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1821.] REVIEW.-Mahratta and Pindaree Campaign.
on their subjects. Our writer is sup ported by high authorities, when be
whose accoutrements, sword and dress. would nearly equal the weight of the man himself." P. 301.
We are sorry to say, that, accord
"Every subject of a native government is exposed not only to the imposing to our Author, there are very tion and severity of one ruler, but to every intermediate step between his humble post, as a peasant, and the foot of the throne, and to the throne itself. Has he a horse, the State requires it without compensation; is he able-bodied, he is called into service, without subsistence or provi
sion left for his family-he must himself look to plunder for his own support; has he a family, the fairest will be selected for the prince, and the next possibly for the minister; if he has money, he must take care of his life; and should he have rent to pay, and not the means, he may be put to the torture: in short, in the code of native Governments, the Prince is every thing, and all, and the subject nothing. It is no wonder, therefore, that these princes, seated upon their sandy thrones, and observing the advances and blessings diffused by the British, and dreading them as a contagion to their States, should have trembled at the sound of such a form of laws as one of impartial justice, and tried as the last resource to combine and shake off such an unwelcome connection. In all the reduced provinces we have seen amongst the inhabitants this feeling of general pride and gratitude to Heaven at their release from the bondage and insecurity of their own governments, and at their falling under ours. The natives now say,
We can wear our own clothes; we can now decorate our wives and children with the buried ornaments of their ancestors; we can now call our house our own; no petty tyrant of the village can now molest, no minister of lust can any longer pollute our families or our dwellings. We have long since heard of the Company, and all we fear is that they may again withdraw from the country, and leave us to our former masters.'" P. 277.
Such being the just character of our Indian Government, the next important question is the probable prospect of its permanency. The first and most serious danger would be the appearance from any quarter of a power or arm like our own (p. 295). There is little to be apprehended from the natives; for
"The Madras and Bombay Native corps are generally composed of men who are as fit for boxers as they are for soldiers; many of them not equalling in muscular strength an European boy of 12 years old, and scarcely able to stand the shock of their musquet. The whole of the Native cavalry on these establishments are subject to the same observation; many of
important defects in the Military establishment, but the judgment of King's officers is disputed. Native officers of family and respectability will not enter into our service, because they are precluded rising except from the ranks (p. 305), and our English officers are in the babit of obtaining extraneous situations, so that, when a regiment is called into action, there are few or no officers attached to it.
"With nearly 400 men [of the 1st Madras Infantry], there stood alone three lieutenants to their whole charge, each of them with two companies to look after, and the whole of the staff duties of the corps to be discharged and sustained by them in like manner."
This speaks volumes, as to the system in the Company's army: it may answer in a dead calm, but there is no need of remark, as to its total inefficiency, should there be any thing to be done.
Now, with the number of well-educated youths in the mother-country, who want situations, there can be no sound reason for a deficiency of officers, in the manner described.
Ignorance of the native language, very serious defects in the medical and camp departments, and a load of non-effectives, are among other very pressing evils which require reform. In short our Author considers the Sepoys, as, in the main, unfit for military life; and recommends (p. 328) the
"Introduction of another class of troops, to be composed of Seedees or Abyssinians, Arabs, Mukrannees, natives of Madagascar, of the Malay and French Islands, and even those remote in the West Indies."
This is said, to be mere opinion of a King's officer.
prominent aspect, in order that they We have given these remarks a may meet with attention in the proper quarters; and be divested of any party statement.
We have often thought seriously of the maxim of St. Paul," to do good unto all men, especially those who are of the household of faith," as a maxim fit for the consideration of all, who burn with zeal for the con
32 REVIEW. Dr. Trotter on manning the Navy.
* version of Heathens, and are lukewarm concerning the education and instruction of their fellow-countrymen. We are satisfied, that they are beginning where they ought to end; and that European habits and sciences ought to be first introduced. The préjudices of the natives will then gradually shift off of themselves. This, however, must be a work of time, and, unless by the interposition of Providence, cannot come about for centuries, in that country, but with loss and deterioration to the little moral character at present among them." The Hindoo is, at present, a harmless, simple, quiet character; by converting him to a nominal christian, we make him dissolute, drunken, and ungovernable; and form a banditti of dangerous vagabonds." P.288.
