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moral as in the physical world. in his own metropolis. Paris, the Eighty years elapsed in Rome from cradle in every age of new ideas, and the time when the political passions the centre of revolutionary action, were first stirred by Tiberius Grac- next felt the shock: a reform banquet chus, before its unruly citizens were was prepared as the signal for asfinally subdued by the art, or deci- sembling the democratic forces; the mated by the cruelty of Octavius. national guard, as usual, failed at the England underwent six years of civil decisive moment: the King of the war and suffering, before the ambition Barricades quailed before the power and madness of the Long Parliament which had created him; the Orleans were expelled by the purge of Pride, dynasty was overthrown, and France or crushed by the sword of Cromwell: delivered over to the dreams of the twelve years elapsed between the con- Socialists and the ferocity of the Red vocation of the States-general in 1789, Republicans. Prussia soon shared the and the extinction of the license madness: the population of Berlin, all of the French Revolution by the trained to arms, according to the cusarm of Napoleon. But, on this occa- tom of that country, rose against the sion, in one year, all, in the mean- government; the king had not energy time at least, has been accomplished. enough to permit his faithful troops to Ere the leaves, which unfolded in act with the vigour requisite to upspring amidst the overthrow of hold the throne against such assailthrones, and the transports of revolu- ants, and the monarchy of Frederick tionists over the world, had fallen the Great was overthrown. Austria, in autumn, the passions which had even, could not withstand the conconvulsed mankind were crushed for tagion: neither its proud nobility, nor the time, and the triumphs of de- its light-hearted sensual people, nor mocracy were arrested. A terrible its colossal army, nor its centuries of reaction had set in; experience of suf- glory, could maintain the throne in fering had done its work; and swift as its moment of peril. The Emperor was the shades of night before the rays of weak, the citizens of Vienna were inthe ascending sun, had disappeared fatuated; and an insurrection, headed the ferment of revolution before the by the boys at the university and the aroused indignation of the uncorrupted haberdashers'apprentices in the streets, part of mankind. The same passions overturned the imperial government, may again arise ; the same delusions and drove the Emperor to seek refuge again spread, as sin springs up afresh in the Tyrol. All Germany caught in successive generations of men; but the flame: the dreams of a few hotwe know the result. They will, like headed enthusiasts and professors the ways of the unrighteous, be again seemed to prevail alike over the diccrushed.

tates of wisdom and tbe lessons of So rapid was the succession of re- experience; and, amidst the transvolutions, when the tempest assailed ports of millions the chimera of the world last spring, that no human German unity seemed abont to be power seemed capable of arresting it; realised by the sacrifice of all its means and the thoughtful looked on in mourn- of independence. The balance of ful and impotent silence, as they would power in Europe appeared irrevohave done on the decay of nature or cably destroyed by the breaking the ruin of the world. The Pope up of its central and most imporbegan the career of innovation : de- tant powers,—and England, in the crees of change issued from the Vati- midst of the general ruin, seemed can; and men beheld with amazement rocking to its foundation. The Charthe prodigy of the Supreme Pontiff- tists were in raptures, the Irish rethe head of the unchangeable Church bels in ecstasy: threatening meetings ---standing forth as the leader of po- were held in every town in Great litical reform. Naples quickly caught Britain ; armed clubs were organised the flame: a Sicilian revolution in the whole south and west of Irethreatened to sever one-half of their land ; revolution was openly talked of dominions from the Neapolitan Bour- in both islands, and the close of harvest bon; and internal revolt seemed to announced as the time when the Brirender his authority merely nominal tish empire was to be broken up, and

Anglian and Hibernian republics esta- the moral as well as in the material blished, in close alliance with the great world. As much as the vehement parent democracy in France. Amidst passions, the selfish desires, the insuch extraordinary and unprecedented experienced zeal, the expanding convulsions, it was with difficulty that energy, the rapacious indigence, the a few courageous or far-seeing minds mingled virtues and vices of man, preserved their equilibrium ; and even lead at stated periods to the explosions those who were least disposed to of revolution, -do the desire of trandespair of the fortunes of the species, quillity, the interests of property, could see no end to the succession of the horror at cruelty, the lessons of disasters with which the world was experience, the force of religion, the menaced but in a great exertion of bitterness of suffering, reinduce the the renovating powers of nature, desire of order, and restore the influsimilar to that predicted, in a similar ence of its organ, government. If we catastrophe, for the material world, contemplate the awful force of the by the imagination of the poet. expansive powers which, issuing from “Roll on, ye stars ! exult in youthful prime, the great mass of central heat

