Evolution of Sameness and Difference

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CRC Press, 19 ago. 1999 - 356 páginas
Evolution of Sameness: and Difference: Perspectives on the Human Genome Project is written for physicians, biologists, and students who are interested in the problem of how sameness and difference are controlled normally--in the course of development and maintenance--and abnormally--in the course of defective growth, tumors, and cancer. The premise of the book is that sameness and difference, like everything else in life, have changed, and that an understanding of those changes will help us learn to control abnormalities such as those associated with birth defects, and invasive, destructive tumors.
 

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Índice

LIFES SAMENESSES AND DIFFERENCES
1
Differences and Samenesses
3
Lifes Unity
5
Samenesses that Unite Living Things
6
Differences that Separate Life from Nonlife
16
Lifes Units
21
Organisms
22
Cells
28
Eucarya
129
Where Domains Meet 142 Shared Across the Three Domains
142
Shared Across Two Domains
143
Critique
145
Been There Done
146
Lineages Do Not Necessarily Come and Go from Points
147
RECONCILING SAMENESS AND DIFFERENCE
149
Early Earthlives
151

Genes
31
33
33
Critique of Lifes Apportionment to Units
36
A Critique of Biology in the 20th Century
37
Biologys Ontological Blindspot
38
Biologys Epistemological Blindspots
39
FINDING SAMENESS IN LIFES MOLECULES
43
Biological Sameness
45
Molecular Samenesses
46
Individuating
48
The Human Genome Project
51
Genomic Samenesses
58
Mapping
59
Genomic Sequences
65
Looking for Genes in the Genome
68
Analyzing PolypeptideEncoding Sequences
69
Gene Families and Classes
74
Interpretation of Gene Families 83 Homology
83
Confusing Molecular Families with Molecular Descent
85
Categories of Sameness
89
CONTENDING WITH DIFFERENCE
93
A Brief History of Differences in Biology
94
The New Look of Difference 100 Cladistics Methods
100
i Drawing Evolutionary Inferences from Molecular Differences
103
Viruses and Retrotransposons
105
RNA Viruses
107
DNA Viruses
110
DNARNA and RNADNA Switching Viruses Pararetroviruses and Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
111
The New Look at Cellular Life
115
Finding the Root of Difference
116
Putting an Age on Difference
118
Domains in Lifes Universal Phylogenetic Tree 120 Bacteria Also Called Eubacteria
120
Archaea Also Called Archaebacteria
126
A Geochronometric View of the Early Earth
152
Origins
153
Between Chemistry and Biology
160
RNABased Genomes
163
The RNA World
164
Early Intronic
167
Genetic andor Operational Codes
168
DNABased Genomes
172
Stable Conveyers of Heredity
174
Repositories of Genomes
178
Superfamilies of Genes
181
Earthlives 186 Devolution of Noncellular Life
186
Devolution of Cellular Life
191
Critical Issues for Sameness and Difference
203
EVOLUTION VERSUS DEVOLUTION
207
Biologys Horseless Carriage
209
What Is Evolution?
210
Pervasive Ambiguity
211
Virtual Evolution
214
Evolutions Fuel
216
Genes
217
Mutations
219
Devolution
222
Evolutions Transmission 227 Genetic Continuity
227
Devolution
228
Evolutions Engine
231
The Roots of Natural Selection
232
Reprise
237
ENDNOTES
239
BIBLIOGRAPHY
277
INDEX
325
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