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Body here, than to find him the fu- to France, to fill the new episcopal preme head of your ecclefiaftical affairs. thrones; men well versed in swear. The rest is of course. Your Affem- ing; and who will scruple no oath bly addieffts a manifesto to France, which the fertile genius of any of in which they tell the people, with an your reformers can devise. insulting irony, that they have brought In matters so ridiculous, it is the church to its primitive condition. hard to be grave. On a view of their In one respect their declaration is un consequences it is almost inhuman to doubtedly true; for they have brought treat them lightly. To what a state it to a itate of poverty and persecu- of savage, stupid, fervile insensibility tion. What can be hoped for after this ? must your people be recluced, who Have not

men (if they deserve the can endure such proceedings in their name) under this new hope and head church, their itate, and their judicaof the church, been made bishops, ture, even for a moment! But the for no other merit than having acted deluded people of France are like as inftruments of atheists; for no other madmen, who, to a miracle, other merit tiian having thrown the bear hunger, and thirst, and cold, children's bread to dogs; and in or- and confinement, and the chains and der to gorge the whole gang of ufu- lafh of their keeptr, whilst all the rers, peulars, and itinerant Jew-dil- while they support themselves by counters at the corners of Atreets, star- the inragination that they are geved the poor of their christian flocks, nerals of armies, prophets, kings, and and their own brother paftors ? Have emperors. As io a change of mind not such men been made bishops to in these men, who consider infamy as adminifter in temples, in which (if the honour, degradation as preferment, patriotic donations have not already bondage to low tyrants as liberty, and Atripped them of their veffels) the the practical fcorn and contumely of churchwardens ought to take security their upstart masters, as närks of reffor the altar plate, and not fo much pe& and homage, 1 look upon it as as to trust the chalice in their facrile. abloluicly impracticable. These madgious hands, so long as Jews have men, to be cured, must first, like affignats on ecclefiaftic plunder, to other madmen, be lubdued. The exchange for the filver stolen from found part of the communi y, which I churches ?

take to be large, but by no I am told, that the very sons of the largest part; bas' heen taken by fuch Jew-jobbers have been made furprize, and is disjointed, terrified, bithops, persons nat to be suspected and cif.rmed. That sound part of of any sort of Chriftian fuperftition, the community must first be pur infit colleagues to the holy prelate of to a better condition, before it cafu Autun; and bred at the feet of that do any thing in the way of deliberaGamaliel. We know who it was that tion or persuasion. This must be an drove the money-changers out of the act of power, as well as of więdom; temple. We see too who it is that of power, in the hands of firm, dererbrings them in again. We have in mined patriots, who can diftingu lh London very refpectable perfons of the milled from traitors, who will the Jewith nation, whom we will regulate the state (if fuch should be keep : but we have of the fame tribe their fortune) with a difcriminating, others of a very different description, manly, and provident mercy; men -hoosebreakers, and receivers of who are purged of the surfeit and instolen goods, and forgers of paper digestion of systems, if ever they have currency, more than we can conve. been admitted into the habit of their piently hang. These we can spare minds; msu who will lay the founda. S Vol. XIV. No. 8o.




țion of a real reform, in effacing every niercy would these ufurpers have om veftigeof that philofophywhich protends other fovereigos, and on other nato have made discoveries in the terra ţions, when they treat their own king auftralis of morality; men who will with fuch unparalleled indignities, fix the state upon these bascs of mo. and so cruelly oppress their own rals and politics, which are our old, countrymen? and immemorial, and, I hope, will be The king of Pruffia, in concur. pur eternal poiffion.