, find Mark with bright curves the printless steps

vent in the fiery channels of the volof Time!

cano, and have so often rent asunder Near and more near your beaming cars the solid crust of the earth, we may approach,

well tremble to think that we stand And lessening orbs on lessening orbs encroach. suspended, as it were, over such an Flowers of the sky! ye, too, to Fate must yield,

abyss, and that at no great distance Frail as your silken sisters of the field ; beneath our feet the elements of uniStar after star, from heaven's high arch shall versal conflagration are to be found.*

rush, Suns sink on suns, and systems systems crush;

But, strong as are the expansive Headlong, extinct, to one dark centre fall,

powers of nature, the coercive are And Dark, and Night, and Chaos, mingle all; still stronger. The ocean exists to Till, o'er the wreck, emerging from the bridle with its weight the fiery gulf ; storm,

the arch of the earth has been solidly Immortal Nature lifts her changeful form, constructed by its Divine architect; Mounts from her funeral pyre on wings of and the only traces we now discover,

flame, And soars and shines, another and the same."* in most parts of this globe, of the yet

raging war of the elements, are the But the destiny of man, not less than twisted strata, which mark, as it were, that of the material world, is balanced the former writhings of matter in the action and reaction, not restoration terrible grasp of its tormentors, or from ruin. Order is preserved in a the splintered pinnacles of mountains, way which the imagination of the which add beauty to the landscape, poet could not have conceived. Even or the smiling plains, which bring in the brief space which has elapsed happiness to the abodes of man. It is since the convulsions began in Italy the same in the moral world. Action in January last, the reality and cease- and reaction are the law of mind as less action of the preserving laws of well as matter, and the equilibrium of nature have been demonstrated. The social life is preserved by the opposite balance is preserved in social life by tendency of the interests which are contending passions and interests, as in brought into collision, and the counterthe physical world by opposite forces, acting force of the passions which are under circumstances when, to all successively awakened by the very buman appearance, remedy is impos- convulsions which seem to menace sible and hope extinguished. The society with dissolution. orbit of nations is traced out by the A year has not elapsed since the wisdom of Providence not less clearly revolutionary earthquake began to than that of the planets ; there are heave in Italy, since the volcano centripetal and centrifugal forces in burst forth in Paris ; and how marvel

DARWIN, Botanic Garden. * “ Thirty-five miles below the surface of the earth, the central heat is everywhere so great, that granite itself is held in fusion."--HUMBOLDT, Cosmos, i. 273.

lous is the change which already has tendency and abominable iniquity of taken place in the state of Europe! the votaries of revolution in Germany; The star of Austria, at first defeated, and to the sufferings of the martyrs and apparently about to be extin- of revolutionary tortures on the banks guished in Italy, is again in the of the Maine, the subsequent overascendant. Refluent from the Mincio throw of anarchy in Vienna and to the Ticino, her armies have again Berlin is in a great degree to be entered Milan, — the revolutionary ascribed. They roused the_vacillatusurpation of Charles Emanuel has ing cabinets of Austria and Prussiabeen checked almost as soon as it they sharpened the swords of Windcommenced; and the revolutionary ischgratz and Jellachich-they nerved rabble of Lombardy and Tuscany the souls and strengthened the arms has filed, as it was wont, before of Brandenberg and Wrangel—they the bayonets of Germany. Ra- awakened anew the chord of honour detzky has extinguished revolution and loyalty in the Fatherland. The in northern Italy. If it still lingers national airs have been again heard in the south of the peninsula, it is in Berlin ; Vienna has been regained only because the strange and tortuous after a desperate conflict; the state policy of France and England has of siege has been proclaimed in both interfered to arrest the victorious capitals; and order re-established in arms of Naples on the Sicilian shores. both monarchies, amidst an amount Paris has been the theatre of a dread- of private suffering and general ful struggle, blood has flowed in tor- misery—the necessary result of revorents in its streets, slaughter unheard- lutions—which absolutely sickens the of stained its pavements, but order heart to contemplate. England has has in the end prevailed over anarchy. emerged comparatively unscathed A dynasty has been subverted, but from the strife; her time-honoured the Red Republicans have been institutions have been preserved, her defeated, more generals have perished monarchy saved amidst the crash of in a conflict of three days than nations. Queen Victoria is still upon at Waterloo ; but the Faubourg the throne; our mixed constitution St Antoine has been subdued, the is intact; the dreams of the Chartists socialists have been overthrown, have been dispelled ; the rebellion of the state of siege has been pro- the Irish rendered ridiculous ; the claimed ; and, amidst universal suf- loyalty of the great body of the people fering, anguish, and


