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1821.] Font at St. Margaret's, Lothbury.The Censor.

under his feet for him to tread upon, or else raised a kind of throne with them for him to sit upon, &c."

Whether the original Hebrew will admit of all these different explana. tions literatim, I am completely ignorant, but I fancy I can spy (by means of them altogether) a way of reconciling Cranmer's text with some of the inferences obtained from the other Translators and their Commentators. For supposing that the stairs or steppes (as Matthews and Taverner designate them) were the winding-stairs or stone steps of or leading into a turret or tower within which was the Council Room, and such tower had a flat roof, on which a dial or horologe, or other of the earliest measurers and indicators of time was conspicuously erected for public inspection; this would in some degree reconcile the different ways of relating the same transaction, but would not justify a figurative use of the original passage. The Captains might certainly, beside such horologe upon the roof of, and at or near the top of the stairs or steppes of the tower, with their mantles, or upper gar ments, raise a temporary high bench, tribunal, or throne, for Jehu to sit upon, from whence he might be seen by the people, when with trumpets, &c. he was proclaimed King. [And this supposition and enlarged statement, combines all the accounts given in the above Translations, i. e. the horologie in Cranmer; the similitudo tribunalis in the Leyden, &c. Bibles; the fastigio graduum of the Hanover Bible; and the high bench at the toppe of the steps in Taverner and Matthews.] But the quere is, do the Hebrew words admit of, or justify all these different modes of expression (leaving nothing defective in any); and if not, what is the genuine and literal translation of the original passage, as it came from the inspired Penman. Yours, &c. INVESTIGATOR.

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of Adam and Eve in the act of taking the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden, and thus constituting the Fall of Man-the salvation of Noah and his family in the Ark-the Baptism of our Saviour in the river Jordan, by John the Baptist-and St. Philip baptizing the Eunuch.-The Font has been from remote times an object of great attention for the sculptor; and the workmanship of this has so many curious and interesting parts, that it is a very favourable specimen of performances of this kind. The compartments have been chosen with great knowledge and taste, every one of them alluding to the sacred mystery connected with it.

The late Mr. Malcolm, p. 101, in his 4th volume of Londinium Redivivum, notices this Font, as well as some Parish Annals, extracted from a very ancient and curious book belonging to the Parish, which I should otherwise have felt much pleasure in transcribing for your Miscellany.

J. B.

THE CENSOR.-No. IV. INQUIRY INTO THE PROGRESS OF ANECDOTAL LITERATURE.

(Continued from vol. XC. ii. p. 592.)

T was never our intention to ex

a Retrospective Review, or

even a Catalogue Raisonnée, of all works relating to Anecdotes; but simply to record such as we imagined might furnish the Reader with some information respecting their origin and prevalence: of many nothing further than the title is known to us, as copies of them are not to be found in the British Museum; nor do we wish to conceal, that others, with which the Antiquary may be familiar, or which have been alluded to by modern writers, have escaped our notice.

In 1603 was printed a story-book, entitled Westward for Smelts, 4to; a late entry of which on the Stationers' Books, in January.1619, describes it as the production of Kitt of Kingston. Mr. Steevens, who had perused this Tract, supposes one of its tales to have been the origin of the "Cymbeline" of Shakspeare, and as such it is worthy of record.

The next work that occurs is "Pasquil's Jests, mixed with Mother Bunch's Merriments. Whereunto is added a doozen of Gulles. Pretty

and

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Progress of Anecdotal Literature.

and pleasant to drive away the tediousnesse of a winter's evening." B. L. London, 1604. In 1609, appeared another edition, with "a baker's doozen of Gulles," and purporting to be "newly corrected, with new additions. London, printed for John Browne, and are to be sold at his shop in Saint Dunstone's Church Yard, in Fleete-streete,” 4to, containing 26 leaves.

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Of one that lost his purse."

"A countrey man comming up to the tearme, by misfortune lost his purse, and because the summe was great, he set up billes in divers places of London, that if any man had found such a purse, and would restore it againe, he should have very well for his paines. A gentleman of the Inner Temple wrote under one of his billes, that he should come to his chamber, and did write where. So when he came to the place, the gentleman asked him, first, what was in his purse? Secondly, what countreyman he was? and, thirdly, what was his name? Sir, quoth he, twenty pound was in my purse.