us, nobly interfered to This power, to such men, most fave Holland from confusion. The come from without. It may be given fame power, joined with the rescued to you in piry; for surely no dation Holland and with Great Britain, has ever called to pathetically on the com put the emperor in the poffeffion of paffion of all its neighbours. It may the Netherlands; and securrd, under be given by those neighbours on now that prince, from all arbitrary innovatives of fafery to themselves. Never tion, the ancient, hereditary conftitution shall I think any country in Europe of those provinces. The chamber of to be so secure, whilit there is eíta- Wetzler has restored the bishop of blished, in the very centre of it, & Liege, unjuítly dispoffeffed by the itate (if fo it mag be called) founded rebellion of his fabjects. The king on principles of anarchy, and which of Prussia was bound by 'no treaty, is, in reality, a college of armed fana- nor alliance of blood, nor had ary tics, for the propagation of the princi- particular reasons for thinking the enples of aff-fination, robbery, sebeilion, peror's government would be more fraud, faction, opprelfion, and impie. mischievous or more opprefive to huty. Mahomet, "hid, as 'for a tinie man nature than that of the Turk; he was, in the bottom of the lands of yet on mere motives of policy, tha: Arabia, had his spirit and character prince has interposed with the thre: been discovered, would have been an of all his force, to snatch even the object of precaution to provident Turk from the pounces of the impeminds. What if he had erected his rial eagle. If this is done in favour fanatic standard for the destruction of of a barbarous nation, with a barba. the Chriftian religion in luce dia in rous neglect of police, fatal to the bu. the midst ofthe then noon-dayfplendournian race, in favour of a nation, ly of the then ciyilized world? The principle in eternal enmity with tie princes of Europe, in the beginning Chriftiap nane ; a nation which will of this century, did well not to suffer not so much as give the faluration of the munarchy of France to swallow peace (6. lam) to any of us, nor make up the others. They ought pot now, any pact with any christian nation bein my opinion, to suffer all the monar- yond a truce ;-if this be donz in fachies and commonwealths to be swal- vous of the Turk, shall it be thought lowed up in the gulph of this polluted either impolitic, or unjust, or unchaarachy. They may be tolerably safe pitable, to employ the same power, io at present, because the comparative rescue from captivity a virtuous mopower of France for the present is narch (by the courtesy of Europe conlittle. But times and occasions make fidered as Moft Christian) who, after dangers. Inteftine troubles

may an intermision of 175 years, had calarise in other countries. There is led together ihe itates of his kingdom, a power always on the watch, qua- to reform abuses, to ettablish a free, lified and disposed to profit of every government, and to firengthen his conjuncture, to eftablish its own princi- throne ; a monarch, who at the very ples and modes of mischief, where outset, without furce, even withouc cre it can hope for success. What folicitation, had given to his people


fuch a Magna Charta of privileges, as attempt, under a monarchy, to give never was given by any king to any them a free constitution. For this, subjects :-Is it to be tamely horne by an example hitherto unheard of in by kings who love their subjects, or the world, he has been deposed. It by Ľubjects who love their kings, that might well disgrace forereigns to take this monarch, in the midst of these part with a deposed tyrant. It would gracicus ads, was inifolently and fuppofe in them à vicious fympathy. cruelly torn from his palace, by a gang But not to make a common cause with of traitors and aftiffime, and kept in a just prince, dethroned by traitors ctose prison to this very hour, whilft and rebels, who proferibe, plunder, his royal name and sacred character confiscate, and in every way cruelly were used for the total tuin of those oppress their fellow citizens, in my whom the laws had appointed him to opinion is to forget what is due to the protect?

honour, and to the rights of all virThe only offence of this unhappy tuous and legal govetoment. monarch towards his people, was his

An Historical Account of the Dignity of Emperor? With Memoirs of Leopold

II, the present Emperor of Gernany: 'HË worü Emperor (in Lacin Irization of fuch prerogative does not ap

perator) figified among che an. pear. It is certain, that the greatelt, cient Romans, the general of an ar- most ancient, and absolute monarchs, my, who, for some extraordinary fuc. as those of Babylon, Persia, Aflyria, cess, had been complimented with this Egypt, Macedonia, &c. were called appellation. Thus Auguftus, having by the name of Kings, in all languages, obtained no less than twenty famous both ancient and modern. victories, was as often faluted with It is difputed, whether emperor's the title of emperor'; and Titus was have the power of conferring the redenominated emperor by his army, gal title. It is troe, they have some after the reduction of Jerusalem. times taken upon them jo eres kiungo

