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It is doubted if several of the planets, much heat and light on fome, and too and among others the moon, be fur- much darknöfs and cold in others, do nished with an atmosphere; and, in not make it imposhble for these bo. this case, it is - not to be conceived dies to be peopled worlds, as the how living beings could breathe there structure and different organs of sense, or exist: 2d, We observe in feveral in their different inhabitants, are no planets, for instance in Jupiter, &c. doubt adapted and appropriated to distinct and considerable changes on the different constitutions and tempetheir surface ; but an inhabited planet rarure of the place they inhabit, by ought to remain uniform : 3d, Co- the fame wife and powerful being mets are certainly planets, but it is who has accommodated our bodies difficult to believe that comets are in- to the earth we live on : 3d, Fontenelle habited, on account of the exrreme has heltered himself from the objecdifference which the people there tions of divines, by declaring that he would experience in the heat of the did not place men there, but creafua; being sometimes burnt, and tures quite diferent from men. But, sometimes frozen. The comet of after all, why should the opinions of 1680, for inttance, passed almost close Huyghens be contrary to fcripture? upon the sun, and then went off in

we are told

deed, that all men are such manner that it will not perhaps descended from Adam, meaning all return for five hundred and seventy. the men on our globe; other men five years. What living beings could may inhabit other worlds, and defupport such prodigious heat at one scend from other progenitors than time, and fuch intense cold at ano- Adam. Shall the insect that creeps ther ? 4, Theological objections. on a point of the surface of this eart'a

To these conjectures it has been dare to prescribe limits to the plastic answered : 11t, That the atmosphere of hand of nature ? 4th, The doctrine of a the planets is confirmed by a great plu, ality of worlds, founded on the many astıonomical observations, ac- mot solid obfervations and reasonings cording to which the spots, the belts of astronomy, is rendered the more of Jupiter, &c. have bien considered probable as it gives us the most subas long seas of water, or some other lime idea we can conceive of the deiflud matter, and 'ihat the dark spots ty, and tends to demonstrate his poʻxof the same planet are fuffi ient er and glory. It is therefore with ground for believing that the surface reason that all modern philosophers. cunifts of land and water like our acknowledge as many folar (yilems, earth: 2d, The different distances of more or less like ours, as there are the planets, while they occasion 100 fixed flars,

Interesting Observations on fione Comunon Improprieties in Writing the English

Languige : (Part of the Preface to Swifi's Works :) By Mr Sheridan.

A

S the living speech has never en

Whilft

While gaged our attention, the whole amongst For among being employed about the written

betwixt

between language, many barbarous words, of amidit

amid, uncouth sound, are still retained, notwithstanding there are others of the No final found can be more disagrees {ame import more pleasing to the ear. able than that of jt, as it is only the Such asem

sudden stop of a viss.

Downwards

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Downwards Downward by the addition of the s, a ftronger forwards For forward

found to reft upon. towards

toward. What occasion is there for continuing

Like-likely. the final s in these words?

These two words also, from a simi

litude of sound, though of such dit. Further-farther.

ferent meanings, are used promiscuWhy is this anomaly suffered to re

oull.. Likem should be confined to main, when we have the regular de- fimilitude, --Likely—to probability. grees of comparison in---Far, farther, fartheit?

No-ways-nowise.

No-ways—is a valgar corruption
Befidebe Gues.

fron no-wise, and yet has got into These two words being of a similar general use, even among our best

writers. The terminating-wifefound, are very improperly used pro- lignifies manner; as-likewife in m.scuously, the one for the other.

like When employed as a prepofition, the

e manner-otherwis in a differword beside thould always be ufed;

ent manner. It should be always

written when as an adverb, besides. The firit

milowife, in nu' manner. fignities, over and above ; the latt,

From whence--whence. moreover : as in the following fentences. Belide (over and above) what

The preposition--from-in the use has bien advanced upon

this subject,

of this phrase, is for the most part reit lead may us to engaire, &c.

dundant, as it is generally included Besides, (moreover) what has been in the word whence. Thus-whence advanced upoa this subject, may lead come you? signifies--from what place us to enquire, &c.

come you? Whence it follows from It is always an imperfe&tion in a which it follows. language to have the same individual word belong to different parts of

