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of colored people, 116. Letter from B. Lundy to duct and opinions of Thomas Jefferson, 151.,
Immediate Emancipation, Fanatics and Incen-
nia Legislature, 162. Petition Respecting Negro
Slavery, presented to the British Parliament,
nization Society, from the London Patriot, 182.
The sin of Slavery, by Elizur Wright, jr. 186.
A Vindication of a Loan to the West Indie Free Labor Products, New Publications, Use of
EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY BENJAMIN LUNDY, WASHINGTON, D.C. AT $1.00 PER ANN. IN ADVANCE.
“We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happinss."—Declaration of independence, U.S.
No. 1. Vol. III. THIRD SERIES.J NOVEMBER, 1832. (WHOLE NUMBER 277. Vol. XIII.
On commencing the Thirteenth Volume of the his editorial career, (the hardships and sufferGenius of Universaz EMANCIPATION, we haveings attendant he estimates not,) and in taking the mortification of being compelled to apolo
a retrospective view of the events of that pegize, again, for irregularity in the publication. | riod, he feels greatly encouraged to persevere in A more particular explanation than has yet his exertions to promote the cause of Univerbeen given, of the causes of that irregularity,
SAL EMANCIPATION. A wonderful change in is absolutely requisite to enable the numerous
public sentiment, relative to this subject, has and respectable patrons of the work to judge been effected within that time, throughout a of the propriety of continuing their support
. great portion of this Republic. Of the humble When the Editor left home, in the summer llit does not become him to speak ; yet he is not
part that he has taken in producing this change, of 1531, with the view of visiting the middle inattentive to the various operations of that in
and southern States of this Union, as well as * Canada and Mexico, he was under the necessi- /fluence which has wrought so important'a mor
al improvement in the public mind ;-and he ty of issuing the work under his own direction, while on his tour. No competent person could
takes this occasion to renew the pledge, which then be found, willing to superintend the busi- | he has repeatedly given, to devote his future
That ness at Washington or Baltimore, in his ab- labors to the great and holy cause. sence. As might have been expected, and
cause will as certainly triumph, as that the certainly was anticipated, difficulties had to be | Sun will rise to-morrow, if its advocates réncin contended with, in conducting the publication form, and continue in the active discharge of their under this arrangement. Yet the hope was
duty. entertained, that it could be issued regularly; It is not to be expected that this grand reiur. and during a part of the time this was done.mation can be accomplished by my single sysWithin a few months past, however, owing to
tem of operations. The evii of Slayery is one some necessary delays in travelling through the of immense magnitude, and will require the southern and western States, and sundry dis- combined efforts of all tlic wise and virtuous in appointments in the mechanical execution of the nation to eradicate it. There is ntuch dithe work, the commencement of the new vol-|| versity of sentiment among the friends of the ume has been postponed much longer than was cause, respecting the proper mode of proeither intended or expected when the last one ceeding. Hence it is desirable to encourage was completed.
every honest effort, until conflicting opinions It is hoped that this statement will sufficient- shall be merged in the knowledge arising from ly account for the recent delay in the publica-l practical experience. Yet the one important tion: yet the patrons of the work are again principle must be adhered to--the che great specially reminded, thài they will all receive object must be kept constantly in view-namethe full amount of their subscriptions, notwith-ly: Christianity requires, and Justice demands, standing the delay above mentioned. They | the prompt advocacy and IMMEDIATE must have, at least, TWELVE SHEETS, OF six tion of measures, that shall break the fetters TEEN PAGES EACH, with Title-page and Index, for of the slave, and prepare him for the"enjoyment every year's subscription, the price of which of perfect freedom. This must be done, soonis One DOLLAR, in advance:-and if they doer or later, whether he remains where he is, or not receive the same within the current year, || removes to a distant land. The doctrine of from the date of their subscriptions, they will expediency,” which dooms him to a life of receive it in the year following. Those who unconditional bondage, is the offspring of igbegin with the first number of a volume, will norance, fatuity, or sheer despotism. Reason receive that yolume, complete, for a year's sub-| teaches, experience ratifies, and all history scription; tho subscribers may commence at confirms this. The primary object of this work any time they choose, and must have at least has ever been to show, that justice, like charity, twelve numbers for one dollar, as aforesaid. should begin at home—that no dependence can
The Editor wishes to assure his friends and be placed upon a system of foreign operations, patrons that, in summing up the amount of his alone, in the abolition of slavery. The total labors and sacrifices, during the eleven years of failure of the “ African Institution,” in En
VISIT TO TEXAS.