with in Great Britain made manifest. three hundred thousand persons out The period of immediate danger is of employment in Paris, and a de- over; for the attack of the populace ficit of £20,000,000 in the income of is like the spring of a wild beast-if the year, the dreams of equality have the first onset fails, the savage animal disappeared in the reality of military slinks away into its den. General dospotism. It is immaterial whether suffering indeed prevails, industry the head of the government is called languishes, credit is all but destroyed, a president, a dictator, or an emperor- a woful deficiency of exports has whether the civic crown is worn by a taken place--but that is the ineviNapoleon or a Cavaignac-in either table result of popular commotions ; case the ascendant of the army is and we are suffering, in part at established, and France, after a brief least, under the effects of the instruggle for a constitutional monarchy, sanity of nations less free and more his terminated, like ancient Rome, in inexperienced than ourselves. Though an elective military despotism. last, not least in the political lessons

Frankfort has been disgraced by of this marvellous year, the papal frightful atrocities. The chief seat government has been subverted-a of German unity and freedom has second Rienzi has appeared in Rome; been stained by cruelties which find a and the Supreme Pontiff, who began parallel only in the inhuman usages of the movement, now a fugitive from his The American savages; but the terrible dominions, has exhibited a memorlesson has not been read in vain. It able warning to future ages, of the produced a reaction over the world; peril of commencing reforms in it opened the eyes of men to the real high places, and the impossibility of


reconciling the Roman Catholic re- broken loose from the control of ligion with political innovation. divine and human laws. Fear and

But let it not be imagined that, anxiety have clouded the faces, and because the immediate danger is over, depressed the hearts of millions; and because military power bas, after trade has been suspended, and ina fierce struggle, prevailed in the dustry paralysed; the rich have principal capitals of Europe, that become poor, and the poor poorer. therefore the ultimate peril is past, Doctrines hostile to all sciences, to and that men have only to sit down, all arts, to all industry, to all domestic under the shadow of their fig-tree, to charity-doctrines which, if carried cultivate the arts and enjoy the into effect, would in thirty years undo blessings of peace. Such is not the all that thirty centuries have done for destiny of man in any, least of all mankind, and would make the fairest in a revolutionary age. We are rather provinces of France or Germany as on the verge of an era similar to that savage as Guiana or Patagonia-have deplored by the poet :

been avowed from the tribune, and

defended by the sword. Europe has “ Bella per Emathios plusquam civilia

been threatened with subjugation by campos, Jusque datum sceleri canimus, populumque barbarians, compared with whom the potentem

barbarians who marched under Attila In sua victrici conversum viscera dextrâ ; Alboin were enlightened and Cognatasque acies ; et rupto fædera regni humane. The truest friends of the Certatum totis concussi viribus orbis, In commune nefas."*

people have with deep sorrow owned,

that interests more precious than any Who can tell the immeasurable political privileges were in jeopardy, extent of misery and wretchedness, and that it might be necessary to sacriof destruction of property among the fice even liberty to save civilisation.”+ rich, and ruin of industry among the It is now just a year since Mr Cobpoor, that must take place before the den announced, to an admiring and fierce passions, now so generally believing audience at Manchester, awakened, are allayed—before the that the age of warfare had ceased; visions of a virtuous republic by that the contests of nations had Lamartine, or the dreams of commu- passed, like the age of the mastodon nism by Louis Blanc and Ledru- and the mammoth; that the steamRollin, or the insane ideas of the engine had caused the arms to drop Frankfort enthusiasts have ceased to from her hands, and the interests of move mankind ? The fire they have free trade extinguished the rivalries let loose will burn fiercely for centuries; of nations; and that nothing now it will alter the destiny of nations for remained but to sell our ships of war, ages; it will neither be quenched, like disband our troops, cut twenty milordinary flames, by water, por sub- lions off our taxation, and set ourdued, like the Greek fire, by vine- selves unanimously to the great gar : blood alone will extinguish work of cheapening everything, and its fury. The coming convulsious underselling foreign competitors in may well be prefigured from the past, the market of the world. Scarcely as they have been recently drawn by were the words spoken, when conthe band of a master :-" All around flicts more dire, battles more bloody, us, the world is convulsed by the dissensions more inextinguishable agonies of great nations; govern- than bad ever arisen from the rivalry ments which lately seemed likely to of kings, or the ambition of ministers, stand during ages, have been on a broke out in almost every country of sudden shaken and overtbrown. The Europe. The social supplanted the proudest capitals of western Europe national passions. Within the bosom have streamed with civil blood. All of society itself, the volcano had evil passions—the thirst of gain and burst forth. It was no longer general the thirst of vengeance-the antipathy that was matched against general, as of class to class, of race to race—have in the wars, of Marlborough, nor

