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all to Lord de Blaquiere; and now it has been found expedient to the encouragement of the Woollen MaAufacturers in Ireland, that they should be abolished there, and the former regulations repealed. But a proper compensation was due to his Lordship, who, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of Ireland, dated 11 July, 1797, was entitled to hold this office of Alnager in Ireland for a term of 48 years. Parliament, therefore, by Act of the last Session, which passed the Royal Assent on 11 July, 1817, granted to him, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, an annuity of £500 British currency, charged upon the Consolidated Fund of the United Kingdom, payable quarterly, free of all deductions, for the residue of the above term yet unexpired, payable in Ireland.
Mr. URBAN, Crewkerne, Dec. 24. SUBMIT you an account of a tesselated pavement lately discovered near Halstock, Dorsetshire. It may prove acceptable to your Readers; and if my humble offering is worthy insertion, I shall with much pleasure transmit you a faithful drawing from the original.
I visited this Pavement yesterday, about four miles from my house, having set out with the full intention to have taken a drawing for you immediately, when an event prevented me that I should most certainly have anticipated; the frost setting in severely, deprived me of the natural animation necessary to complete my purpose.
This Pavement was first found by a labourer, about two feet under the surface; and it is now covered with a temporary building, erected at the expense of Henry Stephen Earl of Ilchester, that Nobleman most politely giving me admittance agreeably to my request. It has undergone great dilapidation, and at present remains in a very mutilated state; the surface of the Pavement is much bent, or, more properly said, it has an irregular plane, from the heavy pressure of earth, stone, and rubbish, having laid on it such a length of time. Its situation is on an easy rising slope, a North-easterly direction, in the midst of a flat undulated country, stretched out between a spacious amphitheatre of distant hills, from whence they are
easily reconnoitered. This spot is very remote from towns or rivers, and in former ages must have been admirably situated for the chace. I have been told by old persons now living, that it is long within their recollection the whole of this space was nearly covered with oak timber, which presented to the eye one of the finest sylvan scenes in the kingdom; still the traces of them and also large woods remain, corroborating the fact: alas! they are level with the ground; the sturdy hand of avarice, or necessity, has scarcely left a root or branch worthy the appellation of timber.
Lest I should be digressing, I return to the further particulars of the Pavement; it has, of course, an ambiguous origin, further than being a Roman work, which I presume, Sir, we cannot doubt. The dies are variously coloured and proportioned, according to the arrangement of the parts they are to fill; these dies consist of hard bluish granite stone, bricks, red and black, and white pebble set in a deep bed of excellent white sand mortar, to which it had adhered by a firm cement that the iron tooth of time has rendered flexible.
The angles of this curious masonry are duly North, East, West, and South, forming a diamond shape, having a wide border of the larger dies so placed to meet at right and left angles transversely.
Within this border, that is, alternately stone and red brick on each side, a circular sort of fillet in fret-work goes round, taking off the square of the corners, very nicely and mathematically adjusted; in each of these intermediate spaces is a small circle, each containing the head of a warrior in his helmet, the back of which is represented having a double cross in an oblique position from right to left, extending far over the shoulders; the successive parts inclining to the centre are thrown into squares, and intersected by parallel lines of different colours; these are again divided into lesser squares, leaving a space at right and left, filling up a diamond centre in each square; the centre of the whole is the next, part connected with a large mathematical encircled star on one side; this part presents the perfect figure of a face within a circle, very like the rest, with the difference only of being larger, and of a richer
construction; the face is ornamented with a sort of irregular ruff or crest round the whole forehead as far as the ears. What sort of device this is I cannot conjecture; if it has an analogy to our Lord's thorny crown on the cross, it is most certainly an aukward representation. Yet we may conclude, from the figures before alluded to having the symbol of the Cross, that this work may have been done during the reign of some of the Christian Emperors. If, Sir, any of your ingenious Correspondents could, through the medium of your Magazine, favour us with any authentic comment on these very interesting Mosaic works, we should feel particularly grateful and obliged. Yours, &c. JOHN BELLAMY.
Walk from ROME to OSTIA, &c. (Continued from Vol. LXXXVII. ii.