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. gland, and the waning popularity of the “ A- of our common country, especially to the opmerican Colonization Society,” in the United || pressed population thereof, and hoping that States, may be adduced in proof of the cor some good will arise from it, he craves the forrectness of this axiom. The first named of bearance and indulgence of his friends and pathese associations, at one time, commanded | trons for whatever omissions or delinquencies it the influence of the British statesmen-the may have occasioned. second, until lately, commanded that of the As soon as time will permit, the farors of most popular characters in this country. The correspondents will be duly attended to. Whatformer has given place to a patriotic congre ever errors may have occurred in the business gation of West India Emancipators; and the
concerns of the establishment, will be promptly latter is destined to be superceded by some
corrected on discovery. thing of a more philanthropic nature. Prejudice against color is fast diminishing, and con
It was stated, in the Addenda to the last volsiderations of justice and safety are taking its
ume of this work, that the Editor had then, very place. The drivelling policy that would make the extension of equal rights to the descendants recently, returned to the United States, from a
short visit to the Texas country. The object of Africans dependant on their removal to an
of that tour was to investigate the state of things other continent, or even their expatriation any generally, as far as it might be cɔnvenient, with where, will eventually be exploded. In the the ultimate view of preparing the way for the mean time let every true philanthropist be up | future emigration and settlement of colored and doing.-Let all “ put their shoulders to people, from these States. The time, allowed the wheel,”—“their hands to the plough”—and || for the purpose, was by no means sufficient to devote every leisure moment to the sacred make every investigation which the importance causę. Let them do this, and even if they shall || of the subject would call for ; yet enough was not themselves 'witness its final success, pos- | ascertained to furnish the most conclusive eviterity will rise up to call them blessed,” and dence of the propriety and great utility of the
hallow their virtuous deeds in consummating measure contemplated; and believing that a the glorious work.
description of certain portions of the country In conclusion, the Editor returns his grateful in question, together with a brief view of the apknowleugments to his numerous friends and character of its inhabitants, may be interesting patrons for their steady support. He has un to the friends of the cause, some extracts from furlc&tke bai/ner of moral reform on the soil || the Editor's Journal, and the statements of sunfertilized with the tears of oppression--the land dry other persons who have also visited and reof chains and slavery :—and there it shall wave, || sided in the country, will be inserted in the while a patriot heart and an UNFETTERED ARM || present and future numbers. The reader is remains to sustain it. He is still cheered in referred to an editorial article in the Addenda, his arduous labors by the mild and persuasive, | above mentioned, for some remarks on the poyet powerful and effective co-operation of his lilical state of the nation, &c. &c. The most Sister-Editor. And while he promises still to correct information that can be obtained, on use his utmost endeavors to promote the good this subject, will be given from time to time. cause, he urgently solicits the further patronage The writer of this went into the Texas counof a philanthropic and enlightened public. try, (now part of the State of “ Coahuila & Tex
as,") by way of Natchitoches, up the Red Riv
er in Louisiana-proceeding thence on the old TO PATRONS AND CORRESPONDENTS.
