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Punishment of the conspirators -. 5

QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE - - ibid.

France and England declare war against Spain 6

Destruction and capture of the Spanish fleet by sir
George Byng • - ibid.

1719 Recovery of the island of Sicily, and the conquest of

Sardinia .... ibid.

Progress of the French arms on the frontiers of Spain 7

Philip V. accedes to the terms prescribed by the qua-
druple alliance, and Alberoni is disgraced ibid.

Particulars of John Law, author of the famous Missisippi
scheme .. .. - ibid.

His views in projecting it ibid.

Infatuating spirit of adventure, occasioned by that

scheme - - -8

Immense circulation of paper - 9

Its depreciation, and the distress of France ibid.

Rise of the South-Sea scheme in England - 10

^Concise accqunt.o/,the state of the national debt, the pub-

lic funds, and the stocks - - ibid,

of the South-Sea company - • 11

Lucrative trade carried on by that company 12

Sir John Blount proposes, under pretence of lowering the
interest of the national debt, that the South-Sea com-
pany shall become the sole public creditor ibid.

1720 Act of parliament procured for that purport, and books

of subscription opened for granting annuities to such
public creditors as might think proper to exchange the
security of the crovm for that of the South-Sea company,
with the chance of the emoluments of their trade ibid*

Rapid and excessive rise of the stock of the South-Sea

company - - - 13

It falls as rapidly - - 14

Ruined and distracted state of the stockholders ibid.

A committee of the house of commons appointed to en-
quire into the cheat practised upon the nation ibid.

1721 The chief promoters of that iniquitous scheme punished;

the sufferers indemnified as far as possible, and public
credit restored - - ibid.

The discontents occasioned by the South-Sea scheme,

encourage the jacohites to form a conspiracy in favour

of the pretender - - - 15

1722 It is discovered, and rendered abortive - 16

Several noblemen taken into custody, Christopher Layer

executed, and the bishop of Rochester banished ibid,

1723 Death and character of the duke of Orleans, regent of

France .' - - ibid.

Treaty
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on the integrity andindependency of parliament 22

1731 The contracting powers, in the treaty of Seville, guarantee

the Pragmatic Sanction, or domestic law, by which

the succession to the hereditary dominions of the house

of Austria were secured to the heirs female of the em-
peror Charles VI. if he should die without male issue 'J J
.1733 Death of Augustus II. king of Poland, gives rise to a new
continental war ... ibid.

The kings of France, Spain, and Sardinia, league against

the emperor ... - 24

The duke of Berwick passes the Rhine, at the head of a
French army, and reduces fort Kehl - ibid.

1734 He is killed by a cannon ball at the siege of Philipsburg ibid.

Philipsburg surrenders 25

Rapid progress of the French arms in Italy - ibid.

1735 The emperor sues for peace, and obtains it through the

mediation of cardinal Fleury, the French minister ibid.
Articles of the treaty - - ' - ibid.

J736 War between the Russians and Turks - 26

1737 The Russians ravage the Crimea, enter the Ukraine, and
make themselves masters of Oczakow - ibid.

4738 The emperor attacks the Turks on the side of Hungary 27

The Imperial generals repeatedly defeated - ibid.

The Turks obtain an advantageous peace - - ibid.

Death of the emperor Charles VI. the last prince of the an-

cient house of Austria, without male issue - ibid.

LETTER XXVII.

Progress of navigation, commerce, and colonization, from the

year 1660, to the year 1739, when Spain and Great-Britain

engaged in a maritime war, occasioned by certain commercial

disputesan account of the principal events in that warthe

taking of Porto-Bcllothe siege of Carthagenaand the

expedition of commodore Anson to the South-Sea.

Decline of the Dutch commerce - - 28

Flourishing trade of England, from the restoration to the

revolution , . . . ibid.

'Colbert

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1664 Colbert establishes the French East-India company 39

French West-India trade becomes considerable ibid.

Vast European trade of France during the periocT under
review ..... ibid.

TheFrench commerce receivesatemporary checkfrom the
revocation of the Edict or Nantz [a. D. 1686] 30

1 he finer manufactures introduced by French refugees into

England, where every ingenious art and branch of manu-

facture is carried to a high degree of perfection ibid.

The English and French colonies in North-America en-

large their boundaries, increase in wealth and population,

and consume a great quantity of European goods 31

The colonies of both nations, established in the West-India
islands, furnish a yet more beneficial trade - ibid.

Account cf the produce of those islands, and of the wants of
the inhabitants .... ibid.

Rise of the buccaneers or freebooters - - 32

They at first subsist by the hunting of wild cattle ibid.

Their piratical expeditions and singular manners 33

The Spanish vessels more particularly marked out as the

objects of their rapacity ... 34

Their booty originally carried to the island of Tortuga,
but afterwards to Jamaica - - - 3S

Their manner of dividing their plunder - ibid.

Their avidity of enjoying the present moment, and disre-
gard of future consequences * - ibid.

They commonly followed the Spanish galleons and flotaas

far as the channel of Bahama - 3S

Temerity of Peter Legrand - - ibid.

