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"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all inen are created equal, and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." - Declaration of Independence. No. 11. Vol. III. THIRD SERIES.] SEPTEMBER, 1833.


IMMEDIATE EMANCIPATION. plain before us, and we have nothing to do but There are many who do not, or will not, un to enter it at once, and to walk in it without derstand what abolitionists mean by immediate turning to the right hand or to the left.” emancipation. They associate with these words The question may be asked, how do you ex. all the horrible ideas of insurrections, and mas pect this to be accomplished? We answer, by sacres, and blood, which a diseased imagination moral suasion—by the power of reason, and are and a morbid intellect can invent, and then | gument, and facts, and Christian principles. By gravely charge abolitions with a design to real. acting upon public opinion through the medium ize all these scenes of desolation which their own of individual labors and public addresses, and fancy has created.

tracts, and periodical publications. Abolitionists The opinion seems to have been adopted, with. are among the last men who desire the freedom out any evidence to support it, that abolitionists of the slave by the destruction of the master. wish to let the slaves loose upon society, without We are equally the friends of both the master employment, and absolved from all the restraints and the slave. They are both our brethrenof law. Nothing can be more idle and ridicu- | and while we are constrained to “open our lous, and more foreign from the designs of abo- mouths for the dumb," and to plead the cause of litionists. When we contrast our views with the oppressed, we equally desire the present those of the gradualists, we use the term imme- safety and future prosperity of the master; and diate—by which we mean that man should by advocating the inmediate emancipation of cease to be recognized as the property of man, the slave, in the sense above explained, we think not gradually but immediatelythat wholesome we are promoting both. laws, which would operate equally upon all classes, should take the place of domestic tyran.

" FANATICS AND INCENDIARIES.” ny and the will of individuals. We wish to see One of the most conclusive and convincing are the laws of our country afford cqual protection guments wielded by our opponents against abo. to all its inhabitants, without regard to nation litionists, is the use of nicknames. It is a very or color. No abolitionist desires the slaves to convenient method, we admit, of refuting an an. be turned loose upon society, without the means tagonist, and one which is usually resorted to by of subsistence, or the restraints to which all our angry children and silly disputants. The tempcitizen are subjected. We live under a govorn.

tation call names is too strong to be resisted, ment of laws; and the emancipated slave would when passion rules and reason is dethroned. It be amenable to the laws, and punishable for has become quite fashionable for the apologists their infraction. But his punishment would be of slavery and the advocates of African colonizaby the magistrate after legal conviction-not by | tion, to apply the epithets “fanatics" and "in. the whim and caprice of every petty tyrant who cendiaries" to those who defend the precepts of happened to claim him as his property. The the gospel, and the principles of the declaration assumed right of property of one man over an of independence. If the apostle Paul were now other should be abolished, and that immediately. to appear in his proper character, in republican "To say that we will come out of the sin by de. | America, and preach the truth with his wonted grees that we will only forsake it slowly, and boldness, would he not be denounced as the step by step-that we will pause and hesitate, worst of fanatics? If he spoke of practical and look well about us, before we consent to righteousness, of doing to others as we would abandou its gains and pleasures--that we will! wish others to do unto us—of undoing the heavy allow another age to pass by ere we throw off burdens and letting the oppressed go free; and the load of iniquity that is lying so heavily upon more especially, if he ventured to apply these us, lest certain secularities should be injuriously fundamentals of the religion he taught to the affected—and that we will postpone the duty of “pery delicate question" of slavery, would he not • doing justly and loving mercy,' till we have be an “incendiary,” a fomenter of insurrection removed every petty difficulty out of the way, and murder, and a disturber of the union of the and gotten all the conflicting interests that are states ? Such a “pestilent felloro" ought surely involved in the measure reconciled and satisfied:

to be put down. to say this is to trample on the demands of mo And what have abolitionists said or written ral obligation, and to disregard the voice which inconsistent with what Paul preached and the speaks to us from heaven. "The path of duty is apostles practised? Or is it more dangerous

now to “

Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. emancipation. That many honest, but too cre. “ Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legisla