Nocnot fpeech ; but when there are two words The particle--no-is often substidifferently pronounced, and differently tuted in the place of -not; as—I care fpelt, used proviscuously for each not whether you believe me or no. other, both in point of meaning, and To thew the absurdity of this, it will in discharging the different offices of be only necessary to add the words preposition and adverb, it favours after -which are understood as much of ba: baarifim, as it is so ealy io thus I care not whether you

believe alot their peculiar province to each. me, or na believe meminitead of do When I fuid that the word beside not believe me. The adverbs no and Ihould be always used as the prepofi. yes, are particles expreslive of the fimnon, and-be files as the adverb, the ple dissent or affent of the fpeaker, and choice was not maile at ranium. In can never be connected with any fol. its prepositional state, it must be close- lowing word; and we might with as Jy united to the following word ; in much propriety say-1 care nut wheits adverbial, it should always have a ther you do not believe me or yespaufe after it. Now the word be. as make use of its opposite-10--in fide not loaded with the final so is that manner. This vulgarism has rendered more apt to run glinly into taken its rise from the same cause bethe following word : and the word be fore-mentioned, the fimilarity of sound Iides, always preceding å pause, has, between 10 and not.

Never

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Never forever fo.

with u, when founded exactly in the This is a strange folecifin in lan- same manner : if we write-a youth, guage. Never so, signifies not ever

we should also write-d use. fo. Let us subítitute the one for the

In like manner-an--never preother, and the absurdity will be ap- cedes words commencing with w, parent. Thus, when we say, I will

nor should it therefore the vowel og do it, let him be never fo

when it forms the same found. Thus

angryhow contrary to the intention would it the word, one, bas the same found as appear, should the phrase be changed if written, won, and yet it has been 10-let him not be ever so

the cuítom to write-luch an one. In

angry: Or if we use the same word in a

both cases contrary to the usage of phrait of like import-I will do it speech. however angry he may be-how glar When words begin with the letter ing would the absurdity appear, should b, they are preceded sometimes by a, any one say—hownever angry he

fumetines by an ; and this by an in

may be.

variable rule in spcak'r.g. When the

b, or aspirate, is sounded, the article I had rather.

a is used; as, a house, a horse : when

the h is mute, an is employed; as, This phrafe is strangely ungram an hour, an honour ; pronounced as matical ; rather-means—more wil. if written an our, an onnor. And lingly. Now let us substitute the one

yet in all books published of late in the place of the other--as I had

years, the article an preceeds all more willingly go than stay,--and its words beginning with h, alike--as an impropriety would be manifest

. The house, an horse, &c. Surely the adverb-rather-is expresive of an printers ought to reform this abuse, act of the will, and therefore should when they have such an obvious rule be joined to the verb—to will-and

to guide them. They have nothing to the auxiliary to have. In

to do but to follow the established Itead of I bad rather—it should be--I mode of speech, whereof printing would rather.

ought, as nearly as possible, to be the

transcript. A--an.

I have also taken the liberty of In the use of this article, it has changing throughout an affected ufe been laid down as a rule," that it of the third person singular in verbs, should be written--before a confo. by employing the termination eth, Dant, and-a-before a vowel; but long fioce become obsolete, as, loveth, by not attending to the exceptions to seadeth, writeth, instead of loves, this rule, the article an has been very reads, writes. This habe seenis to have improperiy placed before words of a been caught from Swifi's profillional Certain class, which ought to be pre- use of the church-service, the bible, ceded by the vowel fingly. All words fermons, &c.; for in the early editions beginning with u, when the accent is of his first publications, it had ect on it, or when the vowel is founded obiained; nor indeed in any of the separately from any other letter, fhould others has it uniformly prevailed, as have a, not an, before them. As, a not only in the same page, but even unite, a universe, a useful project, &c. the same fentence, the different modes For the vowel u, in this case, has not are frequently to be found; and the a fimple found, but is pronounced ex- terminating es, is, out of all proporacily in the same manner as the dip. tion, oftener used than that of eth; thongs commencing with y; por should which would not have been the case, it be placed before words commercing had it beca the effect of judgment, or

of

not

1

120

On the Situation of a Highland Fishing Village. of choice. Now, as this fingularity as it yet remains in the translation of is not to be met with, in any of the the Bible, and in the Common Praypolished writers from the days of er-book, it may be ftill employed, Charles the second to this hour, 1 even to advantage, in fermons, and thought it should no longer have the works of divinity; as it borrows a fanction of so dilinguished a name, kind of folemnity, and somewhat of a by the casual use of it here and there fanctified air, from being found only in his works ; especially as the change in those facred writings ; on which was much for the better, and found- account, I have suffered it to remain ed upon good taite. None of the ele- in such of Swift's Works as may be ments of speech have a less as reable cial: d under those heads. found to the ear, than that of eth; it Those who are advocates for the is a dead obtuse sound, formed of the change of s into ei's, asign as a reason thickened breath, without any mix for it, that in so doing we avoid the ture of the voice; resembling the frequent repetition of that hifing letnoise made by an angry goose, from ter, objected to our language as which indeed it was borrowed; and imperfection. But in this, as in many is more disagreeable th:n the hilling o:her instances where found is cons, which has at least more of sharpness cerned, they jidge by the eye, not and spirit in it. On this account, as the ear; for the letter

after every well as some other causes arising from consonant in our language, except four, the genius of our tongue, not necessa- loles its owo power, and affumes ry to be explained here, it has been that of , one of our moit plealing long disused by our best writers ; but sounds.

an

Circumstances which should determine the Situation of a Highland Fishing

Village, in answer to Queries by the Highland Society in Scotland*.