The following is the manner in which pence, shillings, and pounds, extracted from the pockets of good people who can ill afford it, are shamefully wasted. The money raised, answers no better purpose than that anciently given to images and shrines:
"The zeal of the Missionaries will not be restrained by natural impossibilities. They seem to think, that the dispersion of the Gospel in the Chinese, Sanscrit, Hindoostanee, or Malay, amongst the people, is sufficient for the proposed object; and, as they deal out these to the Presidents and Magistrates of the different places, they consequently set down their converts and their work, in proportion to the number dispersed. We have ourselves observed, at more Presidencies to the Eastward than one, where scarce a vessel arrived without bringing a box or package of the above books, in the Chinese language, to the President, who was requested to disperse them, and did so far as was in his power. He sent them to all quarters, by bundles of hundreds at a time. The Chinese looked at them, and said they had finer stories of their own; for there was no person amongst them to describe the intention or purport of these books. They did not know, why they were sent, whether for entertainment or moral improvement; and seeing so many copics, they latterly threw them aside altogether, and the above President could disperse no more. Nevertheless, the fervid zeal of the Malacca Missionary heaped them on him ship after ship; and they at length acquired such a mass in his office, that he was compelled to remove them to an outoffice, and several thousand copies of that description were handed over to the Dutch authorities, in whose hands we are sure
they will never bear much fruit. This was the Missionary of whom we read in an English paper, a few years ago, as having written home to the Missionary Bible Society for three hundred millions of Bibles, or
copies of the Acts!!! In the above manner he could easily get rid of even that number, by delivering them, as ballast, or turning them out of doors without an index or monitor to explain them." Pp. 286, 287.
The Pindaree campaign was a mere war against banditti; and having thus taken grand points, we recommend the work to our Readers, as an instructive book.
A Practicable Plan for manning the Royal Navy, and preserving our maritime Ascendancy without Impressment; addressed to Admiral Lord Viscount Exmouth, K. G. B. By Thomas Trotter, M. D. late Physician to the Grand Fleet, &c. &c. Newcastle, 8vo. 1819, pp. 90. Longman, &c.
Dr. Trotter observes (p. 4), that impressment is the cause of more destruction to the health and lives of our Seamen, than all other causes put together. This general datum he exhibits by various luminous details; and recommends, instead of the present system of impressing men, a requisition founded upon the same principle, as Mr. Pitt's well-known Parish Bill. We know, that the impress plan would be gladly abolished, if any other could be substituted, which would supply men with equal speed upon emergency; and we also know, that seamen dislike the King's service, probably on account of the inferior pay, and the necessary discipline, which in merchant-vessels they escape.
Trotter, in addition to his plan, the We beg to suggest to Dr. supply of boys from parishes, who should, by a power of law, be placed for nautical education, during peace, on board our merchant-ships, the number being regulated according to tonnage, such persons being transferable, till a certain age, to his Majesty's service in time of war.
"A Seaman's duty," says Dr. Trotter, "cannot be learned in less than seven years, or after twenty-one years of age. He must be accustomed to it from boyhood, for no adult being can ever be brought to endure the privations, dangers, aud hardships, which are inseparable from a sea-life." P. 38.
We also think, that it would be an inducement for seamen to enter as volunteers,
1821.] REVIEW.-Bp.Stillingfleet on Amusements of Clergy. $3
volunteers, if service for a certain number of years, on board a King's ship, was an exemption for life; except under the circumstance of an enemy's fleet upon the coast, with intentions of invasion.
7. On the Amusements of Clergymen, and Christians in general. In three Dialogues between a Dean and a Curate. By Edward Stillingfleet, Lord Bishop of Worcester. 8vo, pp. 181. Sherwood and Co.
always in a short cassock, under his
"When I was a young man," says the
These Dialogues contain many vaall, but particularly to Clergymen, as luable hints which may be useful to their habits-their company-their tending to make their amusements Bur-dress-and their profession, all agree.
WHEN Dr. Josiah Frampton's library was sold in London (in 1729 or 1730), his divinity books were classed in seven lots, one of which was purchased by Dr. Edwards. The catalogue of this lot mentioned a parcel of MSS. Among them Doctor E. found one in Dr. Frampton's own hand-writing, which is here given to the publick. It consists of three Dialogues between that truly venerable man Dr. Edward Stillingfleet, then Dean of St. Paul's, and Mr. Frampton, at the seat of Sir Roger goin, in Warwickshire. Mr. Frampton, then a very young clergyman, 8. was fond of country diversions, hunting, a ramble in the woods with his gun, or a game of cards, and a dance in the evening. This was observed by the worthy Dean, who was friendly enough to give him hints with regard to his conduct, which were not lost upon him; more particularly in the three Dialogues which are here published, as they were committed to writing at the time by Mr. Frampton. The First Dialogue is an excellent dissuasive from riotous and cruel Amusements.