open our mouths for the dumb,” and ture of 1831 and 1832, by Thomas R. Dew, plead the cause of the widow and the fatherless, Professor of History, Metaphysics and Politiand those that have none to help them, than it cal Law, in William and Mary College. Richwas in olden time? Alas for my country! mond. 1832." when the soundest precepts of the Christian re This is an elaborate work of 133 octavo pages, ligion, and the plainest principles of natural || in defence of slavery. The author has prosti"right, are denounced as fanatic and incendiary! || tuted his talents and learning in support of a A country, too, loudly boasting of civil liberty system which the plainest dictates of common and gospel light. The judicial blindness and sense, and the unbiassed impulses of every man's Egyptian darkness that prevail in a large por- conscience condemns. That one man is not tion of the community, on the all-important sub- | born to serve another-that the extortion of unject of slavery, are ominous of coming judg. || requited labor from a fellow creature is a viola'ments. “I tremble for my country when I re. tion of the natural order of creation—and that a flect that God is just, and that his justice will system which outrages the common rights of not sleep for ever!" It is for my country I || man, and debases and brutalizes the noblest mourn, when I see a deaf ear turned to the voice | work of creative wisdom, can neither be neces. of truth, of justice, and humanity, and the ad- || sary nor expedient under any possible circummonitions of philanthropy repaid by threats, de- stances, are positions which the unsophisticated nunciations and opprobrious epithets. We do not reason of every man will acknowledge and adopt fear for ourselves, or quail at the impotent abuse

as true, upon their first presentation to the of the interested and the designing. The shafts | mind. of the enemy fall harmless at our feet. Covered

It requires consummate skill in the art of by the shield of innocence, and armed with the disguising the truth, and making the worse appanoply of gospel truth and republican justice, | pear the better cause, to make them appear ever and feeling the consciousness of inward peace || plausible. We shall attempt to expose some of in the performance of an imperious duty, we our author's sophistry and false reasoning, and fear nothing for ourselves. But we fear for our expose the error of his pretended facts. country. We hear the distant murmurings of He

says, in the first page, that “the parliadivine displeasure, at the accumulated wrongs | ment of Great Britain, with all its philanthropic which the American people are heaping upon zeal, guided by the wisdom, and eloquence of the descendants of Africa. We sce the sombre such statesmen as Chatham, Fox, Burke, Pitt, clouds of his indignation ready to burst upon us. | Canning and Brougham, has never yet seriously We feel the deliberate conviction that the justice agitated this question, in regard to the West Inof heaven will not sleep for ever; and that the dia possessions." day of retribution and righteous inquisition for This assertion is refuted by the recent acts of the innocent blood we have caused to be shed, is the reformed parliament. drawing near. And yet when the warning Again he says :voice is raised, when the people are called upon “Revolutionary France, actuated by the most to beware of the dangers which threaten them, || intemperate and phrenetic zeal for liberty and and the means of averting the judgments which || equality, attempted to legislate the free people

of color in the island of St. Domingo into all the are hanging over the country are pointed out, || rights and privileges of the whites; and but a the hue and cry is raised against the messengers | season afterwards, convinced of her madness, of good to the nation, and they are stigmatised she attempted to retrace her steps, but it was

too late; the deed had been done, the bloodiest! FANATICS AND INCENDIARIES."

and most shocking insurrection ever recorded in But let “the wicked rage, and the heathen the annals of history, had broken out, and the imagine vain things,” it shall not divert us from whole island was involved in frightful carnage our purpose.

Our duty is imperative. Our and anarchy, and France in the end has been country may yet be saved. The remedy for the the fairest and most valuable of all her colonial

stript of the brightest jewel in her crown'evils which threaten us is easy and simple. It || possessions." consists in doing justly and loving mercy. It The apologists and advocates of slavery have is for this we plead. It is for this we will | harped upon the horrors of St. Domingo, and continue to labor. . And whether our cited the insurrections and massacres in that trymen will receive or reject our council, it is island so often and so long, as an example of the this only that can save us from the evil to || danger of emancipation, that the world has been come. It is this only that can avert the impend. || almost persuaded there was some foundation for ing judgments of heaven, preserve unimpaired apprehension. Nothing is more false and fallathe blessing we enjoy, and secure the harmony cious than the argument drawn from the exam. and union of the states.

ple of St. Domingo in support of the danger of


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Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. dulous persons, should be deceived by the per- || in prison, the negroes of their plantation came

of his neighbors, proprietors or managers, were petual reiteration of the falsehood that the rising | to him

to beg him to direct them in their work. of the blacks in the island was caused by their || “ If you will take care not to talk to them of the being set free, is not to be wondered at. But restoration of slavery, but talk to them of free. we should have expected Professor Dew would dom, you may with this word chain them down

to their labor. How did Toussaint succeed? have sought and obtained correct information, || How did I succeed before his time in the plain which was so easy of access. We would not of the Culde-Sae on the plantation of Gouraud, willingly accuse him of deliberate and willul | during more than eight months after liberty had misrepresentation, but his ignorance of facts is | been granted to the slaves ? Let those who