The buccaneers form themselves into large bodies, and

plunder the Spanish settlements - - 37

Account of the exploits of Montbars, who acquired the

name of the Exterminator ... ibid.

of Michael de Basco and Francis Lolonois 38

1-C67 Their expedition to the gulf of Venezuela - ibid.

Exploits of Henry Morgan, a native of the principality

of Wales - - - 39

1668 He takes Porto-Bello, and finds in it a rich booty ibid.

Returns to Jamaica, and plans an expedition against Mara-

caybo - - - -40

1669 Finds the town totally deserted, and is informed of the arrival

of a Spanish squadron at the entrance of the lake ibid.

His intrepidity and presence of mind - ibid.

Resolute conduct of the Spanish admiral - ibid.

Daring courage of Morgan and' his followers 41

They make their escape with their booty, and arrive safe

at Port-Royal, in the island of Jamaica - 42

Encouraged

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1670 Encouraged by his success, Morgan again puts to sea,
accompanied with a more numerous body of adventurers,
ftnd reduces the castle of Cliagre - - ibid.

Sails up the river of the same name, and proceeds over

land to Panama .... ibid.

Makes himself master of the place, and deliberately pil-

lages it - - - - 43

Falls in love with a fair captive, who resists all his amorous
solicitations .... ibid.

Divides the booty among his followers, and returns to

Port-Royal with one hundred thousand pounds as his

own share - - - - 44

Various causes which contributed to the suppression of

the buccaneers - - - ibid.

Jamaica enriched by their piratical expeditions ibid.

Contraband trade carried on from that island with the

Spanish settlements on the continent of America 45

Guards Costas stationed to prevent such trade 46

The commanders of those vessels guilty of many cruel
abuses .... ibid.

The people of England, incensed at the violences of the
Spanish commanders, call loudly for vengeance ibid.

1739 Convention of Pardo; by which the king of Spain agrees

to pay the sum of ninety-five thousand pounds sterling,

by way of indemnification, to the subjectsof Great-

Britain, for their losses, in consequence of the seizures

made by the Guarda Costas - - ibid.

Petitions against the convention presented from all the

trading towns in the kingdom - - 47

War declared against Spain [oct. 19.] - ibid.

1740 Porto-Bello taken by admiral Vernon - 48

Account of that Spanish settlement, - ibid.

Its decay, in latter times, by reason of the abolition of the

galleons, and the substitution of register-ships in their

place .... 49

The joy of the English nation on the taking of Porto-Bello

ibid.

Masterly speech of Sir Robert Walpole on the subject of

patriotism - - - 50

1741 Expedition against Carthagena - - 51

Description of that city and harbour - ibid.

Great strength of the works - - 52

Castillo Grande taken by the British troops, and a passage

opened into the harbour - - ibid.

The troops disembarked - 53

Disagreement between the admiral and general, and

shameful inactivity of both - - ibid.

Unsuccessful
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Unsuccessful attack upon fort St. Lazarus - 54

Misconduct of the besiegers - - ibid.

The rainy season sets in, and the enterprize is abandoned 55

Vast mortality on board the fleet and transports ibid.

Vernon and Wentworth, the commanders in chief, return

home, after some other abortive attempts, with the loss

of near twenty thousand men - - 56

Expedition of Anson to the South-Sea - ibid.

He passes cape Horn, and reaches the island of Juan Fer-

nandez ... ibid.

Takes several prizes off" the coast of Chili, and plunders

Paita, on the coast of Peru . - 56

17*2 Sails for Acapulco, in hopes of intercepting the Manilla

galleon ----- 57

Misses her, and steers for Canton in China ibid.

1743 Having refitted the Centurion, his only remaining ship, he

again'launches into the Pacific-Ocean, and captures the
galleon on her return from Acapulco laden with treasure

ibid.

1744 Returns to England by the cape of Good-Hope, and the

Spanish treasure is carried to the tower of London with

great parade ... ibid.

LETTER XXVIII.

General view of the affairs of Europe, from the death of the

emperor Charles VI. in 1740, to the treaty of Dresden, in

1745, and the confirmation of the treaty of Brcslcm.

1740 The Pragmatic Sanction, guaranteed by almost all

the European powers, secures to the archduchess Maria

Theresa, the late emperor's eldest daughter, married to

Francis of Lorrain, grand-duke of Tuscany, the succes-

sion to the whole Austrian dominions - 58

Enumeration of the kingdoms and provinces that composed

that vast inheritance - - ibid.

The archduchess receives the homage of the states of

Austria, and also of the Italian provinces, and of the

kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia - 59

She gains the hearts of all her subjects, by her popular
affability, and particularly endears herself to the Hunga-
rians ..... ibid.

Rise of the greatness of Frederick III. king of Prussia 60

1741 He lays claim to part of Silesia, and makes himself master

of Breslaw, its capital ... ibid.

Battle of Molwitz - - - 61

The Austrains defeated, after an obstinate engagement ibid.
This victory followed by the reduction of Glatz and Neiss,

and the entire submission of the province of Silesia ibid.

The success of the king of Prussia astonishes all Europe 62

The

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