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" What do you know of Colonel Roland was so disturbed, and why Vivian, or his son ?” said I. “Pray, Colonel Vivian's grief should have tell me, I am so interested in this touched him home. Similarity in young man.”

affliction makes us brothers even to “I know nothing of either, except the unknown. by gossip," said my uncle, moodily. " You say he is going home to his "I did hear that Colonel Vivian, an family—I am heartily glad of it!" said excellent officer, and honourable man, the envying old soldier, gallantly. had been in-in-(Roland's voice fal- The lights came in then, and, two tered)-in great grief about his son, minutes after, uncle Roland and I whom, a mere boy, he had prevented were nestled close to each other, side from some improper marriage, and by side; and I was reading over his who had run away and left him-it shoulder, and his finger was silently was supposed for America. The story resting on that passage that had so affected me at the time," added my struck him—" I have not complained uncle, trying to speak calmly. -have I, sir ?--and I won't com

We were all silent, for we felt why plain !"


FIFTY years since, the book before travellers, to be in the mountains us would have earned for its author of Abyssinia ; but the course of the the sneers of critics and the reputa- other branch, which is by far the longest, tion of a Munchausen : at the present had been followed,until very lately,only more tolerant and more enlightened as far south as 10° or 11° Ñ. L. Even day, it not only obtains credit, but now the river has not been traced to excites well-merited admiration of the its origin, although Mr Werne and his writer's enterprise, energy, and perse- companions penetrated to 4° N. L. verance. “The rich contents and Further they could not go, owing to the great originality of the following rapid subsidence of the waters. The work,” says Professor Carl Ritter, in expedition had been delayed six weeks his preface to Mr Werne's narrative, by the culpable dilatoriness of one of " will escape no one who bestows á its members ; and this was fatal to the glance, however hasty, upon its pages. realisation of its object. It gives vivid and life-like pictures We can conceive few things more of tribes and territories previously un- exciting than such a voyage as Mr visited, and is welcome as a most ac- Werne has accomplished and recorded. ceptable addition to our literature of Starting from the outposts of civilisatravel, often so monotonous.” We tion, he sailed into the very heart of quite coincide with the learned pro- Africa, up a stream whose upper fessor, whose laudatory and long- waters were then for the first time winded sentences we have thus freely furrowed by vessels larger than a rendered. His friend, Mr Ferdinand savage's canoe - a stream of such Werne, has made good use of his gigantic proportions, that its width, at opportunities, and has produced a very a thousand miles from the sea, gave interesting and praiseworthy book. it the aspect of a lake rather than of

It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to a river. The brute creation were in remind the reader, that the river Nile proportion with the magnitude of the is formed of two confluent streams, water-course. The hippopotamus the Blue and the White, whose junc- reared his huge snout above the surtion is in South Nubia, between face, and wallowed in the gullies that 15 and 16° of North Latitude. The on either hand run down to the stream; source of the Blue Nile was ascer- enormous crocodiles gaped along the tained by Bruce, and by subsequent shore; elephants played in herds upon

Expedition zur Entdeckung der Quellen des Weissen Nil, (1840-1841,) von FERDINAND WERNE. Mit einem Vorwort von Carl RITTER. Berlin, 1848.

the pastures; the tall giraffe stalked and at last their employer would rely amongst the lofty palms; snakes thick on neither of them, but resolved to go as trees lay coiled in the slimy swamps; and see for himself. This was in the and ant-hills, ten feet high, towered autumn of 1838; and it might well be above the rushes. Along the thickly- that the old fox was not sorry to get peopled banks hordes of savages showed out of the way of certain diplomatic themselves, gazing in wonder at the personages at Alexandria, and thus to strange ships, and making ambiguous postpone for a while his reply to gestures, variously construed by the troublesome inquiries and demands. adventurers as signs of friendship or “It was on the 15th October 1838," hostility. Alternately sailing and Mr Werne says, "that I-for some towing, as the wind served or not; time past an anchorite in the wilderconstantly in sight of natives, but ness by Tura, and just returned from a rarely communicating with them; often hunt in the ruins of Memphis-saw, cut off for days from land by inter from the left_shore of the Nile, the minable fields of tangled weeds,-the Abu Dagn, (Father of the Beard,) as expedition pursued its course through Mohammed Ali was designated to me innumerable perils, guaranteed from by a Fellah standing by, steam past most of them by the liquid rampart in his yacht, in the direction of those on which it floated. Lions looked regions to which I would then so hungry, and savages shook their gladly have proceeded. Already in spears, but neither showed a disposi- Alexandria I had gathered, over a tion to swim off and board the flotilla. glass of wine, from frigate-cap