I am

halfe a Welshman, and John ap Janken

is my name. John ap Janken! quoth the gentleman, I am glad I know thy name; for so long as I live thou nor none of thy name shall have my purse to keepe; and so farewell, gentle John ap Janken *"

The first person who attempted to combine Wit with History, and both with Elegance, was the erudite Camden, a name which we are proud to rank in the annals of Anecdote. In his "Remaines concerning Britaine," 1614, he has preserved many 66 grave speeches and wittie apothegms of worthie personages of this realme in former times." No miscellany contains so much method and research as this; the Author, who blended the Antiquary with the Scholar, has arranged his materials so as to form a complete body of Anecdotes from the earliest period of British History down to "Heiwood the great Epigrammatist;" and, to the honour of our Sovereigns be it said, they have given utterance to an extensive portion of them. In a prefatory page, Camden speaks thus,

"Twenty yeares since, while J. Bishop (whose memory for his learning is deare to mee) and my selfe turned over all our Historians wee could then finde, for diverse endes we beganne to note apart the Apo

*For a notice of this work, see British Bibliographer, vol. I. p. 41.

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thegms or Speeches (call them what ye will) of our nation.". "I commend them to such indifferent, courteous, modest readers, as doe not thinke basely of the former ages, their country, and countri men; leaving the other to gather the preg nant Apothegmes of our time, which I know will finde farre more labour," &c.

The time which Camden and his friend employed upon this invaluable store, exceeds the "undertaking in which Sholto and Reuben Percy have been for several years engaged." These Remaines are no unworthy representatives of the Historians from manuscript as printed; they are not whom they were collected, as well clothed with that purity of language with which Plutarch has struck fire into his tales, but, like most of the contemporary writers, they are quaint and pithy. Yet, had the English language been taught in Westminster, Camden might have put them into the hands of his scholars without the slightest danger to their minds.-He spurned immorality from his compositions, with a grace peculiar to the Preceptor and the Divine.-His stores were not drawn from the printed historians alone, he was familiar with Your Monastic authors, and while he cast History and Topography into his Britannia, he reserved the lesser anecdotes for his Remaines.

Constantine the Great "disswading one from covetousnes, did with his Jance draw out the length and breadth of a man's grave, saying: This is all that thou shalt have when thou art dead; if thou canst happily get so

much."

Savage, a Gentleman, which amongst the first English had planted himself in Ulster in Ireland, advised his sonne for to build a castle for his better defence against the Irish enemy, who valiantly answered; That he would not trust to a castle of stones, but to his castle of bones, meaning his body."

A similar reason was assigned by a Laconian for the want of walls at Sparta.

"There was a poore blinde man in Warwick-shire, that was accounted very cunning in prognosticating of weather: Upon a day, Empson, a great lawyer, as hee road that way, said in scorne of his cunning, I pray now tel me Father, when doth the Sunne change? The chafed olde man, that knew his corrupt conscience, answered: When such a wicked lawyer as you goeth to heaven."

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1821.]

Progress of Anecdotal Literature.

The latter part of this Collection is devoted to the Apothegms of Sir Thomas More, by no means few in number, and which we beg leave to recommend to his future Biographers. We shall only quote the concluding tale:

"This usuall speech of Sir Thomas Moore, both of himself and other Bookbreeders, which is also extant in an Epistle of his, I have resolved to close up this part. Book-makers are full wise folke, who paine and pine themselves away by writing, to subject themselves to the censure of such which in Ordinaries and on Ale-benches will pill and pull them by their words, phrases, and lines, as that they have not one haire of honesty, or to use his owne words, Ne pilum boni hominis. But these he resembleth to those unmannerly guests, which, when they have bin well and kindly entertained, flinch away, never giving thanks, but depraving and dispraising their curteous entertainment."

Few of our Critical brethren (nor do we wish to exclude ourselves from the number) from the Quarterly Review down to the Investigator, will be able to peruse the foregoing passage without feeling an awkward twinge. Criticism in the days of Sir Thomas More was merely Oral, if we except the labours of the Commentators; but had he lived to read the numerous Reviews, by which public opinion is directed, he would have seen no reason to alter his idea.

"Wits, Fits, and Fancies; or, a ge nerall and serious collection of the sententious Speeches, Answers, Jests, and Behaviour of all sorts of Estates, from the Throne to the Cottage. B. L. Lond. 1614, 4to. In Longman's Catalogue of Old Books for 1814, a copy of this tract is marked 257.

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Helpe to Discourse; or, more Merriment mixed with Serious Matters; as also Epigrams, Epitaphs, Riddles, Jests, Posies, Love-toyes," &c. Lond. 1635.

ARCHIBALD ARMSTRONG *, better known by the name of Archee, was Jester to the Court of James and Charles I. He had a 'particular spleen against Archbishop Laud, who was, on more occasions than one, the butt of his wit. After the Liturgy had been rejected in Scotland, he had the temerity to ask the prelate, 'Who is fool now?' and termed the stool which was thrown at Forbes's head

Neale, Hist, Purit. II. 332.

