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others only a part of an ox or cow, and thirteen pence a year.

Continuation of Miscellaneous Extracts from the Statistical Account of

Scotland. Parish of BATHGATE. corn, which produces very serious Alterations in the Manner of Living. they are obliged to purchase meal at

consequences to the inhabitants, as Great alteration in the manner the discretionary price of the seller. A , parish within the last 40 years. A. ty years ago, a number of mechanics, bout 1750, there were not above 10 countenanced by many of the more families who used tea, and now, per- respectable and wealthy inhabitants, haps, there is not above twice that formed themselves into an association, aumber who do not use it. Butcher whose object was to purchase meal, to meat was then por more used than be distributed weekly to the subscritea : scarcely any cattle or sheep were bers only. Each subscriber, at his killed, except at Martinmas, when entry, originally paid five shillings, some families used to falt a whole, or (now seven thillings and fixpence), to serve for provision *; but now there verned by a deacon, as he is called, is a regular delh market twice a week, and twelve affeffors, chosen annually: and almost every family, who can This institution has produced very afford it, eats Aesh constantly. A good effects. The fubfcribers, and much greater quantity of wheaten bread the poor in general, are regularly fup. is now consuined in the parish in a plied at a price rather below the rate month, than was in a twelve-month of the country. Their fock is now

forty years ago. The alteration in about L. 140 Sterling. | dress since 1750 is also remarkable. When the good man and his fons PARISH OF DELTING, IN SHETLAND.

to kirk, market, wedding, or burial, they were clothed in a home

Diseases. spuo suit of freezed cloth, called kelt, Convulsion firs, of a very extraorpladden hose, with a blue or brown dinary kind, seem peculiar to this bonnet ; and the good wife and her couniry. The patient is first feized daughters were dtesled in gowns and with something like fainting, and impetticoats of their own spinning, with mediately after utters wild cries and a cloth cloak and hood of the same, shrieks, the found of which, at whator a tarian or red plaid. But now, ever distance, immediately puts all the former, when they go abroad, who are subject to the disorder in the wear suits of English cloth, good hats, fame fituation. It most commonly &c.; and the latter the finest printed attacks them when the church is cottons, and sometimes filk gowns, crowded; and often interrupts the filk caps, and bonnets, of different service in this, and many other shapes, sizes, and colours, white churches in the country. On a la stockings, cloth shoes, &c.

cramental occasion, 50 or 60 are

Sometimes carried out of the church, PARISH OF STRANRAER.

and laid in the church-yard, where Trade.

they struggle and roar with all their

strength for five or ten minutes, and The farmers generally export their then rise up without recollecting a N VOL. XIV. No. 80.

single

went

This practice is sometimes Aill continued.

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count could be obtained. This, join- the

single circumstance that had happened fummer fishery for a fee of L. 16 to the.n, or being in the least hurt or fa- L. 26 Scots. Sometimes the fees are tigued with the violent exertions they as high as L. 28 Scots for 10 summer had made during the fit. One ob- weeks. When they have been one fervation occurs on this disorder, that season at the fishing, they generally during the late scarce years it was consider themselves as men. They very uncom non; and during the two are encouraged to marriage by their last years of plenty it has appeared landlords, in order to prevent them more frequently

leaving the country; and the confeCattle, &c.

quences commonly are, that they find

themselves involved in debt and large The winter of 1784 was very se families in a few years. There is a vere, and cut off a great number of set of

very old regulations,' called sheep and horn d cattle in every part Country Aits ; by one of which it is of these islands. An account was enacted, that no pair shall marry untaken, at the desire of the minister, less they be possessed of L. 40 Scots of in this parish, and the return was free gear, This regulation, as well 4506 sheep, and 427 black cattle, as all the rest, is now not enforced ; dead in the course of the winter, be though all of them appear to have been fides horses, of which no accurate ac- well calculated for the good police of

country. It is said that these re. ed to a year of as great scarcity as the gulations were approved and confirm. country had experienced, was very ed by the parliament of Scotland, in hard on the poor tenapts: and they the reign of Queen Mary, or of have not yet recovered the lols. In James VI. that winter, the sheep were often dug There has been no emigration from out of the snow, after continuing un- the parish during the time of the preder it for 2 days; during all which fent incumbent: but, almost every. time they had no food, but ate the

reat number of young lads en. wool from the backs of each other. gage with the Greenland ships, which Some that died after they were taken touch at Briffay Sound on their outout were opened, and a hard ball of ward passage in the month of Marcı wool was found in their stomach. and April. They receive from 30 s. The general poverty of the inhabitants; to 40 s. a-mooth. Many of thele their being obliged to be from home men are landed on the illand when during the fishing season; the small- the ships return from Greenland ; but ness of their farnis, and the precari- many go at last into the navy. ous tenure by which they hold them; a fact well ascertained, that in the all conspire to keep them in a state of year 1763, there were 900 Shetland indigence. Every man,

from the

men paid off. What number remainage of 18 to 70, must attend the fish- ed in the fleet after the peace it is im, ing from the ift June to the 14th Au. possible to say, guft. None are left at home but a wife, with perhaps a number of young children, who require all her atten

PARISH OF LUNAN, tion. Every thing in the farming

Church. line must consequently go to wreck.

