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comrades, picked off on the previous with characteristic stubbornness, in the march. We are not told that the teeth of public opinion, of the French crime was brought home to the per- government, of common sense, and petrators, or visited upon them. If even of possibility. He proposed to it was, Mr Borrer makes no mention take, during ten years, one hundred and of the fact, but passes on, as if the twenty thousand recruits from the conburning of a few villages were a trifle scription, and to settle them in Africa, scarce worth notice. How were the with their wives. He estimated the Kabyles to distinguish between the expense of this scheme at twelve milacts of the private soldier and of the lions sterling. His opponents stated epauleted chief? Their submission its probable cost at four times that had just been accepted, and friendly sum. Whichever estimate was corwords spoken to them: their sheikh rect, it is not worth while examining rode beside the gray-haired leader of the plan, which for a moment was the Christians, and marked the appa- entertained by a government comrent subordination of the white-faced mission, but has since been comsoldiery. Suddenly a gross violation pletely abandoned. It presupposes occurred of the amicable understand- an extraordinary and arbitrary stretch ing so recently come to. How per- of power on the part of the governsuade them that the submissive and ment that should adopt such a disciplined soldiers they saw around system of compulsory colonisation. them would venture such breach of We are surprised to find Mr Borrer faith without the sanction or conni- inclined to favour the exploded plan. vance of their commander ? The General Lamoricière (the terrible offence is that of an insignificant sen- Bour-à-boi of the Arabs, *) proposed tinel, but the dirt falls upon the beard to give premiums to agriculturists of Bugeaud; and confidence in the settling in Algeria, at the rate of promises of the lying European is twenty-five per cent of their expenses thoroughly and for ever destroyed. of clearing, irrigation, construction,

A colony, whose mode of acquisi- and plantation. But M. Lamoricière tion and of government, up to the -a very practical man indeed, with present time, reflects so little credit his sabre in his fist, and at the head upon French arms and administrators, of his Zouaves—is a shallow theorist ought certainly to yield pecuniary in matters of colonisation. The staff results or advantages of some kind, of surveyors, valuers, and referees which, in a mercenary point of view, essential to carry out his project, would might balance the account. France alone have been a heavy additional surely did not place her reputation charge on the unprofitable colony. for humanity and justice in the hands - M. Lamoricière,

says M. Des of Marshal Bugeaud and of others of jobert, “ was one of the warmest adhis stamp, without anticipating some vocates of the occupation of Bougie,” sort of compensation for its probable (a seaport of Kabylie,) “and partly deterioration. Such expectations have directed, in 1833, that fatal expedihitherto been wholly unfulfilled; and tion.” (Fatal, M. Desjobert means, we really see little chance of their by reason of its subsequent cost in probable or speedy realisation. The men and money. The town was colony is as unpromising, as the colo- taken by a small force on the 29th nists are inapt to improve it. The September 1833.) “ The soldiers fact is, the work of colonisation has were then told that their mission was not begun. The French are utterly agricultural rather than military, that at a loss how to set about it. All they would have to handle the pick kinds of systems have been proposed. and the spade more frequently than Bugeaud has had his-that of military the musket. The unfortunates have colonisation, which he maintained, certainly handled pick and spade; but

"General Lamoricière habitually carries a stick. This has procured him, from the Arabs, the name of the Père-au-băton, (the father with the stick :) Bour-a-boé. One of his orderly officers, my friend and comrade Captain Bentzman, gives Araouah as the proper orthography of Bour-d-boi. We have followed Escoffier's pronunciation.” --Captivité d'Escoffier, vol. i. p. 30.