HE air of the morning was delightfully fresh, and the ground covered with a hoar frost. We had very fortunately furnished our knapsacks with chocolate on starting from Rome, otherwise we should have been greatly put to it for a breakfast. In the course of our repast indeed a man did bring in a porcupine; but of this we were not suffered to partake; and, had we been allowed, it might have been doubtful whether it would satisfactorily have supplied the place of our less luxurious fare. We rejoiced to be once more on our
We shortly arrived at the wood which we had contemplated from the tower; at the entrance to which is situated the Villa Chigi. Here we bargained with a servant of the house, or keeper, to conduct us by the nearest route to Pliny's Villa. The man immediately slung his fowling piece at his back, and appeared very happy to accompany us. Just at starting, we were joined by the Priest, a young man, who begged to be of the party. But, before we proceeded, he proposed that we should turn a few steps from the road, when he said he would shew us an English Inscription. This, as might be expected, excited our curiosity. He pointed to the Inscription, which began with the words "Dis M." and which he begged we would take the
trouble of explaining. It was an old Latin inscription, only part of which was legible. We assured the Priest that he was mistaken in his conjecture of its being English; but this he would not believe, asseverating with much vehemence that he understood Latin perfectly well. This must have been a singular instance of ignorance, and one which it must be difficult to parallel. Notwithstanding, this learned Clerk was very good-humoured, and very good compauy. After the foregoing anecdote, it will scarcely be wondered at, that, though at less than two miles distance, he had never heard of Pliny's Villa.
The forest through which we passed was exceedingly fine, and its scenery magnificent. It abounded with the noblest specimens of the Ilex, under the dark shade of which sprang up the greatest variety of beautiful plants. It was a rich field for the botanist who should have leisure to prosecute his enquiry. We gathered several specimens, but, at the journey's end, they were unfortunately in a state altogether unfit for accurate examination.
We suddenly came upon the object of our search. The remains of the Villa are very few, consisting chiefly of foundation walls, and excavations, from the contemplation of which it is impossible to form any idea of what the house once was. The porticoes and areas have long since vanished, and all that remains is the "littoris spatium" and "opportunitas loci." These are still great, though the Villa has undergone a change even in this respect; for the sea has evidently receded, leaving behind it deserts of sand. Pieces of the finest marble, bearing the mark of the chisel, are still scattered about in great abundance; and I fortunately picked up a large portion of Rósso Antico, which I shared with my fellow-travellers as a relict of the place.
We were not detained long; the way to the shore was pointed out to us, and we parted with our friends the Gamekeeper and the Priest. We came upon the sea suddenly. It was of a heavenly blue; a refreshing breeze saluted us from its bosom, which caused us to respire anew after quitting the close and oven-like recesses of the woods. We halted some mo
ments, in order to enjoy more fully the magnificent and exhilarating scene before us..
"O mare! O littus, verum, secretumque meatTov! quam multa invenitis, quam multa dictatis !"
The sand of the shore was rather heavy; but the gale was refreshing, and we marched with much alacrity. The bird-catchers were busy, and their snares or springes, which were very numerous, bad almost all of them their captives. There was much neatness in their contrivance; the machinery, though simple, was sure.
After a long and somewhat laborious walk, we turned inland, and were glad to rest ourselves on a bank, in order to sketch a house and ruins, now called Torre Paterno, in older times, Laurentum. At present it is inhabited by soldiers, who honoured us with their company and attention whilst we were employed with the pencil. The pile, as it now stands, is not particularly picturesque, but the spot altogether is interesting, as having been the capital of Latinus.
We proceeded across the fields, and through very old woods, towards Pratica, the ancient Lavinium. "Oppidum coudunt; Æneas, ab nomine Uxoris, Lavinium appellat." This is situated upon an eminence, and formed a sketch more interesting than the former. We secured three beds in "Casa particulari," ordered some macaroni at the Osteria, and, while it was preparing, walked to explore the beauties of the neighbourhood. These were numerous, and I thought it
one of the most delightful situations
I had seen in Italy.
A temple was said to have been erected near this village, by Eneas, in honour of Anna, the sister of Dido, and which, in after-times, had been converted into a Church. Our walk to the hill on which it appears to have been situated was delightful. A winding-path conducted us through the most fertile of valleys, enameled with flowers, and watered by a rivulet, partly concealed under picturesque and overhanging willows. On each side were the gentlest and most verdant slopes, from which the loftier and more remote hills rose abruptly, their tops crowned with the ilex and the pine. A farmer very civilly shewed us the modern Church, of which little use seems to be made at
present; and adjoining were several remains of ancient brick-work, which had probably formed the foundations of the temple in question. From amidst the ruins the most delightful view presents itself. The finest defile between the hills and woods, terminated by the blue and placid ocean; in an opposite direction, the far-off mountains, with numerous white towns and villages, amongst which were conspicuous Frescati and Albano. The Church on the hill, from which we enjoyed this prospect, bears the name of S. Petronilla.
