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to Surrey, are merely rhythmical, to be aberrant lines are much more common read by cadence, and admitting of con in the dramatic blank verse of the se. siderable variety in the number of venteenth century. They are, doubtless, syllables, though ten may be the more vestiges of the old rhythmical forms; frequent. In the manuscripts of Chaucer, and we may readily allow that English the line is always broken by a cæsura versification had not, in the fifteenth or in the middle, which is pointed out by a even sixteenth centuries, the numerical virgule; and this is preserved in the regularity of classical or Italian metre. early editions down to that of 1532. In the ancient ballads, Scots and English, They come near, therefore, to the short the substitution of the anapaest for the Saxon line, differing chiefly by the iambic foot, is of perpetual recurrence, alternate rhyme, which converts two and gives them a remarkable elasticity verses into one. He maintains that a and animation; but we never fail to great many lines of Chaucer cannot be recognize a uniformity of measure, read metrically, though harmonious as which the use of nearly equipollent verses of cadence. This rhythmical feet cannot, on the strictest metrical measure he proceeds to show in Hoc. principles, be thought to impair.” cleve, Lydgate, Hawes, Barclay, Skel

Mr Guest, in his work, of which ton, and even Wyatt; and thus concludes,

we hope erelong to give an account, that it was first abandoned by Surrey, in whom it very rarely occurs.

brings to the story of English verse

This hypothesis, it should be observed, de

far more extensive research than rives some additional plausibility from

had hitherto been bestowed upon a passage in Gascoyne's “ Notes of

it; and that special scholarship instruction concerning the making of

which was needed, the Anglo-Saxon verse or rhyme in English,' printed in

ter in language, learned in the new continen1575. "Whosoever do peruse and well

tal school of Rask and Grimm. His consider his (Chaucer's) works, he examination of our subject merges in shall find that, although his lines are a general history of the Language, not always of one selfsame number of viewed as a metrical element or masyllables, yet being read by one that terial; and hence his exposition, which hath understanding, the longest verse, we rapidly collect seriatim, is plainly and that which hath most syllables in different in respect of both order and it, will fall (to the ear) correspondent fulness from what it would have been, unto that which hath fewest syllables; had the illustration of Chaucer been his and likewise that which hath fewest main purpose. He follows down the syllables shall be found yet to consist of gradual Extinction of Syllables; and words that have such natural sound, as in this respect, our anciently syllamay seem equal in length to a verse bled, now mute E, takes high place. which bath many more syllables of and falls first under his consideration, lighter accents.'

This now silent or vanished Vowel “A theory so ingeniously maintained, occurred heretofore, with metrical and with so much induction of exam

power, in adopted FRENCH Substanples, has naturally gained a good deal

tives, as—eloquenc-E, maladi-E; and of credit. I cannot, however, by any

in their plurals, as—maladi-ES. And means concur in the extension given to it. Pages may be read in Chaucer, and

in Adjectives of the same origin, as

larg-E. stili more in Dunbar, where every line

It remained from several parts of is regularly and harmoniously decasyllabic; and though the cæsura may per

the Axglo-Saxon grammar.–From haps fall rather more uniformly than it

A, E, U, endings of Anglo-Saxon subdoes in modern verse, it would be very

stantives—as nam-A, nam-E; tim-A, easy to find exceptions, which coulă tim-E; mon-A, (the moon,) mon-E; not acquire a rhythmical cadence by any

sunn-E, (the sun,) sonn-E; heort-E, artifice of the reader. The deviations

(the heart,) hert-E; car-E, (the ear,) from the normal type, or decasyllable er-E; scol-u, (school,) scol-E; luf-u, line, were they more numerous than, lov-E;sceam-u, sham-E;lag-A, law-E; after allowance for the license of pro- sun-u, (a son,) son-E; wud-U, (a nunciation, as well as the probable cor- wood,) wod-E.-(To Mr Guest's three ruption of the text, they appear to be, vowels, add 0:—as bræd-o (breadth) would not, I conceive, justify us in con- bred-E.) – From the termination cluding that it was disregarded. These THE; as-streng-THE; yow-TIIE. -From a few adjectives ending in E; Guest's particular regard ; but it is as-getrew-E, trew-E; new-E, new-E. easily understood that the Anglo