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in the pulpit, the stool of repentance.' For this insolence the King ordered him to pull off his fool's coat, and to suffer flagellation and dismissal; and appointed as his successor a person called Muckle John,' who was the last Jester in this country t. Armstrong, about a week after his discharge, put on a suit of black, and being interrogated concerning his coat, said,

"O, my Lord of Canterbury hath taken it from me, because either be or some of the Scots Bishops may have use for it themselves: but he hath given me a black coat for it, to colour my knavery with, and now I speak what I please (so it be not against the prelates) for this coat hath a far greater privilege than the other had +."

Few will think but what it was necessary to put a stop to the impertirence of this man; for, of all others, a Jester should never meddle with affairs not in his immediate vocation. -His Jests were printed in 12mo, with his portrait by Cecill, in which he is represented in a long particoloured cloak, with a hat and feather. Subjoined to the print are these lines :

"Archee, by kings and princes grac'd of late,

Jested himself into a fair estate; And in this book, doth to his friends commend,

His jeers, taunts, tales, which no man can offend."

These verses seem to bint that Armstrong had acquired a handsome competency. Granger doubts the authenticity of the bon-mots, and says that they are indeed, in general, very unworthy of him.'

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"A Banquet of Jests, or Change of Cheare. Being a Collection of Moderne Jests, Witty Jeeres, Pleasant Taunts, Merry Tales:" the 5th impression," Printed for Richard Royston, and are to be sold at his shoppe in Ivie-lane, at the signe of the Angell, 1639," pp. 190. When the first edition was printed, we are not informed, but are inclined to fix it in 1631: another appeared in 1636.

No. 15. "Of a Freese Jerkin.-An bonest good fellow, having worne a threadbare Jerkin for the space of two yeares and an balfe; as soon as he had compast

+ Granger.

Morgan's Phoenix Britannicus, p. 462. another

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Progress of Anecdotal Literature.

another suit, for the good service it had
done him, made of it this epitaph,
"Here lie in peace, thou patient over-

commer,

Of two cold Winters, and one scorching

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was Don Pedro Gonzales Gaietan, de Guevezra: to whom the good woman answered, Alas, Sir, my small house neither affords roome nor meat for so many." p. 25. No. 106. "6 A Gormondizer. A Gor

mondizing fellow protesting to a friend of

his, that hee loved him as well as he loved his soule: I thanke you, Sir (said he) with all my heart; but I had rather you loved me as well as you love your body." p. 89. The second part of this Work was printed by M. Flesher, for Richard Royston, in Ivy-lane, 1633, p. 156; and is accompanied by the following poetical apology:

"My eldest brother, having had the grace, Of three Impressions (late) in two yeares

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To mirth and sport, neither to snarle nor And in the second course you shall not faile, [Tale." Jeare for his Jest, Taunt ready for his No. 143. "One being demanded why great men were not so liberall to Poets in these our dayes, as in former times, and they have been made answer: that their consciences tell them how unworthy they are of praises given them by Poets." p. 119.0

No. 186. "Hard of Beliefe.-I have heard of a great Magistrate, that being often deceived by false rumours of Queen Elizabeth's death, protested that hee would never believe shee was dead, untill he saw it under her owne hand," p. 146. This story has since found its way into more recent collections.

Such are the leading features in Anecdotal History, prior to the Rebellion, when Wit was proscribed in common with Art and Science. We have traced its progress as far as the year 1639, at which period every person was so taken up with the Polemic publications of the time, that little upon any other subject could ob

[Jan.

tain a sale. The horrors of War were followed by the gloom of Puritanism, and, although we respect the good order and regularity which it main. tained in every family, we cannot but regret that sour sternness, which blighted both science and conviviality; and the times when the man who was so bold as to profess himself a Wit, or to enliven those cheerless days by occasional hilarity, was certain to be looked upon as one of the ungodly. Yet were Pembroke, Marten, and Chaloner, men who ranked amongst the reformers in Church and State, not boon-companions only, but unprincipled libertines, and of far less morality than the calumniated Royalists.

We have now passed the anecdotes of former ages, and are about

to

tively modern, when a more sprightly enter upon a series compara style was introduced: in order, however, to connect the Jests of the reign of Charles II. with the Apothegmes of the preceding æra, it was necessary to explain why, during the Usurpation, specimens of this department of literature are not to be found. Yet there is a work to be included in the antient class, which appears to be the last of them, and in the perusal of which, we divest ourselves utterly of the Critic, and approach it with true Bibliomaniac gratification: it is entitled,

or,

"Worcester's Apothegmes; Witty Sayings of the Right Honourable Henry (late) Marquess of Worcester, delivered upon several occasions, and now published for the benefit of the Reader. By T. B. a constant observer, and no lesse admirer of his Lordship's wisdom and loyalty.”