* Lucan, i. 1-6.

+ Macaulay's History of England, vol. ii. p. 669.

nation that rose up against nation, as monstrated the wisdom of the Allied in those of Napoleon. The desire of powers, who placed the lawful monrobbery, the love of dominion, the archs of France on the throne in 1815, lust of conquest, the passion for plun- and the enormous error of the liberal der, were directed to domestic acqui- party in France, which conspired with sitions. Human iniquity reappeared the republicans to overthrow the in worse, because less suspected and Bourbon dynasty in 1830. That fatal more delusive colours. Robbery as- step has bequeathed a host of evils to sumed the guise of philanthropy; Europe: it has loosened the authority spoliation was attempted, under colour of government in all countries; it has of law; plunder was systematically put the very existence of freedom in set about, by means of legislative peril by the enormity of the calamities enactments. Revolution resumed its which it has brought in its train. All old policy—that of rousing the pas- parties in France are now agreed sions by the language of virtue, and that the period of the Restoration directing them to the purposes of vice. was the happiest, and the least corThe original devil was expelled; but rupted, that has been known since straightway he returned with seven the first Revolution. The republicans other devils, and the last state of the of the present day tell us, with a man was worse than the first. Society sigh, that the average budgets of the was armed against itself; the devas- three last years of Charles X. were tating passions burned in its own 900,000,000 francs, (£36,000,000 ;) bosom; class rose against class, that the expenditure was raised by race against race, interest against Louis Philippe at once to 1500,000,000 interest. Capital fancied its interest francs, (£60,000,000 ;) and that was to be promoted by grinding down under the Republic it will exceed labour; labour, that its rights extend- 1800,000,000 francs, (£72,000,000.) ed to the spoliation of capital. A There can be no doubt of the fact ; more attractive object than the rednc- and there can be as little, that if the tion of a city, or the conquest of a Red Republicans had succeeded in the province, was presented to indigent insurrection of June last, the annual cupidity. Easier conquests than over expenditure would have increased to rival industry were anticipated by £100,000,000—or rather, a universal moneyed selfishness. The spoliation spoliation of property would bave enof the rich at their own door-the sued. Louis Blanc has given the division of the property of which they world, in his powerful historical work, were jealous, became the dream of a graphic picture of the universal corpopular ambition ; the beating down ruption, selfishness, and immorality, of their own labourers by free-trade, in public and private life, which perthe forcible reduction of prices by vaded France during the reign of a contraction of the currency—the Louis Philippe. * Though drawn by great object of the commercial aristo- the hand of a partisan, there can be cracy. War reassumed its pristine no doubt that the picture is too faithferocity. In the nineteenth cen- ful in most of its details, and exhibits tury, the ruthless maxim-Væ victis ! an awful proof of the effects of a sucbecame the war-cry on both sides in cessful revolution. But the misery the terrible civil war which burst which Louis Blanc has so ably depictforth in an age of general philan- ed, the corruptions he has brought to thropy. It may beconceived what pas- light, under the revolutionary monarsions must have been awakened, what chy, have been multiplied fourfold by terrors inspired, what indignation those which have prevailed during the aroused by such projects. But though last year in the republic established we have seen the commencement of by Louis Blanc himself ! the era of social conflicts, is there any Paris, ever since the suppression of man now alive who is likely to see the great insurrection in June last, its end?

has been in such a state, that it is the Experience has now completely de- most utter mockery to call it freedom.

* Louis Blanc, Histoire de Dix ans de Louis Philippe, iii. 321, et seq.

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