The Second Dialogue is aimed against the trifling and seducing ones of Cards and Gaming; the Theatre, as it was then (and indeed is now) conducted; Assemblies, and Dancing. The Third Dialogue speaks of the lawful Amusements of Clergymen.
The following extract shews the worthy Bishop's ideas on the dress proper of a Clergyman, a subject which has been a good deal discussed by some of our Correspondents:
I think it an argument of great lightness in a Clergyman to endeavour, as far as he can, to adopt the lay habit. He shows he has embraced his own profession only for reasons of convenience, and in his heart dislikes its restraints. I should wish to have every Clergyman, especially when in full orders, obliged to appear
On the Excellence and Mismanagement of Friendly Societies. A Sermont, preached at Fenny-Stratford (Bucks), on WhitMonday, 1818. By the Rev. Richard Pain, A. B. 8vo, pp. 16. Manning, Newport Pagnel.
FRIENDLY Societies form one of the strongest links that unite the lower orders in friendship and goodwill; but, like all institutions, are open to misconception and mismanagement. Little benefit can arise to the people from their meeting merely to celebrate a festival, and the publicity of their assemblies, by which the original plan of the Society is rendered of no effect. Mr. Pain has, therefore, stepped forward to correct abuses, arising from benevolent intentions, with a care for their prosperity not always compatible with such amendments.
"The following pages (he says) were hastily drawn up, in fulfilment of a duty I had to perform some days ago, at the meeting of a Friendly Society at FennyStratford and the readiness which immediately appeared to correct the abuses animadverted on, has induced me to make them more public, solely in the hope, that what has been useful in one instance,
* The Origines Sacræ, which the Dean had just been correcting. + Text, 1 Cor. i. 10.
REVIEW.-Mr. Pain on Benefit Societies.
may be so in another; and that the good example of these poor men may have an influence in similar establishments, and even have the good fortune to interest some person of abilities to direct his attention to these mismanaged but excellent institutions." P. iii.
The advocates for Banks for Savings are numerous, and many excellent treatises to that effect have appeared in print; but the welfare of Friendly Societies has been an object to few not immediately connected with them. Besides, they are frequently established under the guidance of persons, well-meaning, but not calculated to direct the economy of parishes or towns; for want, there fore, of some superior inspection, abuses creep into these beneficent institutions, of which its members are either not aware, or unable to amend. We consider great praise as due to Mr. Pain, for thus stepping forward, and endeavouring to remedy those abuses without altering the institution, and (as frequently occurs) nullifying the original system.
Few of our Readers, we believe, are acquainted with the system of Benefit Societies; they know that such establishments exist, and the late mania for addressing has brought some of them into notice: they know, from the instance alluded to, that they have been made the vehicle for disloyalty, and such transactions are apt to convey ideas very different from the actual truth. The state of morals in the London populace is such, as to require these excellent institutions, and much good has arisen from them; but they may be perverted in a manner, of which people in the country have no idea. After stating the objections to the Poor Laws, our Author proceeds to the question, why so little encouragement is given to Benefit Societies?
"Neither Charity nor Religion could have been present at the formation of your articles, which seem to have been framed in the bar of a public-house, for the benefit of the keeper of it, and the enjoy ment of a few members in the neighbourhood. Threepence a month from every member to be spent-in affording the means of an idle and sottish indulgence to a few members who live near where the meeting is held. These monthly meetings are the source of every thing irregular and disorderly. They have given disgust to the real friends of the poor, and
to the willing supporters of every measure that can tend to their welfare or improvement. Abandon then, without hesitation, a rule that has so pernicious a tendency. Apply the three shillings a year to the purchase of some necessary article for your families, or let them be added to increase the general fund." Pp. 12, 13.
The most loose calculation will shew how large a sum has for several years been wasted in this manner; as well as in the allowing of a guinea to such as attend the funeral of a member: he deprecates not only this unnecessary expence, but the custom itself, which he considers as auswering no good purpose. In this point alone, we beg leave to differ from him, for we consider the reverence thus paid to the memory of the deceased, as one of the strongest links of the Society, although we think the allowance or remuneration as unnecessary and wasteful.