knew me at that time, let the blacks themselves inexcusable. No apology can be offered for be asked: they will all reply that not a single citing in support of his positions an assumed || negro upon that plantation, consisting of more fact which is known to be false. The insurrec- than 450 laborers, refused to work : and yet this tions in St. Domingo were caused, not by eman- | plantation was thought to be under the worst cipation, but by an attempt to reduce the black, discipline, and the slaves the most idle of any in

the plain. I inspired the same activity into who had tasted of liberty, again to slavery. three other plantations of which I had the man. There is no instance recorded in history of in- agement. If all the negroes had come from surrections and bloodshed being caused by the Africa within six months, if they had the love emancipation of slaves. It is contrary to the of independence that the Indians have, I should

own that force must be employed; but ninetynatural order of cause and effect. No man is | nine out of a hundred of the blacks are aware converted into an enemy by just and humane that without labor they cannot procure the treatment. The emancipated slave has no in- things that are necessary for them; that there is ducement, no temptation to injure his benefac

no other method of satisfying their wants and

their tastes. They know that they must work, tor. The idea is too absurd to deserve a serious they wish to do so, and they will do so.”. argument.

Such was the conduct of the negroes for the We shall give some facts in proof, however, || first nine months after their liberation, or up to of the safety and advantages of emancipation the middle of 1794. In the latter part of 1796

Malenfant says

“ The colony was flourishing wherever it has been tried.

under Toussaint, the whites lived happily and in Of the many persons who declare themselves | peace upon their estates, and the negroes con. averse to slavery, and yet afraid to join in mea tinued to work for them." General Lacroix sures for its abolition, some perhaps have not who published his “Memoirs for a History of paid much attention to the instances of emanci- St. Domingo,” in 1819, says that in 1797 the pation that have already taken place. If any | most wonderful progress had been made in agsuch will take the trouble to read the following || riculture. The colony," says he, “marched as account of the effects of emancipation as far as by enchantment towards its ancient splendor : it has hitherto been tried, they will perhaps see cultivation prospered; every day produced perthat their fears on the subject are not justified ceptible proof of its progress.” General Vincent, by experience.

who was a general of brigade of artillery in St. The history of Hayti

, when separated from Domingo, and a proprietor of estates in the island, the accidental circumstances attending it, fur was sent by Toussaint to Paris, in 1801, to lay nishes irrefragable evidence of the safety and before the Directory the new constitution which advantage of immediate emancipation. It is true had been agreed upon in St. Domingo. He ar. that much blood was shed there during the course rived in France just at the moment of the peace of the French revolution; but this was not owing of Amiens, and found that Bonaparte was preto the emancipation of the slaves, but was the | paring an armament for the purpose of restoring consequence either of the civil war which pre- slavery in St. Domingo. He remonstrated against ceded the act of emancipation; or of the atro- | the expedition; he stated that it was totally un. cious attempt to restore slavery.

necessary and therefore criminal, for that every In September, 1793, Polverel, one of the Com. thing was going on well in St. Domingo. The missioners sent to St. Domingo by the National proprietors were in peaceable possession of their Convention, issued a proclamation declaring the estates; cultivation was making a rapid prowhole of the slaves in the island free. Colonel gress; the blacks were industrious, and beyond Malenfant, a slave proprietor, resident at the example happy. He conjured him therefore not time in the island, thus describes the effects of to reverse this beautiful state of things; but his this sudden measure. “After this public act of efforts were ineffectual, and the expedition ar. emancipation, the negroes remained quiet both | rived upon the shores of St. Domingo. At length, in the south and in the west, and they continued | however, the French were driven from the island. to work upon all the plantations. There were Till that time the planters had retained their estates which had neither owners nor managers | property, and then it was, and not till then, that resident upon them, yet upon these estates, they lost their all. In 1804 Dessalines was prothough abandoned, the negroes continued their claimed Emperor; in process of time a great labors where there were any even inferior agents || part of the black troops were disbanded, and re. to guide them, and on those estates where no turned to cultivation again. From that time to white men were left to direct them, they betook this, there has been no want of subordination or themselves to the planting of provisions; but industry among them. upon all the plantations where the whites resided, A gentleman who had been for upwards of the blacks continued to labor as quietly as be: twenty years past a general merchant in Hayti, fore.” Colonel Malenfant says that when many frequently crossing to Europe and America

Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum.

gave the following account of the condition of || prostitution of the use of language, and a palpathe Haytians to Captain Stuart at Belfast last ble perversion of the meaning of words. winter. The present population he supposes