From adverbs, formed by the same Saxon hlaford, (lord,) gen. sing. vowel from adjectives; as from beorht, hlaford-Es, had, in Chaucer's day, (bright,) is made, in Anglo-Saxon, become lord, lord-ES;—and that scar, beorht-E, (brightly,) remaining with (shower,) plural scur-As, of our disChaucer, as bright-E.--Inflexion pro tant progenitors had bequeathed to duces the final E. In substantives, his verse-shour, shour-es. the prevalent singular dative of the Legitimate scepticism surely ceases mother speech was in E. Chancer, when it thus appears that ignorance now and then, seems to present us alone has hastily understood that this with a dative; as in the second verse vowel, extant in this or that word, of the Prologue to the Canterbury with a quite alien meaning and use, Tales, from rot, (root) rot-E. And (-e. g. for lengthening a foregoing Mr Guest thinks that he has found vowel --softening an antecedent conONE instance of a genitive plural E sonant,)-or with none, and through from A; namely, from the earlier ath, the pure casualty of negligence or (an oath,) genitive plural, ath-A; with of error, might at any time be pressed Chaucer—oth, oth-E.

irregularly into metrical service. The German family of languages Assuredly Chaucer never used such exhibits a fine and bold peculiarity blind and wild license of straightening a double declension of its Adjectives, his measure ; but an instructed ere depending on a condition of syntax. sees in the Canterbury Tales-and The Anglo-Saxon adjective, in its or- in all his poetry of which the text is dinary (or, as grammarians have called incorrupt—the uniform application of it, Indefinite declension, makes the an intricate and thoroughly critical nominative plural for all the genders rule, which fills up by scores, by hunin E; and this remains as the regular dreds, or by thousands, the timeplural termination of the adjective to wronged verses of “the Great FounChaucer. Thus we have, in the morcan- der” to true measure and true music. cient language-eald; plural, eald-E; To sum up in a few words our own with Chaucer-old; plural, old- , &c. views–First, if you take xo account

Therule of the extraordinary (or De- of the mute E, the great majority of finite)declension, is thus generallygiven Chaucer's verses in the only justifiable by MrGuest for Chaucer. “When the text-Tyrwhitt's Canterbury Tales adjective follows the definite article, or are in what we commonly call the TENthe definite pronoun, this, that, or any syllabled lambic metre. one of the possessive pronouns-his, Secondly, if you take account of the her, &c.-it takes what is called its de metrical E, the great majority of them finite form."-(Vol. i. p. 32.) From appear, if you choose so to call them, the Anglo-Saxon definite declension as ELEVEN-syllabled lambic verses, (running through three genders, five or as the common heroic measure with cases, and two numbers,) remains, to a supernumerary terminal syllable. the language that arose after the Thirdly, if you take no account of Conquest, one final E. E. g. Inde. the disputed E, a very large number finite-strong; definite, strong-E;— of the verses, but less apparently than indefinite-high; definite-high-E. the majority, appear as wanting in

The Verb ends the first person sin. ternally one or two syllables. gular, and the three persons plural, Fourthly, if you take account of the of the present tense, and makes im- said troublesome E, almost universally perative and infinitive, in E. The these deficient measures become filled past tense generally ends in DE or up to the due complement- become EDE; (Mr Guest has forgotten TE;) decasyllabic or hendecasyllabic, as sometimes in ED.

the case may be. As for those two principal endings, Fifthly, if you consent to take acthe genitive singular in Es, which is count of this grammatical metrical E, the Anglo-Saxon termination retain- no inconsiderable number of the verses ed, and the plural in ES, which is --ten-syllabled or eleven-syllabled, the Anglo-Saxon cnding obscured by technical computation-acquire one they happen hardly to fall tinder Mr or two supernumerary syllables dis

tributed, if one may so speak, within relief from objections greater than the verse--and to be viewed as en- those who should enquire concerning riching the harmony without distort- perhaps any other poet. In the foring or extending the measure, after mation of his verse, and the lifting up the manner of the Paradise Lost. of a rude language, more than Dante