In the preface, he thus states the good consequences of his advice:
"The monthly meetings in the Society, to which I allude, have been abolished; a resolution has passed to discontinue the attendance of members at funerals; aud fine within moderate limits, the expenses every disposition has been shown, to conof the annual meeting. With such regulations, the union of poor men deserves every encouragement." P. iii.
We take leave of Mr. Pain and his labours, with the gratification that naturally arises from perusing any excellent plan for the bettering of the lower orders; he can scarcely be said to have addressed himself to the world, as this Sermon was drawn up for a small circle, and is uninteresting to such as do not enter into his wishes; but as he has planned the comfort of the poor, his reward must be such as is not in the power of criticism to confer.
Vision the First; Hades, or the Regions, inhabited by the departed Spirits of the Blessed. 12mo, pp. 110. Rivingtons.
THE Address of Christ to the Penitent Thief, "this day shalt thou be with me in Paradise," has been considered as irreconcileable with any other doctrine than that of an Intermediate State. Setting aside the Popish Purgatory, as a Heathen hypothesis, adopted from ideas of lucrative quackery, Broughton first led the way two centuries ago, by stating that Hell, in our translation of the
Creed, meant the Grave; whereas Hades, is not the grave, or terrestrial receptacle, on one hand, or the Gehenna of Scripture, the final place of Torment on the other, but a region distinct from both. The Saxon My. thology and Language supplied no proper word for the Asiatick Paradise, or Grecian Hades; and the Heaven of Odin, was suited to the ideas of his followers, luxurious viands, and hard-drinking. Of animated, perfectionated Being, abstract ed from sensual, feeding, or decaying matter, they had no idea; nor could they have a conception of pleasures of the ear and the eye, and a delighted imagination personified and self-existing, though they felt that Musick, Vision, and Fancy, were pleasurable things. Of course, Hell was the sole word in use, conveying one simple idea that of the final place of suffering.
The Work before us is learned and able, and comprises all that can be known of the intermediate state; and, if Hope gives us no more than the flower in bud, Faith may, in its holy anticipation, present it to the mind's eye in its full growth. To the discussion in p. 86, concerning the Soul, we object, as scholastical and metaphysical. It proceeds upon a manifest psychological error, the confusion of animation, conferred upon matter, with inert matter, the musical sound with the catgut string, a superinduced quality with the subject, which does not contain it.
IN the days of Owen Feltham (17th cent.) it was not unusual for Casuists, real or pretended, to advertise in the Newspapers their ability to resolve Cases of Conscience; and thus, without feeling any qualms on account of the obvious variety of such annunciations, to invite Clients to take their opinions, like those of Counsel learned in the Law. From the necessity of such a knowledge in Confessors under the Romish religion, and the numerous subdivisions and splitting of hairs in the Sermons of our early
Protestant Divines, it is plain, that Chaplains and men of knowledge, who were domesticated with our Nobility and Gentry, were expected to possess the science alluded to; and it is probable, that to the study of this science we owe this book, and to the public taste of the day its passing through so many editions.
The manner of treating moral subjects, in these æras, is not philosophical, nor the style classical. To the moderns, there is a quaintness of expression, which often renders the matter not intelligible without study, and very often there is exhibited only an obscure comprehension of the idea stated. This is a common failing, where the ideas are not simply drawn from nature, but from a mind peculiarly tinctured with certain studies and these were Polemicks, the Fathers, School Divinity, Cicero, and, more rarely, some other classicks. In clearness of head, and soundness of judgment, and conclusive reasoning, and masterly deduction, Hooker stands supreme. Milton, though of far more powerful genius, and more brilliant associations, does not, in his Prose-works, interest, or even instruct; and from the simplicity and plainness, which often appears in the Epistolary composition and Minor Poetry of this era, it is evident, that an elaborate and artificial construction was especially consulted, in works like those now before us. What was the colloquial style of any æra, may be best inferred from the private letters of the age; and the toil and art, betrayed in books of the kind under discussion, would not have found readers, unless they had been considered books of study; of which the contents were not purposely formed for intuitive acquisition, but for "reading, learning and inwardly digesting;' "and making "good Casuists."
This is the reason, in our opinion, why in Jeremy Taylor, and other divines of this æra, we see such ingenious compounds of subtlety, acumen, felicitous illustration, and metaphorical confusion. Such Authors may be denominated Lawyers in Theology and Moral Philosophy. They have a technical bearing and manner in addressing their readers, as if they were a Jury, who required not simple. elucidation