“ We have not formed our opinion lightly consists of at least 700,000. He said that there was very universal happiness amongst them, upon this subject; we have given to the vital and that though their conduct was not unexcep- | consideration which we are capable of bestow

question of abolition the most mature and intense tionable

, yet there was a less proportion of such || ing, and we have come to the conclusion, -2 crimes as disturb the public peace in Hayti, and conclusion which seems to be sustained by facts less distress than in any other country within and reasoning as irresistible as the demonstra. his knowledge. That they obtain abundance by tion of the mathematician,—that every plan of their own labor: that there were no paupers except the decrepid and aged: that the people | possibly conceive; is totally impracticable. We

emancipation and deportation which we can were very charitable, hospitable, and kind, very shall endeavor to prove, that the attempt to exerespectful to Europeans, temperate, grateful, cute these plans can only have a tendency to infaithful, orderly, and submissive, easily go

crease all the evils of which we complain, as reverned, lively and contented, good mechanics, and that no corporal punishments are al sulting from slavery: If this be true, then the lowed.

great question of abolition will necessarily be

reduced to the question of emancipation, with a Cayenne and Guadaloupe were the only other permission to remain, which we think can easily French colonies in which the slaves were eman. be shown to be utterly subversive of the intercipated. In Cayenne the sudden enfranchiseests, security and happiness, of both the blacks ment was attended with no ill consequences ; || and whites, and consequently hostile to every after their emancipation the negroes in general principle of expediency, morality, and religion. continued voluntarily upon the plantations of We have heretofore doubted the propriety even their former masters, and no irregularities what of too frequently agitating, especially in a public ever were committed by those men who had manner, the question of abolition, in consequence thus suddenly obtained their freedom.

of the injurious effects which might be produced In Guadaloupe the conduct of the freed ne. on the slave population. But the Virginia Legroes was equally satisfactory. The perfect | gislature, in its zeal for discussion, boldly set subordination which was established, and the aside all prudential considerations of this kind, industry which prevailed there, are provod by and openly and publicly debated the subject bethe official reports of Victor Hughes, the gover-fore the world. The seal has now been broken, nor of Guadaloupe, to the French government. || the example has been set from a high quarter; In 1793 liberty was proclaimed universally to we shall, therefore, waive all considerations of a the slaves in that island, and during their ten prudential character which have heretofore reyears of freedom their governors bore testimony | strained us, and boldly grapple with the abolito their regular industry and uninterrupted sub- tionists on this great question. We fear not the mission to the laws. The reports of the com- result, so far as truth, justice, and expediency missioners to the local government also speak of alone are concerned. But we must be permitted the tranquillity which reigned in the agricul- to say, that we do most deeply dread the effects tural districts, and on the plantations. In a of misguided philanthropy, and the marked, and letter addressed by the supreme council of the we had like to have said, impertinent intrusion colony in February, 1802, to the Commissary in this matter, of those who have no interest at Valluet of the Canton de Deshayes, it is said stake, and who have not that intimate and mi“Continue, Citizen Commissary, to maintain nute knowledge of the whole subject so abso. that order in your Canton which now reigns lutely necessary to wise action.” , universally throughout the colony. We shall have the satisfaction of having given an exam

The author then goes into an examination of ple which will prove that all classes of people the origin of slavery among mankind, and atmay live in perfect harmony with each other | tempts to prove its lawfulness from the fact of under an administration which sccures justice its general prevalence among the nations of an. to all classes."

tiquity, and in modern times among the uncivil. From the following paragraph it will be seen ized tribes of Africa. The argument in its fathat our author deprecates equally “every plan vor, drawn from the practice of barbarous nations, of emancipation and deportation," and " emanci- || is too futile to demand a serious refutation. If pation with permission to remain.” The first | the example of the uncivilized heathen, in re. might easily be shown to be "totally impracti- gard to slavery, is to justify Christians in viocable,” as well as utterly inconsistent with jus- | lating the plainest precepts of their religion, the tice and sound policy. Besides, the incongruity | obligations of the moral are prostrated, and all of the words associated in the proposition re. the abominations of heathenism become the le. duces it to a mere nullity. It is a contradiction gitimate objects of imitation. in terms. Emancipation associated with deport But the claim of divine authority for the pracation is no emancipation at all. It is only cal. || tice of slavery, derived from the example of the culated to bewilder the understanding and mis. Israelites, partakes more of the character of imlead the judgment. But the idea that slavery in | piety than argument. No man, who seriously this country must be perpetual, is too gross to believes in an overruling Providence, and the be sustained, even by the learning and talents of accountability of man for his actions, can believe * Professor Dew. To speak of truth and justice, || that a system of slavery, similar to that now or'even expediency, on the side of slavery, is a practised in a Christian country, would erer

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