One of the ministers, Mr Alexander
Population.

Pedie, who died in 1713, bequeathed
There are very few batchelors. some plate for the Lord's Supper in the
The people, in general, marry young. church of Lunan, on this singular con-
A young lad; when he comes to the dition, that any Episcopal congrega-
åge of 18 or 19 years, goes to the tion within seven miles of Lunan re-

quiring

year, a

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Miscellaneous Extracts from the Statistical Account of Scotland.

999 quiring them should have the use of Although the parish consists wholly them for that purpose. There is a of the poorer ranks of society, newlmarble monument erected in the papers are generally read and attendchurch to his memory, for upholding ed to: The desire for them increases ; which his widow bequeathed an an- and the reading of them seems to be nuity of L. 4 Scots, payable to the attended with advantage. kirk-feflion.

gard to the intellectual character of the people : They are deficient in'ima.

gination, vivacity, humour, &c.'their PARISH OF Aucht'ERDERRAN. apprehenfion and judgment are very General Character of the People.

good, and they make a decent figure

in the common professions of life. The inhabitants are very regu. With respect to their moral and relar in their attendance on public wor: ligious character, they have all a profeffhip. Formerly they were fond of fion of religion ; but, in the points long church services, and considered where their situation more immediateit as a point of duty to continue long ly leads to temptation, they too frein religious exercises. Perhaps the quently and even habitually contraservices, though shorter than before, dict their profellion. Their civil chaare till too long for answering the racter is excellent : they seem in ends of devotion and spiritual edifica- 'fome degree capable of reflecting on tion. The people are not illiterate. the advantages of government ; and In common with the rest of Scotland, they obey it peaceably, and on printhe vulgar are, for their itation, lite- ciple. They could, however, be easie Tate, perhaps, beyond all other na- ly stirred up to sedition in matters of cions. Puritanic and abstruse divi• religion. There is one Burgher meetnity comes in for a fufficient share in ing in this parish. The religious totheir little stock of books ; and it is leration granted seems to answer, in perhaps peculiar to them, as a people, this district, ille full ends of good that they endeavour to form opinions, government and public utility: it by reading, as well as by frequent could hardly stand on a better footconversation, on some very metaphyfi- ing. Secession now begins to dimical points connected with religion, niih; and the bitterness of contending and on the deeper doctrines of Chrif- fects is greatly subsiding : this partly tianity. They likewise read a varie- proceeds from the novelty being over ; ty of other books unconnected with partly from the great variety of fees such subjects. The parochial schools which have taken place; and partly, are by no means supplied with such it is hoped, from more enlightened enliglmenied teachers as those that were views of true religion. As tu holiformerly instrumental in diffufing days for recreation or merry-making, knowledge. No one of good educa- the people have oily one in the year, tion and ability now accepts of this re- called Handlel-Mondey; and duced pitrance, where the fituation is the manner in which this is employed not favourable for procuring lucrative lhews the fober mindedness of the scholars; and the village teacher, people. Instead of meeting in large brought in by the subscription of needy asiemblies for diversions, each family people, is a still more unqualified per. collects its own kindred from the difion. In such cases, the people do ferent parts of the district, provides a 1.9t propose seeking out the best, but feast, and spends the time in eating, the cheapest. The consequence will drinking, and conversation. The ho. be, that the poorer districts of the lidays, besides Sabbaths, for religious country, and ihe poor classes of the services, in the Litablishment, are people, mut become more ignorant, three days in the year; among tie

even

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enormous nature are

Seceders fix.

The people

have Wilson was the first that introduced fcarcely any sports after they are turnips and potatoes into the parish. grown up. among the infinite advan- He had a few of them in his garden, {ages of the Reformation, this seems which the people in coming to the to have been one disadvantage attend- church used to look at as a great cu. ing it, that, owing to the gloomy ri- riofity; and it was thought, at that gour of foine of the leading actors, time, that none but a gardener could njirth and vice have, in their appre- raise them. It was long before the fion, been confounded together. Some method of hoeing came to be thought of the sectaries punish attendance on of. Being fown thick, and handpenny weddings, and public dancing, weeded, they came to no fize. Anwith a reproof from the pulpit, in the other singularity deserves notice, viz. presence of the congregation : so that that, when he came to Gamrie, there the people muft either dance by them was not a watch in church except the felves or let it alone. This censure, in laird's and the minifter's. feveral congregations, is falling into difuse. There are a few persons, called UNITED PARISHES OF LISMORE AND tinkers and horners, half-resident, and

APPIN. half-itinerant, who are feared and sus.