T of ,

O answer one of the requisions in the neighbourhood of a good fish

or more

we shall state, what in our opinion are state of the Highland coast, should not the circumftances, which should deter- be built there, but at the best fishing mine the situation of a village on the place, provided it be not impracticable, cualts of the Highlands.

from the face of the country, (which The first thing, therefore, in our is the cafe at some places on the West judgment, which ihould deiermine the coast) to set down a village, and ac. preference in favours of any one place cominodate the settlers with even small as the fiance of a fishing village, upon girdens there. the coasts of the West Figi ands, is, Next, if there are two that such place, or its vicini y, shall be places, remarkable for the greatest renoted, by loaș experience, as the prine sort of herrings upon that part of the cipal resort of fish (particularly of ber- Çoafi, furely the preference should be rings, upon

of the coast).

given to that place where there is the This confideration ought to outweigh scateft quantity of arable, or at least every other one ; and though oder improyeable, level land. places might poffefs all other requifi:es Again, if there are two or more or the stance of a village, yet, if not places upon any one part of the coast,

equally From “ Observations on the Scotch Fisheries." By P. White, Esq.

tha, part

situation upon

equally noted for these two advantages, hood of peat-moss in one place, and the preference, no doubt, should be not in another, if both are equally pofgiven to the one from which a road to sessed of the local advantages already communicate with the Low-country mentioned, a good reason for prefercould be cheapest made. Oeconomy ring the place where moss is found, to is highly necessary: and therefore pre- the other, for building a fishing village ference should be given to the cheapest upon. road, though longest, provided the dif Should all these local advantages ference of distance be not attended meet, in

any

the High with any considerable disadvantage to land coaft, we may safely pronounce, the inhabitants of the proposed village. that such situation is the very place It is almost needless to explain here proper for building the proposed vil. how the longest road may be cheapest. lage upon. To the great credit of Every gentleman of the Society knows the advisers of the measure of building that the Highland country is incum. there, the village of Ullapool will be bered with rocks, and intersected by found to be possessed of all these ad. many rivulets, and that a mile of road vantages. It is not only the best fituain some places, will cost more money tion for a village, upon the northern than to make twenty in other places. district of the west coast, but (if we But from what we have faid, it must are not misinformed) it is the very, not be inferred, that we propose plac. best, from at least Toppermorry all aing the villages at a distance from the long the whole range of the West Low-country, rather than near it. coast, to the North-eaftermost point of This is the farthest thing imaginable this part of the united kingdom.from our meaning. What we urge is, Ullapool is in the very centre of the that a cheap long road, would probab: best fishing grounds for herrings in ly be more convenient for the funds Scotland : there is a fine flat of land destined to the encouragement of there, most of it arable, and the rest Fishery, than a short, but expensive very improveable. The making a road one : If any place upon the West from it to the Low.country, will be coast is fouod poffessed of the two first cheaper and cafier than from any oqualifications we have mentioned, and ther part of the North-West cuaft we from whence a road could be made, know. Inthe bay of Ullapool, (afmooth cheaper than from any other part pof- land-locked. corner of Lochboom) seised of like qualifications, the short. fome of the finest haddocks and other ness of the road would enhance the kinds of fish are to be found at almost value of the fituation, and it ought im- all seasons of the year, within two or mediately to be made choice of for the three hundred yards of the doors of fite of a village.

the reîdenters there, and there is, in Next, if there are two or more the hills at the back of the level land places upon that part of the coast, at Ullapool, mofs inexhaustible. If, which shall be equally in possession of therefore, the village of Ullapool does all the local advantages we have men not thrive, there must be very small tioned, we would prefer the one for hopes, that one built upon any other building our village upon, which should part of the West coast will succeed. be koown to be best frequented by I. what we have said respecting haddocks, and other small fish; because the ci: cumstances which should weigh these would afford some fubfiftence to principally in fetting down a village the inhabitants of the village, when upon the West Highland coast, weap. the herring-fishing fhould happen in prehend our reafons for the efiimation any one year to fail.

in which we have held each circumLastly, we reckon the neighbour: ftance, and the consequent priority of VOL. XIV, No. 80.

order

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