The cause of science has countless tain Achmet, (a Swiss, named Baumobligations to the cupidity of poten- gärtner,) the secret plan of the expetates and adventurers. May it not dition to the White Stream, (Bach'r be part of the scheme of Providence, el Abiat,) and I had made every effort that gold is placed in the most remote to obtain leave to join it, but in vain, and barbarous regions, as a magnet because, as a Christian, my discretion to draw thither the children of civili- was not to be depended upon.” sation ? The expedition shared in by The Swiss, whom some odd caprice Mr Werne is an argument in favour of fate, here unexplained, had conof the hypothesis. It originated in

It originated in verted into an Egyptian naval capappetite for lucre, not in thirst for tain, and to whom the scientific duties knowledge. Mehemet Ali, viceroy of of the expedition were confided, died Egypt, finding the lands within his in the following spring, and his place control unable to meet his lavish ex- was taken by Captain Selim. Mr penditure and constant cry for gold, Werne and his brother, who had long projected working mines supposed to ardently desired to accompany one of exist in the districts of Kordovan and these expeditions up the Nile, were Fazogl. At heavy cost he procured greatly discouraged at this change, Austrian miners from Trieste, a portion which they looked upon as destrucof whom proceeded in 1836 to the tive to their hopes. At the town of land of promise, to open those veins Chartum, at the confluence of the of gold whence it was reported the old White and Blue streams, they witVenetian ducats had been extracted. nessed, in the month of November Already, in imagination, the viceroy 1839, the departure of the first beheld an ingot-laden fleet sailing flotilla ; and, although sick and weak, merrily down the Nile. He was dis- from the effects of the climate, their appointed in his glowing expectations. hearts were wrung with regret at Russegger, the German chief of the being left behind. This expedition expedition, pocketed the pay of a Bey, got no further than 6° 35' N. L.; alate and drank in conformity with his though, either from mistakes in their rank, rambled about the country, and astronomical reckoning or wishing to wrote a book for the amusement

and give themselves more importance, and information of his countrymen. Then not anticipating that others would he demanded thirty thousand dollars soon follow to check their statements, to begin the works. An Italian, who they pretended to have gone three had accompanied him, offered to do degrees further south. But Mehemet it for less; mistrust and disputes arose, Ali, not satisfied with the result of their voyage, immediately ordered a sort of general direction of the exsecond expedition to be fitted out. pedition, of which, however, Soliman Mr Werne, who is a most adventu- was the virtual chief ; the second rous person, had been for several captain was Feizulla Effendi of Conmonths in the Taka country, in a stantinople; the other officers were district previously untrodden by two Kurds, a Russian, an Albanian, Europeans, with an army commanded and a Persian. Of Europeans, there by Achmet Bascha, governor-general were the two Frenchmen, already of Sudan, who was operating against mentioned, as engineers ; a third, some rebellious tribes.

Here news named Thibaut, as collector; and reached him of the projected expedi- Mr Werne, as an independent pastion; and, to his great joy, he ob- senger at his own charges. The tained from Achmet permission to ships were to follow each other in accompany it in the quality of pas- two lines, one led by Soliman, the senger. His brother, then body- other by Selim ; but this order of physician to the Bascha, could not be sailing was abandoned the very first spared, by reason of the great mor- day; and so, indeed, was nearly all tality in the camp.