St. Antonio road, and crossing the Sabine river The Editor's protracted absence from home, || (the boundary between the Republics of the and the mode of travelling which he was fre- || United States and Mexico) about 50 miles west quently necessitated to adopt, (he journeyed, || of that place. He reached the Sabine late in latterly, much on foot,) have prevented his at- || the evening of the 27th of June, and took lodgtention to many important matters that had a | ings with a respectable gentleman of the name claim upon his notice. Correspondents have, of Gainesma North American by birth—who also, for the same reasons, been unavoidably keeps the Ferry, on the Texas side. The folneglected for some length of time. It would lowing is extracted from his Journal: have been too expensive to have forwarded
“ June 28th, 1832. many letters, pamphlets, or papers, by mail, “I rose early this morning, and after taking and too burthensome to have carried them along. a view of the river, and examining the soil in Believing that his objects, in taking his late the fort and village of Nacagdoches. The land,
its vicinity, &c. I went on, westward, towards tour, were of great importance to the welfare Il bordering on the Sabine, (both sides) is poor
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. and sandy. The bottoms are, of course, morepine timber entirely. This afternoon, I passed fertile than the uplands; but there is very little, à Methodist Camp Meeting place, where I learn inviting to the farmer or the planter, in its im- the members of that society often assemble, for mediate neighborhood. The river, itself, is divine worship. I also met a wedding partynarrow—thoits banks are high-and in dry | both men and women were well dressed, and weather it has, comparatively, little water. || mounted on good horses. Towards evening, It is fordable in many places, during the sum- | I crossed two more small mill-streams, one of mer and fall seasons.
which I was obliged to wade. In the evening “In travelling a few miles, westward, we are I took lodgings with a gentleman originally from still presented with sterile, sandy, pine timbered Long Island, in the State of New York, who land. We cross two or three small streams, in keeps a small store, and farms and plants on a the bottoms of which the timber is a little more pretty extensive scale. Being detained considdiversified; but the principal growth is Pitch || erably, making enquiries, &c., I travelled but Pine. There is some grass over the whole, || 21 miles to-day. I found good accommodation upland and bottoms, affording tolerable good at this place ; but the weather being very warm, pasturage for cattle, considerable numbers of and having travelled several days on foot, I was which are to be seen feeding on it, as we pass somewhat fatigued; and the change of water, along the road. The land is a little rolling, for the change of diet, (I had lately used corn bread the most part; but mucii of it is too level to instead of wheat or rye,) and the effects of the turn the water off, as would be desirable, in wet | hot sun, altogether, made me also feel a little
unwell ; and I rested poorly through the night. “About four or five miles from the Sabine, we “This particular section of the Texas councross a handsome mill-stream. Here is a good try was formerly called the “Neutral Ground.” house and farm. The aspect of the country During the Mexican Revolution, the governnow changes very essentially. The land as ment could pay but little attention to it, on acsumes a reudish appearance, and is much more count of its distant, isolated situation; and the rolling. Some pretty large hills, indeed, are consequence was, that many criminals and lawmet with. On the brows of these, and in the less ruffians took refuge here, who had escaped banks of the creeks, we perceive some rock, || from the hands of justice, in the United States deeply impregnated with iron ore. The water and elsewhere. The settlers acknowledge that is pure, and the timber is greatly diversified. a most vicious state of society has, until lately, Very little pine grows here. The prevailing || existed ; but one of them remarked, that many growth, in the uplands, is hickory and oak of of the vilest had “killed each other off!” and various kinds. In the creek bottoms there are that a better state of things might now be lookmany other species of timber, common to the ed for. The government, likewise, has recentbottom lands in our middle and western States, ly extended, and more strictly enforced its laws with some vines and Spanish moss clinging to within that portion of the republic. Many of and dangling from the limbs of the trees. In the the present settlers have a very respectable apbottoms the timber is very tall and fine; but on pearance; but few of them have obtained titles the uplands it is rather scattering and dwarfish-|| to their lands, as foreigners have always, for yet an immense range for borses and cattle is the most part, been prohibited, by law, from afforded, as the whole surface is covered with settling within 60 miles of the United States' a most luxuriant and thick coat of grass. Ma- | line, since the organization of the Mexican govny plants and flowers are to be seen, that are ernment. quite different from those in any part of the
“ June 29th. United States of the North.