it was to dig in that immense cemetery Algeria. And now the odious English which, each day, swallows up their cottons are an obstacle to the procomrades. Already, in 1836, General sperity of the colony. To sell a few d'Erlon, ex-governor of Algiers, de- more bales of French calicoes and manded the evacuation of Bongie, crates of French hardware, the wise which had devoured, in three years, men at Paris put an effectual check three thousand men and seven millions upon the progress of African agriculof francs." The demand was not ture. Here, if anywhere, free-trade complied with, and Bougie has con- might be introduced with advantage; tinued to consume more than its quota in common necessaries, at any rate, of the six thousand men at which M. and for a few years, till the country Desjobert estimates the average an- became peopled, and the colonists had nual loss, by disease alone, of the overcome the first difficulties of their African army. Bougie has not position. It would make very little flourished under the tricolor. In for- difference to Rouen and Lyons, whilst mer times a city of great riches and to the settlers it would practically importance, it still contained several work more good than would have been thousand inhabitants when taken by done them by M. Lamoricière's subthe French. At the period of Mr vention, supposing this to have been Borrer's visit, it reckoned a popula- adopted, and that the heavily-taxed tion of five hundred, exclusive of the agriculturist of France—in many parts garrison of twelve hundred men. To of which country land pays but two return, however, to the systems of and a half or three per cent - had colonisation. When the generals had consented to pay additional imposts for had their say, it was the turn of the the benefit of the agriculturist of Alcommissions; the commission of geria. In the beginning, the notion Africa, that of the Chamber of of the French government was, that Deputies, &c. There was no lack of its new conquest would colonise itself projects; but none of them answered. unassisted ; that there would be a The colonial policy of the Orleans natural and steady flow of emigrants government was eminently short- from the mother country. In any sighted. This is strikingly shown in case this expectation would probably Mr Borrer's 14th chapter, " A Word have proved fallacious—at least it upon the Colony.” Of the fertile plain would never have been realised to the of the Metidja, containing about a extent anticipated; but the small enmillion and a half acres of arable and couragement given to such emigration, pasture land, a very small portion is rendered it utterly abortive. The cultivated. The French found a gar- stream” of settlers proved a mere den; they have made a desert. “Be- dribble. Security and justice, Mr fore the French occupation, vast tracts Thiers said, were all that France owed which now lie waste, sacrificed to her colony. Even these two things palmetta and squills, were cultivated were not obtained, in the full sense of by the Arabs, who grew far more corn the words. The centralisation system than was required for their own con- weighed upon Algeria. Everything sumption; whereas now, they grow was referred to Paris. Hence interbarely sufficient: the consequence of minable correspondence, and delays which is, that the price of corn is enor- innumerable. In the year 1846, Mr mous in Algeria at present." Land Borrer says, twenty-four thousand is cheap enough, but labour is dear, despatches were received by the civil because the necessaries of life are so. administration from the chief bureau Instead of making Algiers a free port, in the French capital, in exchange for protection to French manufactures is twenty-eight thousand sent. Instead the order of the day, and this has of imparting all possible celerity to driven Arab commerce to Tunis and the administrative forms requisite to Morocco. Rivalry with England, the establishment of emigrants, these the feverish desire for colonies and for must often wait a year or more before the supremacy of the seas—must un- they are put in possession of the land questionably be ranked amongst the granted. Meanwhile they expend motives of the tenacious retention their resources, and are enervated by of such an expensive possession as idleness and disease. The climate of

and,

North Africa is ill-adapted to French period, an Algiers newspaper (La constitutions. M. Desjobert has al- France Algérienne) estimated the ready told us the average loss of the European agriculturists at 7000, twoarmy, and General Duvivier, in his thirds of whom were mere marketSolution de la Question d'Algérie, fully gardeners. corroborated his statements. " A It is unnecessary to multiply proofs; man,” said the general, “ whose con- and we will here conclude this imperstitution is not in harmony with the fect sketch of Franco-African coloniclimate of Africa, never adapts him- sation, of its crimes, its errors, and self to it; he suffers, wastes away, its cost, by extracting a rather reand dies. The expression, that a markable passage from a writer we mass of men who have been for some have more than once referred to, and time in Africa have become inured to who, although perhaps disposed to the climate, is inexact. They have view things in Algeria upon the not become inured to it; they have black side, is yet deserving of credit, been decimated by death. The climate as well by his position as by reason is a great sieve, which allows a rapid of his painstaking research passage to everything that is not of a so far as we have verified them, accucertain force.” Supposing 100,000 rate statistics. men sent from France to Algeria for “The colonists cannot deny," says six years' service. At the end of Monsieur Desjobert in his Algérie en that time, their loss by disease alone, 1846," and they admit: at the rate of six per cent-proved “1o. That Europe alone maintains by M. Desjobert to be the annual the 200,000 Europeans in Algeria. In average-would amount to upwards of 1846 we are compelled to repeat what 30,000, or to more than three-tenths of General Bernard, minister of war, the whole. The emigrants fare no better. said in 1838: Algeria resembles a “ They look for milk and honey," naked rock, which it is necessary to says Borrer : “ they find palmetta and supply with everything, except air disease. The villages scattered about and water.' the Sahel or Massif of Algiers (a “2o. That so long as we remain high ground at the back of the city, in this precarious situation, a naval forming a rampart between the Me- war, by interrupting the communicatidja and the Mediterranean) are, tions, would compromise the safety of with one or two exceptions, a type

