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Feb. 2. I am induced to conclude that, IS SEND you a Sketch (see Plate I.) during the latter part of the sixteenth
of an interesting antient stone century, it was usual to procure mo. building, which stands at a small dis- numents of great cost and dimensions stance from Tewkesbury, on the road to be made at Paris, or some other to Ledbury. There is a similarity of the French schools of sculpture, in the architecture to the Abbot of either by French artists or Flemiogs, Winchcombe's House ; which leads scholars of Jean Gougeon, still reto the supposition that the place in gulated by the principles which their question might be the country lodg- master had acquired from Primaticings, or farm, of the superior of cio. There is indeed an exact anaTewkesbury. Be that as it may, the logy between the component parts of structure is singular epough in itself the tombs erected during this period to deserve a place ainougst your col. in France and England +, more relection of antique buildings.
markably in the semi-recumbent or Yours, &c. A TRAVELLER kneeling figures before desks, the sar
cophagus, or altar table with basOn Sculpture in ENGLAND, as ap- Virtues by emblematical female effi
reliefs; and the personification of plied to Sepulchral Monuments.
gies, which rarely desrve the name (Continued from page 301.) of statues. THE
The most splendid and elaborate its peculiarities in Sculpture, as of the Elizabethan monuments are well as in Architecture. A more per composed of columns, generally of fect koowledge of architectural com- the Corinthian, or rather of the Compositions, as taken from the works of posite order, supporting a large Palladio, and the desigus of the new superstructure or entablature, cheItalian school, had, towards the con quered with many different kinds of clusion of her reign, found its way marble, usually vaneered. In the into this country, and the rich chim centre is placed an alcove, with a ney.pieces, consisting of columns and circular arch inclosing a mural tablet efigies piled upon each other, bad for the inscription, surrounded by then first appeared in the sumptuous escocheons. The whole is finished by houses erected by her ministers and a pyramid placed on balls; and upon vobility*. Similar designs were soon a table tomb are recumbent figures, transferred to Churches, and adopted the male in armour, both with the as sepulchral monuments of the illus- robes and coronet of their nobility; trious dead.
and the lady in the dress of the times. I will endeavour to discriminate In frequent instances insulated figures the varieties of each particular style of men and women, representing the in each æra, 'till it was totally aban- surviving children, kneel round the doned by the introduction of a new one. tomb, and infants are placed in
* Particularly at Burleigh-house; and, in the next reign, at Hatfield and Audley End.
+ The monuments engraved in the third volume of Millin's Musée des Mon, Français, " Du 17 Siecle,” afford ample proofs of this assertion; 8vo. 1806. See Plates 99, 100, 101, &c.
| Instances of the variety which took place in succeeding ages in the form and construction of Tombs, will be principally selected from those in Westminster Abbey, which may still be inspected. Other repositories will be distinctly mentioned.
MONUMENTS. Edward, 8th Earl of Sbrewsbury: effigy of the man upon a sarcophagus above the woman. Anne, Duchess of Somerset, 1587. Tbe soffit of the arcade, in both these, is extremely rich. Mildred Lady Burleigh and her daughter Anne Countess of Oxford, 1589 : the daughter is placed on the higher plinth; Lord Burleigh by bimself, kneeling; and around, the children of Lady Oxford. About this time was introduced the custom of mixing the figures of living relatives with the dead. Before the tomb of Winefrid Marchioness of Winchester, and at some distance from the table, are two kneeling figures, and an infant placed on a pedestal. In Old St. Paul's was a very rich monument of W. Earl of Pembroke ; and at Warwick is seen the sumptuous memorial of the Queen's favourite, Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester, which is a very fine specimen of the style above described. Gent. MAG. June, 1818.
cradles upon a base. Sometimes the effect. · Another instance is that of man and woman are upon tables, one a young lady in the dress of the above the other, and the whole su- tinies, sitting upon a sculptured alperstructure attached against the wall.
