing the calami- acłuated as formerly by enchufilin, sies which attended the downfall of the and directed by-prudence, might de


civilized part

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