order of every kind. Each man sailed At Chartum the waters were high, his bark as he pleased, without nautithe wind was favourable, and all was cal skill or unity of movement; and, ready for a start early in October, but as to one general and energetic superfor the non-appearance of two French vision of the whole flotilla and its engineers, who lingered six weeks in progress, no one dreamed of such a Korusko, under one pretext or other, thing. Mr Werne indulged in gloomy but in reality, Mr Werne affirms, reflections as to the probable results because one of them, Arnaud by of an enterprise, at whose very outset name, who has since written an ac- such want of zeal and discipline was count of the expedition, was desirous displayed. It does not appear to to prolong the receipt of his pay as have struck him that not the least bimbaschi, or major, which rank he of his dangers upon the strange voy. temporarily held in the Egyptian ser- age he had so eagerly undertaken, vice. At last he and his companion, was from his shipmates, many of Sabatier, arrived: on the 230 Novem- them bigoted Mahometans and reckber 1840 a start was made; and, on less, ferocious fellows, ready with the that day Mr Werne began a journal, knife, and who would have thought regularly kept, and most minute in its little of burthening their conscience details, which he continued till the 22d with so small a matter as a ChrisApril 1841, the date of his return to tian's blood. He is evidently a cool, Chartum. He commences by stating courageous man, prompt in action; the composition of the expedition and his knowledge of the slavish, ** It consists of four dahabies from treacherous character of the people Kahira, (vessels with two masts and he had to deal with, doubtless taught with cabins, about a hundred feet long, him the best line of conduct to pursue and twelve to fifteen broad,) each with them. This, as appears from with two cannon; three dahabies from various passages of his journal, was Chartum, one of which has also two the rough and ready style—a blow guns; then two kaias, one-masted for the slightest impertinence, and his vessels, to carry goods, and a sàndal, arms, which he well knew how to use, or skiff, for intercommunication; the always at hand. He did not scruple crews are composed of two hundred to interfere when he saw cruelty or and fifty soldiers, (Negroes, Egyp- oppression practised, and soon he tians, and Surians,) and a hundred made himself respected, if not feared, and twenty sailors and boatmen from by all on board; so much so, that Alexandria, Nubia, and the land of Feizulla, the captain of the vessel in Sudan.” Soliman Kaschef (a Circas- which he sailed, a drunken old Turk, sian of considerable energy and cou- who passed his time in drinking spirits rage, who, like Mr Werne himself, and mending his own clothes, apwas protected by Achmet Bascha) pointed him his locum tenens during commanded the troops. Captain his occasional absences on shore. Selim had charge of the ships, and a During his five months' voyage, Mv



Werne had a fine opportunity of stead of the customary ration of coffee; studying the peculiarities of the dif- and many a Mussulman drank more ferent nations with individuals of than did him good, or than the Prowhich he sailed; and, although his phet's law allows. In the night, Caplong residence in Africa and the East tain Feizulla tumbled out of bed ; had made him regard such matters and, having spoiled his subordinates with comparative indifference, the by over-indulgence, not one of them occasional glimpses he gives of Turk- stirred to his assistance. Mr Werne ish and Egyptian habits are amongst picked him up, found him in an epithe most interesting passages in his leptic fit, and learned, with no great book. Already, on the third day of pleasure, Feizulla being his cabinthe voyage, the expiration of the mate, that the thirsty skipper was Rhamadan, or fasting month, and the subject to such attacks. He foresaw setting in of the little feast of Bairam, a comfortless voyage on board the gave rise to a singular scene. The narrow bark, and with such queer flotilla was passing through the coun- companions; but the daily increasing try governed by Achmet Bascha, in interest of the scenery and surroundwhich Soliman was a man of great ing objects again distracted his importance. By his desire, a herd of thoughts from considerations of peroxen and a large flock of sheep were sonal ease. He had greater difficulty driven down to the shore, for the use in reconciling himself to the negliof the expedition. The preference gence and indolence of his associates. was for the mutton, the beef in those So long as food was abundant and regions being usually tough and coarse, work scanty, all went well enough ; and consequently despised by the but when liquor ran low, and the Turks. " This quality of the meat is flesh-pots of Egypt were empty, owing to the nature of the fodder, the grumbling began, and the thoughts of tender grass and herbs of our marsh- the majority were fixed upon a speedy lands and pastures being here un- return. Their chiefs set them a poor known — and to the climate, which example. Soliman Kaschef lay in hardens the animal texture, a fact bed till an hour after sunrise, and the perceived by the surgeon when opera- signal to sail could not be given till ting upon the human body. Our he awoke ; and Feizulla, when his Arabs, who, like the Greeks and Jews, and Mr Werne's stock of brandy was born butchers and flayers, know no out, passed one half his time in dismcrcy with beasts or men, fell upon tilling spirits from stale dates, and the the unfortunate animals, hamstrung other moiety in getting intoxicated on them in all haste, to obviate any the turbid extract thus obtained. chance of resumption of the gift, and Then the officers had female slaves on the hecatomb sank upon the ground, board ; and there was a licensed pitiful to behold. During the flay- jester, Abu Haschis, who supplied ing and quartering, every man tried the expedition with buffoonery and to secrete a sippet of meat, cut- ribaldry; and the most odious practing it off by stealth, or stealing it tices prevailed amongst the crews; from the back of the bearers. These for further details concerning all which covetod morsels were stuck upon matters we refer the curious to Mr skewers, broiled at the nearest watch. Werne himself. A more singularly fire, and ravenously devoured, to pre- composed expedition was perhaps pare the stomach for the approaching 'never fitted out, nor one less adapted banquet. Although they know how effectually to perform the services reto cook the liver excellently well, upon quired of it. Cleanliness and sobriety, this occasion they preferred eating it so incumbent upon men cooped up in raw, cut up in a wooden dish, and small craft, in a climate teeming with with the gall of the slaughtered beast pestilence and vermin, were little repoured over it. Thus prepared, and garded ; and subordination and vigieaten with salt and pepper, it has lance, essential to safety amidst the much the flavour of a good raw beef- perils of an unknown navigation, and steak.” The celebration of the Bairam in the close vicinity of hostile savages, was a scene of gluttony and gross were utterly neglected,--at first to the revelry. Arrack was served out in- great uneasiness of Mr Werne. But after a while, seeing no chance of again climb the trees. Such a monkey amendment, and having no power to republic is really a droll enough sight; rebuke or correct deficiencies, he re- its members alternately fighting and peated the eternal Allah Kerim! (God caressing each other, combing and is merciful) of his fatalist shipmates, vermin-hunting, stealing and boxing and slept soundly, when the musquitos each other's ears, and, in the midst of permitted, under the good guard of all these important occupations, runProvidence.