“Soon after day-light I resumed my journey; “For about sixteen miles, or thereabouts, Many rumors were circulated of a meditated the country has pretty much the same appear- | attempt, on the part of sundry revolutionists, ance as that just described. We meet with a to take the fort at Nacogdoches; but I deternumber of fine farms on the road. The set-mined to proceed, let the result be what it tlers are, mostly, from the western and south- might. The country has a still better appearern parts of the United States, and live and ance, as we go further westward. 'The prairies transact business much in the same manner that are larger and more numerous. The farms look they do in those States, &c. Large fields of still better than heretofore. The range, for corn present themselves to the view; and, what | cattle, is exceedingly fine. From twenty to may seem curious to a northern farmer, some of thirty, and even as many as forty, beautiful it is now ir tassel, with good roasting ears, while || large fat cows, with young calves, are to be a part is but a few inches high! They have so seen, penned up, at the different farm houses, little winter, in this latitude, (31 1-2 deg. north,) || this morning; and yet the settlers have mostly that they commence planting corn in the latter | resided but a few years in the country. The part of January, and finish in July. In no part facility in raising stock is wonderful. Horses, of America haye I seen better corn than in this cattle, and hogs require no feeding, winter nor section of country. Some cotton and wheat is summer. We now come to a branch of the likewise raised here, as well as most or all oth- || river Neches, called the Ayesh Bayou. There er vegetable productions of our middle and are many settlers in the vicinity of this stream, southern states. In some places the farmers some of whom are located a considerable diswere harvesting oats. The straw was very tance from the road. Several mills, for grindlarge, and the grain looked well. The wheating grain and sawing timber, are established on harvest had been over some weeks.
this Bayou. A great variety of excellent tim"In the latter part of this day's journey, the ber presents itself in the bottoms. Some cane country has a still better appearance. Some || is, likewise, to be seen occasionally. The land, small prairies present themselves; and the farms | generally, still preserves a reddish color; and are larger and more numerous. We pass some the soil is an intermixture of loam and gravel. fields of excellent cotton. The land lies most || In some places a little sand may be seen. The beautifully for cultivation. We now lose the Il roads are, for the most part, very good. Large
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum.
Waggons, drawn by three or four yoke of ox- | good an appearance as that last noted. There ed, are constantly going on them.
is more pine timber, and the land is a little “The weather being very dry and warm, I sandy in some places ; yet I was informed travelled but seventeen miles to-day. I was that it produces good corn, &c., where it is detained, however, considerably, in making en- | cultivated. As I had stopped some length of quiries respecting the state of the country, &c. time with the gentleman whose house I first There are no regular taverns on the road, and I came to, this morning, (who, it should be stopped for the night at a private farm house, mentioned, is a very intelligent and respectable where I found respectable people, and good ac- emigrant from Massachusetts,) I did not reach commodation.
Nacogdoches until near the middle of the day.
