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Feb. 2. SEND you a Sketch (see Plate I.)

I am induced to conclude that, during the latter part of the sixteenth

I a sting antient stone century, it was usual to procure mo


The monuments engraved in the third volume of Millin's Musée des Mon, Français, "Du 17 Siecle," afford ample proofs of this assertion; 8vo. 1806. See Plates 99, 100, 101, &c.

Instances of the variety which took place in succeeding ages in the form and construction of Tombs, will be principally selected from those in Westminster Abbey, which may still be inspected. Other repositories will be distinctly mentioned. MONUMENTS. Edward, 8th Earl of Shrewsbury: effigy of the man upon a sarcophagus above the woman. Anne, Duchess of Somerset, 1587. The soffit of the arcade, in both these, is extremely rich. Mildred Lady Burleigh and her daughter Anne Countess of Oxford, 1589: the daughter is placed on the higher plinth; Lord Burleigh by himself, kneeling; and around, the children of Lady Oxford. About this time was introduced the custom of mixing the figures of living relatives with the dead. Before the tomb of Winefrid Marchioness of Winchester, and at some distance from the table, are two kneeling figures, and an infant placed on a pedestal. In Old St. Paul's was a very rich monument of W. Earl of Pembroke; and at Warwick is seen the sumptuous memorial of the Queen's favourite, Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester, which is a very fine specimen of the style above described. GENT. MAG. June, 1818.

cradles upon a base. Sometimes the man and woman are upon tables, one above the other, and the whole superstructure attached against the wall.

The tombs of Queen Elizabeth and of Mary Queen of Scots have the same general design*. There is an entablature, with an arch in its cơntre, supported by ten Corinthian columos (five on either side), which is open like the peristyle of a Grecian temple. The figure of Elizabeth rests upon a plinth, which is characteristically placed on the backs of four Lions.

I have never remarked an instance in which the name of the artist appears upon any part of the tomb. Great professional merit is therefore deprived of its due fame, and we are left to attribute these excellent performances solely by conjecture.

Although the general design above mentioned occurs in abundant instances, not only in Westminster Abbey, Old St. Paul's (destroyed, but admirably engraved by Hollar), but like wise in many Provincial Cathedrals and Churches, an occasional deviation is seen, which may claim a hap py concetto or fancy, though little entitled to the praise of true taste.

The tombs of Sir John Norris and Sir Francis Vere t have great merit of this kind. The dead figure of Sir Francis is wrapped in a winding-sheet. Around it, four knights in the complete military costume, are represented kneeling, and bearing upon their shoulders a slab, upon which is placed his armour. The whole has a scenic

effect. Another instance is that of a young lady in the dress of the times, sitting upon a sculptured altar. She was a daughter of John Lord Russel. RICHARD STEEVENS, a Fleming, was established about this time in London; and his best scholar, our first native artist, was EPIPHANIUS EVESHAM ‡. The King's mastermason was William Cure, with whom contracts were made for these most expensive monuments by the executors of those most connected with the Court S.

The Sculptors, probably chiefly foreigners, were engaged by him, as MAXIMILIAN COLTE, otherwise Poultrain (a Fleming) appears to have been. The monument of T. Radclyffe, Earl of Sussex, at Boreham, in Suffolk, cost 2927. 12s. 8d. who had bequeathed 15007. for that purpose, but Steevens was paid the first-mentioned sum for the figures only. Similar monuments were undertaken by architects who furnished the designs, the executive part only having been left to carvers of different skill and merit; from those who could finish a statue, to the mere workman of columns and capitals.

During the whole reign of King James I. the pride of these costly memorials was no less excessive than that of enormous houses, by which that æra was distinguished. There are few Counties which do not still exhibit these sumptuous tombs in obscure villages, where the former great mansion has totally disappeared, or is falling into rapid decay. More than a year's rental of the

* The figures of Queen Elizabeth and of Mary Queen of Scots, with those of some children of King James I. were contracted for with R. Steevens, by a writ of Privy Seal, in 1607. Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. I. p. 288. Lodge's Illustrations, vol. III. p. 319. For these, and another, it appears that the whole sum paid was 3,400. which will convey to us a certain idea of the costliness of these posthumous honours. Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, has a mural monument composed of the greatest variety of marble in columns and pannels, and the whole design broken into many parts. It is not easy to discriminate between the style prevalent in either of these two reigns. Four emblematical figures round the monument of Lodowick Duke of Richmond are of bronze, whilst the rest is marble or alabaster.