In 1846 we repeat M. of desolation. Perched upon the Thiers' words, uttered in 1837 : If most arid spots, distant from water, war surprises you in the state of in. the poor tenants lie sweltering be- decision in which you are, I say that tween sun and sirocco.” A Mississippi the disgraceful evacuation of Africa swamp must be as eligible “squatting" will be inevitable.' ground as this—Arabs instead of alli- “ M. Thiers did not speak the gators, and the Algerine fever in whole truth when he talked of evaplace of Yellow Jack. “At the gates cuation. In such an extremity, evaof Algiers, in the villages of the cuation would be impossible. Our Sahel," said the" Algérie" newspaper army would perish of misery, and its of the 22d December 1845, “ the colo- remnant would fall into the hands of nists desert, driven away by hunger. the enemy." If any remain, it is because they Another enemy than the Arabs is have no strength to move. In the here evidently pointed at; that posplain of the Metidja, the misery and sible foe is now a friend to France, and desolation are greater still. At Fon- we trust will long remain so. But on douck, in the last five months, 120 many accounts the sentences we have persons have died, out of a popula- just quoted are significant, as protion of 280.". The reporter to the ceeding from the pen of a French deCommission of the French budget of puty. They need no comment, and 1837 (Monsieur Bignon) admitted that we shall offer none. We wait with “ the results of the colonisation are interest to see if France's African almost negative.” He could not ob- colony prospers better under the Retain, he said, an estimate of the public of 1848 than it did under agricultural population. At the same the Monarchy of 1830.

our army.

THE CAXTONS.

PART IX.-CHAPTER XXXIX. AND my father pushed aside his books. at least made a sensation. But if

O young reader, whoever thou art,- you had all the snows of the Gramor reader, at least, who hast been young, pians in your heart, you might enter

- canst thou not remember some time unnoticed : take care not to tread on when, with thy wild troubles and the toes of your opposite neighbour, Sorrows as yet borne in secret, thou and not a soul is disturbed, not hast come back from that hard, stern a “comforter" stirs an inch! I had world which opens on thee when thou not slept a wink, I had not even pattest thy foot out of the threshold laid down all that night—the night in of home-come back to the four quiet which I had said farewell to Fanny walls, wherein thine elders sit in Trevanion—and the next morning, peace and seen, with a sort of sad when the sun rose, I wandered outamaze, how calm and undisturbed where I know not. I have a dim recolall is there? That generation which lection of long, gray, solitary streetshas gone before thee in the path of of the river, that seemed flowing in dull the passions—the generation of thy silence, away, far away, into some inparents-(not so many years, per- visible eternity-trees and turf, and the chance, remote from thine own)-how gay voices of children. I must have immovably far off, in its still repose, gone from one end of the great Babel to it seems from thy turbulent youth! It the other: but my memory only became has in it a stillness as of a classic age, clear and distinct when I knocked, antique as the statues of the Greeks. somewhere before noon, at the door That tranquil monotony of routine of my father's house, and, passing into which those lives that preceded heavily up the stairs, came into the thee have merged—the occupations drawing-room, which was the rendezthat they have found sufficing for their vous of the little family; for, since happiness, by the fireside—in the arm. we had been in London, my father chair and corner appropriated to each - had ceased to have his study apart, and how strangely they contrast thine own contented himself with what he called feverish excitement! And they make "a corner"-a corner wide enough room for thee, and bid thee welcome, to contain two tables and a dumb and then resettle to their hushed pur- waiter, with chairs à discretion all suits, as if nothing had happened! littered with books. On the opposite Nothing had happened! while in thy side of this capacious corner sat my heart, perhaps, the whole world seems uncle, now nearly convalescent, and to have shot from its axis, all the he was jotting down, in his stiff milielements to be at war! And you sit tary hand, certain figures in a little red down, crushed by that quiet happiness account-book-for you know already which you can share no more, and that my uncle Roland was, in his exsmile mechanically, and look into the penses, the most methodical of men. fire ; and, ten to one, you say nothing My father's face was more benign till the time comes for bed, and you than usual, for, before him lay a proof take up your candle, and creep miser. -the first proof of his first work-his ably to your lonely room.