Miscellaneous Observations, pected by the community. Two of then were banished within these fix The people in this parish are, in years. Strangers complain of the general, laborious and industrious. pronunciation in this district being Crimes of an drawling, and that it impresses them hardly known here. No instance of with a belief that the person speaking suicide, or of murder, has occurred is four and ill tempered. The inhaa for 25 years paft.

The common bitants are improving in their mode of people are less addicted to drinking Kiving and dress. Intemperance from than they were 20 years ago. All fpirituous liquors is by no means fre- ranks are remarkable for their chariquent among them; but, unluckily, ty to the poor. In severe seasons, the use of whisky is increasing, and many of them double their attention that of beer diminishing. The blue to relieve the wants of the needy. bornet, a national badge, is disappear. No inhabitant of these extensive ing rapidly. The prevalent colour of parifhes has been executed or banished the men's drefs is blue.

for 25 years paft. One or two per

fons, guilty of some irregularities, voPARISH OF GAMR FE.

luntarily banished themselves. There

has been no instance of child-murder Population.

in the parish in the memory of "man. In this parish, many instances of long. This is a crime hardly known in the evity might be mentioned. It is only a west Highlands. The people in this few years fince a ffermar in Macduff part are much less fuciuating in their died at the

age
of

10g; and there are religious opinions than they are to the living at present several persons go fouthward. years old and upwards. Mr Wilson (the A man of singular frame was born minister) is in his 97th year; and last in Appin. He was the Atoutest or autumn, at the conclusion of the har- thickest man in Britain, or even pero vest, the age of him, and the two fer- haps in Europe, at the time. His vants that aslifted in taking in his crop, name was Carmichael. He was amounted in all to 257; and it is soldier in the 42d regiment, and died worthy remarking that one of these above 30 years ago. He was said to has been his seryant 50 years. Mr be not above fix feet high; but was

so

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fo fingular for the stoutness of his ed for the mildness of his disposition make, that bis portrait, as large as He could carry on his back, with ease the life, was painted, by order of the I cwt. more than the strongest porter King, and placed in the Tower of in Dublin. London as a curiosity. He was not

1

of the ancient and high civilization of the Inhabitants of India *

FROM

[The elegant and learned author pro- vance and expertness in execution. Ia

poses to prove the early and high proportion as refinement spreads, the civilization of the inhabitants of distinction of professions increafes, India ; ift, by taking a view and they. branch out into more nume. of their rank and situation as rous and minute subdivisions. Prior individuals ; 2d, of their civil po- to the records of authentic history, licy; 3d. of their laws and judi- and even before the most remote ara cial proceedings ; 4th, of their ufe- to which their own traditions pretend ful and elegant arts; 5th, of their to reach, this feparation of professions sciences; and, 6th, of their religi- had not only taken place among the ous inftitutions. From the first and natives of India, but the perpetuity fifth of these heads, the following of it was secured by an institution observations are extracted.]

which muft be considered as the fun. damental article in the system of their

policy. The whole body of the peoPROOFS FROM THE DISTINCTION OF ple was divided into four orders or RANKS.

cafts. The members of the first,

deemed the most facred, had it for ROM the most ancient accounts their province, to study the principles

of India we learn, that the dif- of religion ; to perform its functions ; tinction of ranks and separation of and to cultivate the sciences. They professions were completeiy established were the priests, the instructors, and there. This is one of the most un- philofophers of the nation. The memdoubted proofs of a fociety considera- bers of the second order were entrust-, bly advanced in its progress. Arts in ted with the government and defence the early stages of social life are so of the state. In peace they were its few, and so simple, that each man is rulers and magiftrates, in war they fufficiently, master of them all, to gra- were the soldiers who fought its bat: tify every demand of his own li- tles. The third was composed of mited defires. A savage can form husbandmen and merchants; and the his bow, point his arrows, rear his fourth of artifans, labourers, and serhat, and hollow his canoe, without vants. None of these can ever quit calling in the aid of any hand more his own calt, or be admitted into ano. skilful than his own.

But when time ther. The station of every individual has augmented the wants of men, the is unalterably fixed; his destiny is irproductions of art become so compli- revocable; and the walk of life is cated in their structure, or fo curious niarked out, from which lie never in their fabric, that a particular course deviates. This line of separation is of education is requisite towards form- not only establiihed by civil authority, ing the artist to ingenuity in contri- but confirmed and fanctioned by reli

gion ; * From “ Di Robertson's Disquisition concerning Ancient India."

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