Finally, (for the present,) whether himself, a creator! What wonder, the verses in general fall under our then, if he should sometimes make usual English scheme of the one-syl-' mistakes, and that some inconsistenlabled ending, or end, as the Italian cies remain at last irreducible? If for the most part do, dissyllabically, the method undertaken draws the has been disputed by those who agree irreducible cases into a narrower and in the recognition of the metrical E. a narrower compass, that sufficiently To wit-shall the final E of Mr justifies the theory of the method Guest's rule, ending the verse, and against all gainsayers. where it would, consequently, make T his copious, and, possibly, tedious a hypercatalectic eleventh syllable, grammatical display of this once acstill be pronounced — as Tyrwhitt, tive metrical element, was forced from although not anxiously, contends ? us as the only proper answer to the If the grammatical rule is imperative doubt revived in our own day on the within the verse, as much, one would versification of Chaucer. We are too think, must it be so at its termination. prone to believe that our forefathers That Chaucer admits the doubled werc as rude as their speech, and their ending we see by numerous unequi- specch as they ; but this multitude of vocal instances from all moods of the grammatical delicacies, retained for verse, mirthful and solemn; these centuries after the subjection of the show a versification friendly to the native language by conquest, and sysdoubled ending; and must go far to tematically applied in the versification remove any scruple of admitting Tyr- of the great old poet, shows a feeling whitt's conception of it as generally of language, and an authentic stamp hendecasyllabic.

of art, that claim the most genial and Let the position of Chaucer in the sympathizing respect of a refined history of his art be considered, and posterity, to their not wholly unreit will be seen that those who main- fined, more heroic ancestors. tain a systematic art in him have a

INDEX TO VOL. LVII.

About a bonnet, 242.

I. concluded, The Palimpsest, 739
Aden, town of, 206.

Levana and our Ladies of Sorrow, 743
Advice to an author, on the novel and -The apparition of the Brocken, 747
the drama, 679.

-Finale to Part I., Savannah-la-Mar,
Æsthetics of dress :-A case of hats, 51 750.

No. II. about a bonnet, 242-No. Critics, the British—see British.
III. the cut of a coat and the good Cuba, insurrection in, 605.
of a gown, 608_No. IV. minor mat Cut of a coat, the, 608.
ters, 731.

Dance of death, from Goethe, 167.
Affliction of childhood, the, by the Eng Dante, characteristics of, 2, 9.
lish Opium-Eater, 274.

Death trance, from Goethe, 177.
Agriculture, Practical, 298.

Delta, stanzas written after the funeral
Almaden, the quicksilver mines of, 186. of Sir David Milne, by, 766.
Anacreon's grave, from Goethe, 175. Desert, journey across the, 204.
Apparition of the Brocken, the, by the Draining land, on, 299.
English Opium-Eater, 747.

Drama and the novel, the, 679.
Ariosto, remarks on, 404.

Dress, æsthetics of, a case of hats, 51–
Arnold's history of Rome, vol. iii., re- No. II. about a bonnet, 242_No. III.
view of, 752.

The cut of a coat and the good of a
Betham's Etruria Celtica, review of, 474. gown, 608.
Blind girl, to a, 98.

Dryden as a critic, 133, 369, 503—as a
Bonnet, about a, 242.

translator,511-on Chaucer, 617,77I.
Book of the Farm, review of, 298. Dumas, M., the three guardsmen by, 59.
Borodino, an ode, 30.

Egypt, sketches of, 286.
Bravo, character of, 601.

English woman in Egypt, the, 286.
Breeze, the, from Goethe, 173.

Etruria Celtica, review of, 474.
British critics, North's specimens of, Etudes des Sciences Sociales, review

No. I. Dryden, 133_No. II. Dryden of, 529.
and Pope, 369_No. III. Dryden, 503 Evening, from Goethe, 173.
-No. IV. Dryden on Chaucer, 617— Exculpation, from Goethe, 179.
No. V. the same, concluded, 771. Fairest flower, the, from Goethe, 168.
British history during the eighteenth Fasti of Ovid, translation from the, 91.
century, 353.

Forced sale, the, 99—Chap. II., 103
Brothers, the, from Goethe, 176.