one work—the Great Book! Yes! it had Now, if in a stage coach in the depth positively found a press. And the first of winter, when three passengers are proof of your first work—ask any warm and snug, a fourth, all besnowed author what that is! My mother was and frozen, descends from the outside out, with the faithful Mrs Primmins, and takes place amongst them, shopping or marketing no doubt; so, straightway all the three passengers while the brothers were thus engaged, shift their places, uneasily pull up it was natural that my entrance should their cloak collars, re-arrange their not make as much noise as if it had " comforters,” feel indignantly a sen- been a bomb, or a singer, or a clap of sible loss of caloric—the intruder has thunder, or the last * great novel of VOL. LXV.-NO. CCCXCIX.

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the season," or anything else that with it, and it was singing lustily. made a noise in those days. For what Now, when the canary saw me standmakes a noise now? Now, when ing opposite to its cage, and regardthe most astonishing thing of all is ing it seriously, and, I have no doubt, in our easy familiarity with things with a very sombre aspect, the creaastounding—when we say, listlessly, ture stopped short, and hung its head “Another révolution at Paris," or, on one side, looking at me obliquely "By the bye, there is the deuce to do and suspiciously. Finding that I did at Vienna !"-when De Joinville is it no harm, it began to hazard a few catching fish in the ponds at Clare- broken notes, timidly and interrogamont, and you hardly turn back to tively, as it were, pausing between look at Metternich on the pier at each ; and at length, as I made no Brighton!

reply, it evidently thought it had My uncle nodded, and growled in- solved the doubt, and ascertained that distinctly; my father

I was more to be pitied than feared"Put aside his books; you have told for it stole gradually into so soft and us that already."

silvery a strain that, I verily believe, Sir, you are very much mistaken, it did it on purpose to comfort me! he did not put aside his books, for he me, its old friend, whom it had unjustwas not engaged in them-he was ly suspected. Never did any music reading his proof. And he smiled, touch me so home as did that long, and pointed to it (the proof I mean) plaintive cadence. And when the pathetically, and with a kind of bird ceased, it perched itself close humour, as much as to say-"What to the bars of the cage, and looked at can you expect, Pisistratus?-my new me steadily with its bright intelligent baby! in short clothes-orlong primer, eyes. I felt mine water, and I turned which is all the same thing !"

back and stood in the centre of the I took a chair between the two, and room, irresolute what to do, where to looked first at one, then at the other, go. My father had done with the and-heaven forgive me !-I felt a proof, and was deep in his folios. rebellious, ungrateful spite against Roland had clasped his red account both. The bitterness of my soul must book, restored it to his pocket, wiped have been deep indeed to have his pen carefully, and now watched overflowed in that direction, but it did. me from under his great beetle brows. The grief of youth is an abominable Suddenly he rose, and, stamping on egotist, and that is the truth. I got the hearth with his cork leg, exclaimed, up from the chair, and walked towards “Look up from those cursed books, the window; it was open, and outside brother Austin! What is there in the window was Mrs Primmins' cana- that lad's face ? Construe that, if you ry, in its cage. London air had agreed can !"

CHAPTER XL.

And my father pushed aside his Captain Roland, “will nobody say books, and rose hastily. He took off what is the matter ? Money, I suppose his spectacles, and rubbed them me--money, you confounded extravagant chanically, but he said nothing; and young dog. Luckily you have got an my uncle, staring at him for a moment, uncle who has more than he knows in surprise at his silence, burst out, what to do with. How much?-fifty?

“Oh! I see-he has been getting a hundred? two hundred ? How can I into some scrape, and you are angry! write the cheque, if you'll not speak?" Fie! young blood will have its way, “Hush, brother! it is no money Austin-it will. I don't blame that you can give that will set this right. it is only when-come here, Sisty! My poor boy ! have I guessed truly? Zounds! man, come here."

Did I guess truly the other evening, My father gently brushed off the when" captain's hand, and, advancing towards “Yes, sir, yes! I have been so me, opened his arms. The next mo- wretched. But I am better now I ment I was sobbing on his breast. can tell you all."

* But what is the matter?" cried My uncle moved slowly towards

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