tar. She was a daughter of John The tombs of Queen Elizabeth and Lord Russel. RICHARD STEEVENS, of Mary Queen of Scots have the
a Fleming, was established about this same general design*. There is an time in London; and his best scholar, entablature, with an arch in its cen- our first native artist, was EPIPHA. tre, supported by ten Corinthian co- nius EVESHAM I. The King's masterlumos (five on either side), which is mason was William Cure, with whom open like the peristyle of a Grecian contracts were made for these most temple. The figure of Elizabeth rests expensive monuments by the execuupon a plinth, which is characteris- tors of those most compected with the tically placed on the backs of four Court g. The Sculptors, probably Lions.
chiefly foreigners, were engaged by I have never remarked an instance bim, as MAXIMILIAN COLTE, other. in which the name of the artist ap. wise Poultrain || (a Fleming) appears pears upon any part of the tomb. to have been. The monument of T. Great professional merit is therefore Radclyffe, Earl of Sussex, at Boredeprived of its due fame, and we are ham, in Suffolk, cost 2921. 125. 8d. left to attribute these excellent per- who had bequeathed' 15001. for that formances solely by conjecture. purpose, but Steevens was paid the
Although the general design above first-mentioned sum for the figures mentioned occurs in abundant in- only. Siinilar monuments were unstances, not only in Westminster Áb. dertaken by architects who furnished bey, Old St. Paui's (destroyed, but ad- the designs, the executive part only mirably engraved by Hollar), but like having been left lo carvers of differwise in many Provincial Cathedrals ent skill and merit; from those who and Churches, an occasional devia- could finish a statue, to the mere work. tion is seen, which may claim a hap- man of columns and capitals. py concetto or fancy, though little en- During the whole reign of King titled to the praise of true taste. James I. the pride of these costly
The tombs of Sir Johu Norris and memorials was no less excessive than Sir Francis Vere + have great merit of that of enormous houses, by which this kind. The dead figure of Sir that æra was distinguished. There Francis is wrapped in a wioding-sheet. are few Counties which do not still Around it, four koights in the com- exhibit these sumptuous tombs in plete military costume, are represent obscure villages, where the former ed kneeling, and bearing upon their great mansion has totally disappearshoulders a slab, upon which is placed ed, or is falling into rapid decay. his armour. The whole has a scenic More than a year's rental of the
* The figures of Queen Elizabeth and of Mary Queen of Scots, with those of some children of King James 1. were contracted for with R. Steevens, by a writ of Privy Seal, in 1607. Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. I. p. 288. Lodge's Illustrations, vol. III. p. 319. For these, and another, it appears that the whole sum paid was 3,4001. which will convey to us a certain idea of the costliness of these posthumous honours. Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, has a mural monument composed of the greatest variety of marble in columns and pannels, and the whole design broken into many parts. It is not easy to discriminate between the style prevalent in either of these two reigns. Four emblematical figures round the monument of Lodowick Duke of Richmond are of bronze, whilst the rest is marble or alabaster.
+ These are among the earliest instances in which Sculpture is detached from Architecture, and not encumbered by it. Here is no canopy nor superstructure. The artist is at liberty to describe all that he intended.
# Epiphanius Evesham made the bust of J. Owen, the Epigrammatist, in Westminster Abbey.
§ William Cure, master-mason of His Majesty's works, made the tomb of Sir Roger Aston, with seven kneeling figures, at Cranford in Middlesex, in 1612, for 1801. This was of alabaster, or chalk, painted and gilded ; and it is to be observed, that marble was beyond the reach of common expense.--Lysons's Middlesex. Il See Lodge's Illustrations, vol. III. p. 319. Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. II. p. 39,
whole estate was frequently sacrificed Francis Lord Cottington, and Dudley to the memory of its deceased lord *. Lord Dorchester, which display much
The obligation which the Arts owe more of Italian taste and execution. to King Charles I. for their introduc- About this time two foreigners of tion into this country is universally distinguished merit were greatly enallowed to him.
