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In truth, it is nothing but the most Nor have the social evils, which in unmitigated military despotism. A France have followed in the wake of huge statue of liberty is placed in the successful revolution, been less deNational Assembly; but at every six plorable than the entire destruction of paces bayonets are to be seen, to re- the rights of freemen and security of mind the bystanders of the rule of the property which has ensued. To show sword. “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité,” that this statement is not overcharged, meet the eye at every turn in the we extract from a noted liberal jourstreets; but the Champs Elysées, the nal of Paris, La Reforme, of NovemPlace de Grève, the Carrousel, and ber 17, 1848, the following statePlace Vendôme, are crowded with ment : soldiers ; and the Champ de Mars is white with tents, to cover part of the

“Property, manufactures, and com40,000 regular troops which form the Of the population of that great city, the

merce are utterly destroyed in Paris. ordinary garrison of Paris. Universal capital of France

, there are 300,000 infreedom of discussion has been pro- dividuals wanting the necessaries of life. claimed by the constitution ; but One half at least of those earned from dozens of journals have been suppress- 3f. to 5f. a day previous to the revolued by the authority of the dictator ; tion, and occupied a number of houses and imprisonment notoriously hangs in the faubourgs. The proprietors of over the head of every one who in- those houses receiving no rent, and hav. dulges in the freedom of discussion, ing taxes and other charges to pay, are which in England and America is uni- reduced to nearly as deep distress as

their tenants. In the centre of Paris, versal. The state of siege has been raised, after having continued four form. The large and sumptuous apart

the same distress exists under another months; but the military preparations ments of the fashionable quarters were for another siege continue with una occupied before

the revolution by wealthy bated vigour on both sides. The con- proprietors, or by persons holding lucrastitution has been adopted by a great tive employments in the public offices, majority in the Assembly ; but the or by extensive manufacturers; but nearly forts are all armed, and prepared to all those have disappeared, and the few rain down the tempest of death on the who remain have insisted upon such a devoted city. Universal suffrage is reduction of rent that the proprietor established; but menacing crowds are does not receive one-half of the amount

to which he is entitled. Should a proin the streets, threatening any one who votes against their favourite can- prietor of house property endeavour to didates. The Faubourg St Antoine, to defray his most urgent expenses, he

raise a sum of money by a first mortgage, during the late election, was in a finds it impossible to do so, even at a most frightful state of agitation ; infantry, exorbitant rate of interest. Those who cavalry, and artillery, were traver- possess ready money refuse to part with sing the streets in all directions; and it, either through fear, or because they conflicts not less bloody than those of expect to purchase house property when June last were anticipated in the it must be sold at 50 per cent less than struggle for the presidency, and pre- the value."--La Reforme, November 17, vented only by the presence of ninety

1848. thousand soldiers in the capital: a force It is certainly a most remarkable greater than that which foughton either thing, in the history of the aberraside at Austerlitz or Jena. It is evident tions of the human mind, that a systhat republican institutions, in such a tem of policy which has produced, state of society, are a mere name; and and is producing, such disastrous rethat supreme despotic power is really sults—and, above all, which is inflicting invested in France, as in ancient such deadly and irreparable wounds Rome under the emperors, in the no- on the interests of the poor, and the minee of a victorious body of soldiery. cause of freedom throughout the The Prætorian guards will dispose of world-should have been, during the the French as they did of the Roman last eighteen years, the object ofunceasdiadem ; and ere long, gratuities to ing eulogy by the liberal party on the troops will perhaps be the pass- both sides of the Channel; and that port to power in Paris, as they were the present disastrous state of affairs, in the Eternal City

both in this country and on the Con

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tinent, is nothing more than the na- the King of Piedmont, from the chastural and inevitable result of the tisement which his perfidious attack on principles that party has everywhere Austria in the moment of her distress laboured to establish. The revolution merited. The Ministerial journals are of 1830 was hailed with enthusiasm never weary of referring to the revoin this country by the whole liberal lutions on the Continent as the cause party : the Irish are not more ena- of all the distress which has prevailed moured now of the revolution of 1848, in England, since they broke out in than the Whigs were, eighteen years last spring : they forget that it was ago, of that of 1830. The liberal England herself which first unfurled government of England did all in the standard of revolution, and that, their power to spread far and wide if we are suffering under its effects, the glorious example. Flanders was it is under the effects of our own attacked-an English fleet and French measures and policy. army besieged Antwerp; and, by a Strange and unaccountable as this coalition of the two powers, a revolu- perverted and diseased state of opinion, tionary throne was established in in a large part of the people of this Belgium, and the king of the Nether- country, undoubtedly is, it is easily lands prevented from re-establishing explained when the state of society, the kingdom guaranteed to him by and the channel into which political all the powers of Europe. The Quad contests have run, are taken into conruple Alliance was formed to revolu- sideration. In truth, our present tionise Spain and Portugal; a san- errors are the direct consequence of guinary civil war was nourished for our former wisdom; our present weaklong in both kingdoms; and at length, ness, of our former strength ; our preafter years of frightful warfare, the sent misery, of our former prosperity. legitimate monarch, and legal order In the feudal ages, and over the of succession, were set aside in both whole Asiatic world at the present countries; queens were put on the time, the contests of parties are carried thrones of both instead of kings, and on for individuals. No change of naEngland enjoyed the satisfaction, for tional policy, or of the system of inthe diffusion of her revolutionary pro- ternal government, is contemplated on pagandism, of destroying the securi- either side. It is for one prince or ties provided for the liberties of Europe another prince, for one sultann or by the treaty of Utrecht, and pre- another sultaun, that men draw their paring a Spanish princess for the swords. “ Under which King, Bezohand of a Bourbon prince.