These are among the earliest instances in which Sculpture is detached from Architecture, and not encumbered by it. Here is no canopy nor superstructure. The artist is at liberty to describe all that he intended.

Epiphanius Evesham made the bust of J. Owen, the Epigrammatist, in Westminster Abbey.

§ William Cure, master-mason of His Majesty's works, made the tomb of Sir Roger Aston, with seven kneeling figures, at Cranford in Middlesex, in 1612, for 1801. This was of alabaster, or chalk, painted and gilded; and it is to be observed, that marble was beyond the reach of common expense.-Lysons's Middlesex, || See Lodge's Illustrations, vol. III. p. 319. Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. II. p. 39. whole

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whole estate was frequently sacrificed to the memory of its deceased lord *. The obligation which the Arts owe to King Charles I. for their introduction into this country is universally allowed to him.

Sepulchral sculpture then assumed a new character, and a bolder air. By means of attributes under the semblance of female figures or genii, particularly the common representative of Fame, and weeping boys, a theatrical idea pervaded the whole composition. The Master of the Works, or Court Architect, I have reason to believe, was still the contractor, if not the designer; and, from the greater freedom and correctness of the designs, many were probably given by Inigo Jones, though I have searched in vain for any document in confirmation.


In the early part of this reign, we had the first regular school of sculpture established in England. Under Isaac James, a successor of Steevens, Nicholas Stone (of whom we boast as a national artist) first lived and studied during three years. They were jointly employed upon the Earl of Northampton's monument at Green wich. Stone afterwards perfected himself in Holland, under Peeter Keysar, whose daughter he ried. He obtained the appointment of Master-mason; and Mr. Walpole has preserved extracts from his notehook of the monuments he executed, for whom, and the price he receivedt. In this catalogue, though there are some works of consequence, I do not observe several which are more magnificent, now in Westminster Abbey, I refer to those of Sir G. Villiers, his son the Duke of Buckingham, and of

Francis Lord Cottington, and Dudley Lord Dorchester, which display much more of Italian taste and execution.

About this time two foreigners of distinguished merit were greatly encouraged in England, both by the King and the Nobility, having been first invited here by Thomas Earl of Arundel.

These were, Hubert Le Sueur, who had studied under John of Bologna and Francesco Fanelli . It does not appear that they were ever engaged together in the same work, but that each exhibited his talents in competition. Both enjoyed the favour of the Court, and completed Royal Sta tues. Still, as the custom prevailed of leaving their best works of art, especially sepulchral, unmarked by the Sculptor's name, I hazard a conjecture that the monuments of Sir G. Villiers and the Duke of Buckingham were by one of them. The first, of white marble, exhibits a plain ta ble tomb, with a plinth of black marble, or touch-stone, upon which are extended the elaborately carved figures of Sir George and his lady; the sides are very richly embellished with tablets and armorial bearings. It has no column nor superstructure. The other is upon a plan of less simplicity. Four emblematical figures are placed at the corners of a large table tomb bearing the effigies with the favourite figure of Fame, which is extremely light and elegant. The mural additions are in a bad taste.

But a more simple and classical composition is the monument of Francis Lord Cottington, who leans gracefully upon one arm, and in a niche above him is a bronze bust of his lady. I do not hesitate to attri

At Miserden in Gloucestershire is a table tomb of alabaster, painted and gilded, supporting two effigies larger than life, which cost 10007. in 1625, intended for Sir W. Sandys and his lady, an expenditure exceeding the annual value of their estate at that time.

† Anecdotes of Painting, 8vo. vol. II. p. 41. Stone is said to have received during the course of his life, for monuments, 10,8897. His highest prices are for Lord and Lady Spencer, at Althorpe, 6001. For Sir G. Villiers, 5601. For Lady Paston, at Paston in Norfolk, 3407.; and Sir C. Morrison and his Lady at Watford, Herts, 400/. &c.

Le Sueur is known for his equestrian statue of Charles I. now at Charing-cross, and one on foot of W. Earl of Pembroke at Oxford, where are also statues by Fanelli of that Monarch and his Queen Henrietta. Several exquisitely finished bronze busts by Fanelli are extant in the collections of the Nobility. At Welbeck is a bronze bust of Charles I. inscribed "Franciscus Fanellius Florentinus f. Sculpt. Magn. Brit. Regis, 1640," which proves that he had an actual employment under the Royal protection.

At St. Alban's, Herts, the monument of the great Lord Verulam represents him as sitting, with his hat on, and in profound cogitation. The inscription has this characteristic expression: "Sic sedebat ;" and it is probably a perfect portrait,


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