couraged in England, both by the King Sepulchral sculpture then assumeda and the Nobility, having been first innew character, and a bolder air. By vited here by Thomas Earl of Arundel. means of attributes under the sem- These were, Hubert Le Sueur, who blanceof fenale figures or genii, parti- had studied under John of Bologna cularly the common representative of and Francesco Fanelli 1. It does not Fame, and weeping boys, a theatrical appear that they were ever engaged idea pervaded the whole composition. together in the same work, but that
The Master of the Works, or Court each exhibiled his talents in compeArchitect, I have reason to believe, tition. Both enjoyed the favour of was still the contractor, if not the the Court, and completed Royal Sta. designer; and, from the greater free- tues. Still, as the custom prevailed dom and correctness of the designs, of leaving their best works of art, many were probably given by Inigo especially sepulchral, unmarked by Jones, though I have searched in vain the Sculptor's name, I hazard-a con. for any document in confirmatiou. jecture that the monuments of Sir
In the early part of this reign, we G. Villiers and the Duke of Buckinghad the first regular school of sculp- ham were by one of them. The first, ture established in England. Under of white marble, exhibits a plain ta. Isaac James, a successor of Steevens, ble tomb, with a plinth of black Nicholas Stone (of whom we boast as marble, or touch-stone, upon wbich a national artist) first lived and stu. are extended the elaborately carved died during three years. They were figures of Sir George and his lady: jointly employed upon the Earl of the sides are very richly embellished Northampton's monument at Green. with tablets and armorial bearings. wich. Stone afterwards perfected It has no column nor superstruchimself in Holland, under Peeter ture. The other is upon a plan of Keysar, whose daughter he Jess simplicity. Four emblematical ried. He obtained the appointment figures are placed at the corners of a of Master-masou ; and Mr. Walpole large table tomb beariog the effigies has preserved extracts from his note- with the favourite figure of Fame, hook of the monuments he executed, which is extremely light and elegant. for whom, and the price he receivedt. The mural additions are in a bad In this catalogue, though there are taste. But a more simple and classi. some works of consequence, I do not cal composition is the monument of observe several which are more may- Francis Lord Cottington, who leads nificent, now in Westminster Abbey. gracefully upon one arm, and in a I refer to those of Sir G. Villiers, his niche above him is a bronze bust of son the Duke of Buckingham, and of his lady. I do not hesitate to attri
• At Miserden in Gloucestershire is a table tomb of alabaster, painted and gilded, supporting two effigies larger than life, which cost 10001. in 1625, intended for Sir W. Sandys and his lady, an expenditure exceeding the annual value of their estate at that time.
+ Anecdotes of Painting, 8vo. vol. II. p. 41. Stone is said to have received during the course of his life, for monuments, 10,8891. His highest prices are for Lord and Lady Spencer, at Althorpe, 6001. For Sir G. Villiers, 5601. For Lady Paston, at Paston in Norfolk, 3401.; and Sir C. Morrison and his Lady at Watford, Herts, 4001. &c.
| Le Sueur is known for his equestrian statue of Charles I. now at Charing-cross, and one on foot of W. Earl of Pembroke at Oxford, where are also statues by Fanelli of that Monarch and his Queen Henrietta. Several exquisitely finished bronze busts by Fanelli are extant in the collections of the Nobility. At Welbeck is a bronze bust of Charles I. inscribed “ Franciscus Fanellius Florentinus f. Sculpt, Magn. Brit. Regis, 1640," which proves that he had an actual employment under the Royal protection.
At St. Alban's, Herts, the monument of the great Lord Verulam represents him as sitting, with his hat on, and in profound cogitation. The inscription has this characteristic expression : “ Sic sedebat ; " and it is probably a perfect portrait,