It came, afterward, to denominate doms, and thus it is that Bobenia an abfolute monarch, or a fupree and Poland are said to have been commander of an empire. In this raised to the digrity; thus, also, the feose, Julius Cæsar was called em;:e- emperor Charles The Bald, in the year Tor; the title descended with the dig. 877, gave Proren eto Pofon, puting nity, to Auguftus, Tiberius, and Ca the diadem on his head, and decreuis ligula ; and, afterward, it became le him ribe called king.

Cac o peror lective.

Leopld I. moreover, erected th: du. In strictness, the title of emperor cal Prullid into a kin dom, in favour cannot add any thing to the rights of of the e&or of Brandenburg; and. sovereignty: its effect is only to give though several of the kings of Europe, precedence and pre-eminone above ou rstute., for fore times to acknown ther fovereigns ; audas such, it railes ledge him in that capaciry, yet, ii iai?, those invested wiih it to the summit by the treatv of Uriecht, in 17129, of human giearness.

they all acquiesced io ir The emperor's pretend, however, In the e ft; the title and quality of that the inperial dignity is more emi. emperor are moie , frequent tha: they nent than the regal; but the founda- are among us ; thus, the sovereign


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princes of China, Japan, Hindoftan, head of the illustrious house of An. Persia, &c. are all emperors of China, stria, which is descended from the Lapan, &c.

fame ftock as the house of Lorraine, In the year 1723, the czar of Mul reunited to it in the person of Francisgu covy assumed the title of Emperor of father of the prefent emperor. Charles all tbe Ruffias, and procure himself VI. who died in 1740, was the last to be recognized as such by most of emperor of the house of Austria. He the princes and states of Europe. was succeeded by the elector of Bava

The western Roman empire, which ria, Charles VII. It was this unforhad terminared in the year 475, in tunate prince, whom Dr Johnson, in. the person of Auguftolus, the last Ro- his . Vanity of Human,' menman Emperor, and which was fuc- tions as one of the many examples of ceeded by the reign of the Huns, the splendid mifery. Oftrogoths, and the Lombards, was

All times their scenes of pompons wocsa revived by Charlemagne, king of

afford, France, on Christinas day, in the year

From Persia's

tyrant to Bavaria's lord. 800. This prince being then at

+ + + + + Ronie, Pope Leo III. crowned him

The bold Bavarian in a luckless hour, emperor in St. Peter's church, amid

Tries the dread fummits of Cæfareas the acclamations of the clergy and the

power ; p=ople. : Nicephorus, who was, at

With unexpected. legionis bursts away, that time, emperor of the eait, çan And fees defenceless realms receive his fented to this coronation. After the

fway; dea:h of Charlemagne, and of Louis

Short fway! Fair Auftria (preads heb Je Debonnaire, his fon and fucceffor,

mournful charms, the empire was divided between the The queen t, the beauty, fets the world four fons of the latter. Lothario the firit, was emperor; Pepin, was king From hill to kill the beacons rousing blaze, of Aquitaine ; Louis, king of Ger

Spreads wide the hopes of plunder and Tihany, and Charles le Chanve (the

of praise ; Bald) king of France. This partis

The fierce Croatian, and the wild Huffar, sion was the fource of incessant fouds.

With all the fons of ravage, crowd the The French kept. 'the empire under

war: eigriç, emperors, till ile year 912,

The balled prince in honour's flattering when Louis III. the last prix.ce' of the

bloom Pine of Charlemagne, died, without

of laty greatness finds the fatal doom, iffue male. Corral, count of: Fran.