"Et prodesse volunt et delectare." "London: printed by J. Clowes, for Edward Blackmore, at the Angel in St. Paul's Church-yard, 1660," pp. 114. Apoth. 60.

Prefixed to this volume is a curious wood-cut, representing King Charles I. and the Marquess, with a third person standing behind a king with a pair of scales, in which his Majesty puts a piece of money. In external appearance it differs but little from the collections which have already passed in long review,' but in spirit and interest excels them all : instead of the neat but light airy

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sketches

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1821.] Anecdotal Literature.-Marquis of Worcester.

sketches of character which the editors of Peele and Tarleton have given us, we have here the full portrait drawn by a master's hand, and executed with true dignity. Yet were it possessed of no other qualification whatsoever, it bears indisputable claim to notice as the only work of this kind during the gloom of the Usurpation: as a Chronicle of Piety, Loy alty, and Affection, it deserves a place in every Library, and is well worthy the attention of a spirited Editor. Before we proceed to its contents, it will be proper to give a brief account of the Nobleman, whose name it bears.

HENRY SOMERSET*, second son to Edward, Earl of Worcester, was born in Herefordshire, 1577: he was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, which he quitted for the sake of travel; and on the death of his elder brother, became Lord Herbert of Ragland in 1627 he succeeded to the Earldom. In private life he was domestic, virtuous, and devout and ventured but little into public till the Rebellion, when he came forward to assist his Sovereign, and was created Marquis of Worcester at Oxford, November 2, 1642. In 1645, after the fatal battle of Naseby, he entertained the King at Ragland Castle, which fortress he afterwards defended against the Rebels, and which was the last garrison in England or Wales that held out for Charles I. It was surrendered, August 19, 1646, on bonourable terms, which were basely violated, and the Marquis himself seized, and committed to custody in London, where he died in the same year, and was interred at Windsor. His sayings were collected and pub lished by his loyal friend, and fellowsufferer, Dr. Thomas Bayley; many of them were afterwards incorporated into a small tract, entitled, "Witty Apothegms delivered at several times and upon several occasions, by K. James I. K. Charles I. Marquis of Worcester, Lord Bacon, and Sir Thomas More;" Lond. 12mo, 1658: a work which Granger considers as decidedly spurious.

Apoth. 8. "When the King first entered the Castle of Raglan, the Marquesse kiss'd the King's hand, and rising up

* Wood, Ath. Ox. edit. Bliss, vol. III. col. 199.

GENT. MAG. January, 1821.

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again, he saluted his Majesty with this compliment, Domine, non sum dignus.' The King replyed unto the Marquesse, My Lord, I may very well answer you again, I have not found so great faith in Israel,' *****. To which the Marquesse

replied, I hope your Majesty will prove

a defender of the Faith'."

Apoth. 27. "He was wont to say, councel was requited with choller, and That a plain dealing friend, whose friendly disgust, was like a [kindled] turfe, that (whilst a man bestowed breath upon it to enliven it) returnes thankes to the wellwiller, by spitting fire in his face."

Apoth. 57. "When it was told his Lordship not many hours before he dyed, that leave was obtained by the Parlia ment, that he might be buried in Windsor Castle (where there is a peculiar for the family, within the great chappell, and wherein divers of his ancestors lies [lie] buried) with some sprightlinesse he spake aloud, God bless us all! why

then I shall take a better Castle when I am dead, than they took from me whilst I was alive?'"

Such was the salt of that despotic age; but Wit was about to experience a much warmer reception under a happier reign. The change, however, produced little benefit; the broad indelicacy of our earlier Jesters was forgotten, and with it that coarseness of language which once passed for pleasantry : while the carelessness which prevailed under Charles II. although it served to polish our tongue, rendered its poisons more deadly, as it shed a gloss over them, afterwards unveiled by Collier, and palliated by Congreve. At Court, conversation was merriment itself, and the model was but too closely imitated in private life; the courtiers who thus trifled away their time, may find some extenu ation, if not excuse, for their con duct; they were men, who having been well born, and well educated, had not only shewn great personal courage during the late wars, but endured numerous hardships for the sake of their Sovereign. The Usurpation drove them into exile, where they lived in indigence, and braved poverty as they had before braved death. At length the mighty work of Providence once more settled England, and they were restored to the gaieties of the Court, and the favour of their King; and the man

must

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