nian?-speak or die!" is there the watchNot content with this memorable word of all civil conflict. It was the and politic step, and even after the same in this country during the feudal recent disasters of France were actu- ages, and down to a very recent period. ally before their eyes, our rulers were No man in the civil wars between so enamoured of revolutions, that they Stephen and Henry II., or of the Plancould not refrain from encouraging tagenet princes, or in the wars of the it in every small state within their Roses, contemplated or desired any reach. Lord Palmerston counseled change of government or policy in the Pope, in a too celebrated letter, to the conflict in which they were enplunge into the career which has ter- gaged. The one party struck for the minated so fatally for bimself and for Red, the other for the White Rose. Italy, Admiral Parker long prevented Great civil and social interests were the Neapolitan force from embarking at issue in the conflict; but the people for Sicily, to do there what Lord cared little or nothing for these. The Hardinge was nearly at the same time contest between the Yorkists and the sent to do in Ireland. We beheld the Lancastrians was a great feud beImperial standards with complacency tween two clans which divided the driven behind the Mincio; but no state; and the attachment to their sooner did Radetzky disperse the re- chiefs was the blind devotion of the volutionary army, and advance to Highlanders to the Pretender. Milan, than British and French di- The Reformation, which first plomacy interfered to arrest his march, brought the dearest objects of thought and save their revolutionary protégé, and interest home to all classes, made


a great change in this respect, and to the skies by the whole liberal party substituted in large proportion general on the Continent. Deprived of the questions for the adherence to par- watch words of men, the parties have ticular men, or fidelity to particular come to assume those of things. Orfamilies. Still, however, the old and ganic or social change have become natural instinct of the human race to the war-cry of faction, instead of change attach themselves to men, not things, of dynasty. The nation is no longer continued, in a great degree, to influ- drenched with blood by armies fightence the minds of the people, and as ing for the Red or the White Rose, by many buckled on their armour for the parties striving for the mastery be. man as the cause. The old Cavaliers, tween the Stuart and Hanover families, who periled life and lands in defence but it was not less thoroughly divided of Charles I., were as much influenced by the cry of “The bill, the whole by attachment to the dignified mon- bill, and nothing but the bill," at one arch, who is immortalised in the can- time, and that of “Free-trade and vass of Vandyke, as by the feelings of cheap corn" at another. Social change, hereditary loyalty; and the iron bands alterations of policy, have thus come which overthrew their ranks at Mar to be the great objects which divide ston Moor, were as devoted to Crom- the nation; and, as it is ever the well as the tenth legion to Cæsar, policy of Opposition to represent the or the Old Guard to Napoleon. In conduct of Government as erroneous, truth, such individual influences are it follows, as a necessary consequence, so strongly founded in human nature, that the main efforts of the party that they will continue to the end of opposed to administration always have the world, from whatever cause been, since the suppression of the contest may have arisen, as soon as Rebellion in 1745, to effect, when in it has continued for a certain time, and opposition, achange in general opinion, will always stand forth in prominent and, when in power, to carry that importance when a social has turned change into effect by a change of policy. into a military conflict, and the perils The old law of nature is still in operand animosities of war have endeared ation. Action and reaction rule mantheir leaders to the soldiers on either kind; and in the efforts of parties side. The Vendeans soon became de mutually to supplant each other in voted to Henri Larochjaquelein, the power, a foundation is laid for an Republicans to Napoleon ; and in our entire change of policy at stated own times, the great social conflict of periods, and an alteration, as great as the nineteenth century has been de- from night to day, in the opinions and termined by the fidelity of the policy of the ruling party in the same Austrian soldiers to Radetzky, of the state at different times. French to Cavaignac, of the German The old policy of England-that to Windischgratz.

policy under wbich, in the words of But in the British empire, for a cen- Macaulay, " The authority of law and tury past, it has been thoroughly the security of property were found to understood, by men of sense of all be compatible with a liberty of disparties, that a change of dynasty is cussion and of individual action never out of the question, and that there is known before ; under which form, the no reform worth contending for in the auspicious union of order and freedom, state, which is not to be effected by sprang a prosperity of which the the means which the constitution annals of human affairs had furnished itself has provided. This convic- no example; under which our country, tion, long impressed upon the nation, from a state of ignominious vassalage, and interwoven as it were with the rapidly rose to the place of umpire very framework of the British mind, among European powers; under which having come to coincide with the her opulence and martial glory grew passions incident to party divisions in together; under which, by wise and a free state, has in process of tiine resolute good faith, was gradually produced the strange and tortuous established a public credit, fruitful of policy which, for above a quarter of a marvels wbich, to the statesmen of century, has now been followed in this any former age, would have appeared country by the government, and lauded incredible; under which a gigantic

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