“ June 30th. The rumors of an intended attack, by the revo"I sat out, this morning, at daylight; and af- lutionists from the southern settlements, had ter travelling three miles, crossed a fine stream, I made a deep impression upon the minds of the called the Atoyac river. This is also a branch inhabitants; and, seeing me arrive, with my of the Neches. The country about here has knapsack on my back, and thinking I was from much the same appearance as that last descri- the country below, many of them came to me as bed. A ferry, and a small store, are kept at I passed along the street, enquiring the news.' this place, by a Spanish creole, (a native Mexi- But, though I had been something of a newscan,) who evinced much social kindness and monger in my day, I was not then sufficiently hospitality. On enquiry, I found the prices of acquainted with the movements' of those who dry goods lower than I had expected. Groce- delight in 'wars and rumors of wars,' to give ries and hardware were very dear. In travel them any satisfactory information. I found that ling three milus further, I found another creole. I all calculated on a little fighting; and, indeed, He has a fine farm, well stocked with cattle. Il it was looked for hourly. Some hundreds of There is a considerable number of native Mex- | Indians, of the various neighboring tribes, were icans in this section of the country. Few of then in the village, armed and oquipped for them speak the English language; but they are
battle. kind to respectable travellers from these states, “Having been informed, by various persons and to other foreigners. The greater portion of on the road, that I would not be allowed to pass the population is composed of emigrants from the fort at Nacogdoches, in consequence of the various parts of the United States of the North, then unsettled state of the country, I went to the and the style of living among the whole is very commander, immediately after I had changed much the same. I found that many of them had my garb and taken a little refreshment, and migrated from the slaveholding states, and taken made the necessary enquiry. As neither of us their slaves with them. Though the Mexican understood each other's language, he sent for government has passed laws, by virtue of which an interpreter. In the mean time, he very poslavery will ultimately be abolished in that litely handed me a chair, and invited me to parcountry, still considerable numbers are yet held | take of a bottle of wine with himself and other in bondage. Their treatment varies but little, | officers. When the interpreter came, we enif any, from that of the same class of people in | tered immediately into conversation. Instead the United States of the North generally. Sla- | of throwing any obstacles in my way, he gave very will, however, be totally abolished here, | me to understand that I was at perfect liberty to no doubt, in the course of a few years. go further, or tarry in the village, as I should
“As I had been somewhat unwell, and the choose. I then took leave of him, promising, at weather was exceedingly warm, I stopped at the his request, to call on him again before my dehouse of the creole gentleman, above mention- || parture, and took lodgings at the principal taed, three or four hours. During this period we vern, where a number of travellers and advenhad a heavy shower of rain. I then proceeded turers from the United States of the North also nine miles to the next house, and after taking a made their home for a brief period. little rest, went two and a half miles further, Nacogdoches is a rather poor looking place, and took 'lodgings with a gentleman who for- though it has a good deal of trade. Several merly resided in the state of Illinois. He had tribes of Indians reside near it, and bring in cona very kind and interesting family. The coun-siderable quantities of fur and peltry. Five good try through which I travelled this afternoon was mercantile stores, and a few small shops, are not very different from that last described. The || kept in the village. They have, also, a variety of land has a rather paler appearance, in general-mechanics; two or more physicians; a Spanish the soil on the prairies and in the bottoms is, in- and English school; a Catholic church, at which deed, quite dark-tho' we see a little pine tim a minister regularly officiates; and one good ber again, in detached elevations. The prairies || tavern, kept by a gentleman of the name of Roare also larger, as we proceed westward; and in berts, from Virginia. The houses, (perhaps fifty many parts thereof are several kinds of very or sixty in number, exclusive of those in the fine grapes, growing on low vines. These grapes | occupancy of the military,) are nearly all built are said to make an excellent wine. We cross of wood, in the old French and Spanish style, several handsome mill-streams in this section of with large piazzas. Some of them are pretty the country, the water of which is pure and good frames, and all have shingled roofs. The wholesome. Their beds are gravelly, with some population is said to amount to about two hunsand and pebble stone.
dred, exclusive of the garrison and the families
“ July 1st. of the officers and soldiers. From three to four “I resumed my journey early this morning, || hundred troops are generally stationed there. and went nine miles, to the village of Nacogdo- || The town is incorporated, and has an Ayuntaches. There were but two or three houses on miento, (board of aldermen,) an Alcalde, (mathe road, and one of these within half a mile of || gistrate,) &c. &c. Lawyers are very scarce; that place.
Ir going this distance, we pass but the administration of justice is said to be through a tract of country that bes not quite so || prompt and effective, by those who have residect