We had a spare but pleasant repast at our Osteria, after which we ascended the tower of an adjoining palace, whence we had a more extensive and perhaps more interesting Pauorama than that before mentioned. We were fortunate enough to find excellent beds under the roof of a person who was anxious to oblige us, and, before retiring, we held an agreeable converzatione in the chimney-corner. The family were evidently poor; but, what was singular in Italy, the house was extremely neat. At my bed's-head was a crucifix of some value, and a painting of the Virgin of considerable merit. Close to it was a small lamp, furnished with oil. In the village, we had observed several altars and inscriptions; amongst the rest, one bearing the name of Æneas Sylvius. Yours, &c.
Jan. 12. DASSING along Cornhill the other
Pday, I had a multitude of Lot
tery papers thrust into my hands; the numbers of the distributors of these papers led me to reflect, that either there must be some very great advantage to these men; or, what appeared more reasonable, that the Office-keepers found it difficult to dispose of their Tickets in the ordinary way, or why take such immense pains, and be at such a very great expence ? One is naturally led to suppose that their profits must be immoderate to allow of it.
In every well-regulated State, the morals of the people, particularly of the lower classes, are allowed by all Political Writers to be of the first consequence. The natural propensity of the human mind to Gambling has
in civilized society occasioned many Sumptuary Laws and Enactments, to restrain and even to punish this vice. Now, although in a moral point of view, Gambling is equally wrong in the higher and richer classes as it is in the labouring orders, yet the evil is not so great among the former, nor so extensive; it is the example from them that does the most mischief.
There was a Law in this Country formerly, I think during the Reign of Henry VIII. that only Gentlemen should play for money at tennis, dice, bowls, &c. unless during the Christmas holidays. Of all species of Gambling, perhaps Lotteries are the most unfair; at least the adventurer plays with more manifest odds against himself; and our luminous Writer on the Wealth of Nations has declared that the world neither has, or ever will see, a perfect fair Lottery. As they are now managed, they are mere traps to catch the unwary: the pricking the garter, or the whirling-table at a country fair, are as equally, and not more reprehensible; yet the exhibitor of these is liable to be dragged before a Magistrate, and fined or committed to prison as a vagrant, whilst the other is sanctioned by the Legislature. That Lotteries, as they are now managed, tend to encourage idleness, debauchery, prostitution, and theft, no reasonable person will deny. Pray let me ask, who are benefited by them except the Office-keepers, who all make rapid fortunes? I have heard that ten thousand pounds have been asked as a premium or good-will for a Lottery-office! Surely there must be some great arcana about a Lotteryoffice to make it worth such a sum, or even the twentieth part of it. If Government must have Lotteries to raise a sum of money for the exigences of the State, let them be but seldom ; and let them be conducted fairly, and in a plain simple manner, intelligible to the meanest capacity; let there be no paltry subterfuges, which carry with them even the shadow of deceit, such as great prizes being attached to particular days, or to the third or fourth Blank, or as Pipes of Wine upon a thousand years' credit! Wellinformed people smile at such things, but the lower orders and the ignorant are deceived by them. If Lotteries be of real consequence to raise the necessary supplies for the State, why
does not Government take the management entirely into their own hands, and have an appropriate Office for conducting the business? Such a plan would surely increase the Revenue, in as much as they would receive all the profits that are now divided amongst the Office-keepers, and which must surely be much beyond the fifty pounds that is paid for a Licence; and the Publick would be much better satisfied.
I remember many years ago passing through Guildhall during the drawing of a Lottery, and was surprized at witnessing so few people attending to it; but I understand "things are managed better now," and that it is drawn in a more private manner at one of the City Companies Halls. But a Lottery, if there must be one, should be without the least ambiguity or deception, and as public as possible, as it formerly was when drawn at the West front of St. Paul's Cathedral. It may be said, that a Lottery is a tax that may or may not be paid, and that it is perfectly optional with every person, whether they will contribute to it or not. I allow of this to a
certain extent; but what pains are taken to allure the unthinking and thoughtless among the lower orders! All this, I admit, is certainly done without the concurrence of Government; but surely blame attaches somewhere to allow of it. I suspect many a labouring man has spent that money in purchasing a share of a ticket, to try his luck, as he says, which should have been taken home to his wife and children; and many a thoughtless woman has pawned even her apparel for the chance of a great prize. I cannot subscribe to the adage "Si populus vult decipi, decipiatur:" if people will be cheated, let them be cheated. No, I say no; but would endeavour to open their eyes, and point out to them the folly of risking their little property against such fearful odds, and such a remote possibility as their getting a twenty or even a five thousand pound prize. CIVIS.