ning down every moment to drink, On the 29th November, the expe- but contenting themselves with a dition passed the limit of Turco- single draught, for fear of becoming a Egyptian domination. The land it mouthful for the watchful crocodile. had now reached paid no tribute. The tame monkeys on board our * All slaves," was the reply of Turks vessels turned restless at sight of the and Arabs to Mr Werne's inquiry who joyous vagabond life of their brethren the inhabitants were. “I could not in the bush. First-lieutenant Hussein help laughing, and proving to them, Aga, of Kurdistan, lay alongside us, to their great vexation, that these and was in raptures with his monkey, men were free, and much less slaves shouting over to me: “Schuf! el nauti than themselves ; that before making taib!' (See! the clever sailor !) slaves of them, they must first make meaning his pet ape, which ran about them prisoners, a process for which the rigging like mad, hanging on by they had no particular fancy,-ad- the ropes, and looking over the bulmitting, with much naïveté, that the warks into the water; until at last he * slaves' hereabout were both nume- jumped on the back of a sailor who rous and brave. This contemptuously was wading on shore with dirty linen spoken Kulo Abit, (All slaves,) is about to wash, and thence made a spring equivalent to the “barbarian' of the upon land to visit his relations, comancients—the same classical word the pared to whom, however, he was a modern Greeks have learned out of mere dwarf. Overboard went the foreign school-books."

long Kurd, with his gun, to shoot the ** The trees and branches preventing deserter; but doubtless the little our vessels from lying alongside the seaman, his capacity of Turkish bank, I had myself carried through the slave, and on account of his diminuwater, to examine the country and gettive figure, met a bad reception, for some shooting. But I could not make Hussein was no sooner under the trees up my mind to use my gun, the only than his monkey dropped upon his animals to aim at being large, long- head. He came to visit me aftertailed, silver-gray apes. I had shot wards, brought his “ naùti taïb' with one on a former occasion, and the him, and told me, what I had often brute had greatly excited my com- heard before, how apes were formerly passion by his resemblance to a human men, whom God had cursed. It being, and by his piteous gestures. really is written in the Koran that M. Arnaud, on the contrary, took God and the prophet David had particular pleasure in making the turned into monkeys the Jews who repeated observation that, on the ap- did not keep the Sabbath holy. Thereproach of death, the gums of these fore a good Moslem will seldom kill beasts turn white, like those of a dying or injure a monkey.. Emin Bey of man. They live in families of several Fazogl was an exception to this rule. hundreds together, and their territory Sitting at table with an Italian, and is very circumscribed, even in the about to thrust into his mouth a fragforest, as I myself subsequently ascer- ment of roast meat, his monkey tained. Although fearful of water, and snatched it from between his thumb swimming unwillingly, they always and fingers. Whereupon the Bey tied to the branches overhanging the quietly ordered the robber's hand to river, and not unfrequently fell in. be cut off, which was instantly done. When this occurred, their first care The poor monkey came to his cruel on emerging was to wipe the water master and showed him, with his from their faces and ears. However peculiarly doleful whine, the stump of imminent their danger, only when this his fore-paw. The Bey gave orders operation was completed did they to kill him, but the Italian begged him

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