His foës derision, and his subjects blame, conia, the fob-in-law of Louis, was

And steals to death from anguih and then elected emperor. Thus, the em

from Thame. - pire went to the Germans, and became elective ; for it had beco hereditary On the death of Charles VII. im under the French emperors, its foun- 1745, Francis, grand duke of Tufcadeis. The emperor was chosen by ny, of the house of Lorraine, was ethe princes, the lords, and the depu- lected emperor. He died in 1765, ties of cities till toward the end of and was succeeded by his fon Joseph the thirteenth century, when the num= II. the late emperor. The greatness ber of the electors was fixed. Rodol. of the houfe of Austria, one of the phus, count of Hapíbuuig, was elected most powerful in the world, has been emperor in the year 1273. He is the augmented, to an uncommon degree,


in arms;

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by the fplendor of its alliances. Leo- princes and states of the empire, pold II, the present emperor, is not when united together. 3d, That they only chief of the empire, but sovereign receive a kind of tribute from all the. of Hungary, Bohemia, Austria, the princes and states of the empire, for Low Countries, &c. His second fon carrying on a war which concerns is grand duke of Tuscany; and his the whole empire, which is called the Sisters are the


of France and Roman month. -But, after all, there Naples, and the duchess of Parma. is not a foot of land, or territory, ao

The imperial prerogatives were for. nexed to this title : for, ever fince the merly much more extenfive than they reign of Charles IV. the emperors are at present. At the close of the have depended entirely on their hereSaxon race, in the year 1024, they ditary dominions as the only fource exercised the right of conferring all of their power, and even of their the ecclesiastical benefices in Germa. sublistence. ny; of receiving the revenues of them The Kings of France, also, were during a vacancy; of succeeding to anciendly called emperors, at the time the effects of intestate ecclefiaftics; of when they reigned with their sons, confirming or annulling the elections whom they affociated to the crown. of the popes ; of assembling councils, Thus, Hugh Capet, having associated and of appointing them to decide con his fon Robert, took the title of emcerning the affairs of the church ; of peror, and Robert that of king. conferring the tile of king on their King Robert is also called emperor of valfals ; of granting vacant fiefs; of the French, by Helgau of Fleury: receiving the revenues of the empire ; Louis le Gros, upon affociating his of governing Italy as its proper sove- son, did the fame. The kings of reigns; of erecting free cities, and e- England had likewise ancieotiy the stablishing fairs in them; of assembling title of emperors, as appears from a the diets of the empire, and fixing the charter of king Edgar; and the crown time of their duration, of coining mo- of England has, bien long ago. deney, and conferring the same privilege clared in parliament to be an imperial on the states

s of the empire ; and of crown. adminiftering both high and low ju The present head of the German ftice within the territories of the dif- empire is Leopold Il. who was born. ferent states: but, in the year 1437, on the fifth of May 1747, being the they were reduced to the right of con. fecond for of the emperor Francis II, ferring all dignities and titles, except and of Maria Theresa, queen of Hun pointing once during their reign a dig. He fucceeded the emporor, his father, nitary in each chapter, or religious as grand duke of Tuscany in 17657 house ; of granting dispensations with and was married, the next year, to respect to the age of majority; of e Maria Luisa, daughter of Philip V." recting cities, and conferring the pri- king of Spain. On the 20th of Fcvilege of coining money; of calling bruary 1790, on the death of his brothe meetings of the diet, and presiding ther, the late emperor Joseph II. he in them.

succeeded to the hereditary dominions To this some have added, ift of the house of Austria, and relinThat all the princes and itates of quished the grand duchy of Tuscany Germany are obliged to do them ho to Ferdinand, his fecond fon. On the mage, and swear fidelity to them. 2d, 30th of September he was elected king That they or their generals have a of the Romans: he made his public right to command the forces of all the entry into Frankfort on the 4th of

October ;

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