Chap. III, 107_Chap. IV., 111.
Cairo, town of, 210.

France, state of manners, &c., in, before
Calm at sea, the, from Goethe, 173. the Revolution, 705.
Campagna of Rome, the, 546.

George III., review of Walpole's me-
Case of hats, a, 51.

moirs of, 353.
Cattaro, sketches of, 34.

German-American romances - The
Cavalier's choice, from Goethe, 174. Viceroy and the Aristocracy, or
Cennino Cennini on painting, 717.

Mexico in 1812_Part I., Introduc-
Cervantes, remarks on, 8.

tion, 251_Chap. I., 257 Chap, XI,
Ceylon, sketch of, 204.

262—Part II., 331 - Chap. XVIII.,
Chapman's Homer, remarks on, 381. 333—Chap. XIX., 340_Chap. XX,
Chaucer, Dryden on, 617, 771.

345—Chap., XXIII., 349-Part III.,
Chosen rock, the, from Goethe, 177. 561_Chap. XLI.,572-Chap. XLII.,
Coleridge and opium-eating, 117.

575.
Comfort in tears, from Goethe, 170. Gillman's life of Coleridge, strictures
Confessions of an English Opium-eater, on, 117.

a sequel to. Introductory notice, 269 Glance at the Peninsula, 595.
--Part I. The affliction of childhood, Goethe--see Poems.
274.-Part I. continued, 489.- Part Good of a gown, the, 608.

Grant to Maynooth, the, 647.

O'Donnell, governor of Cuba, 605.
Hannibal, 752.

Opium-Eater, a sequel to the confes-
Hats, a case of, 51.

sions of the, introductory notice, 269
History, on translating, 507.

Part I. The affliction of childhood,
Holy family, the, from Goethe, 178. 274_Part I. continued, 489-con-
Homer, on the translation of, 507. cluded; the Palimpsest, 739-Levana
Homer, Dante, and Michael Angelo, 1. and our Ladies of Sorrow, 743—the
Homeward bound, 18.

apparition of the Brocken,747—Finale
Hood, Thomas, stanzas to the memory

to Part I., Savannah-la-Mar, 750.
of, by B. Simmons, 768.

Overland passage, the, 204.
Husbandman, the, from Goethe, 175. Ovid's Fasti, translation from, 94.
Isabel, Queen of Spain, character of Painting, Cennino Cennini on, 717.
598.

Park, the, from Goethe, 178.
Janus, from the Fasti of Ovid, 94. Parting precepts, by B. Simmons, 114.
J. D. To a Blind Girl, by, 98–Stan Pauperism, increase of, 531.
zas by, 314.

Peel, E. Borodino, an ode by, 30.
Juvenal, remarks on, 516.

Peninsula, a glance at the, 695.
King in Thule, the, from Goethe, 166. Perfect bliss, from Goethe, 176.
Lebrun's Lawsuit, 705.

Philomela, from Goethe, 177.
Leon, General, 606.

Phæbus and Hermes, from Goethe, 179.
Letters of the Dead, by B. Simmons, Ping-Kee's view of the stage, 415.
114.

Poems and ballads of Goethe, No. III.
Levana and our Ladies of Sorrow, by the The waterman, 165—the king in
English Opium-Eater, 743.

Thule, 166—the dance of death, 167
Lopez, character of, 601.

- the fairest flower, 168---sorrow
Love's Hour-Glass, from Goethe, 176. without consolation, 170-comfort in
Lucretius, remarks on, 517.

tears, ib.- to a golden heart, 171–
Malmesbury's Diary and Correspon welcome and departure, 172_even-
dence, review of, 315.

ing, 173-a calm at sea, ib.—the
Malta, 215.

breeze, ib.—the cavalier's choice,
Marriage unequal, from Goethe, 178. 174-retribution, 175-poems after
Marston; or, Memoirs of a Statesman the manner of the antique; the hus-

- Part XV., 75--Part XVI., 461 bandman, ib.—Anacreon's grave, ib.
Part XVII., 679.

the brothers, 176_Love's hour-
Matanzas, insurrection at, 605.

glass, ib.-warning, ib.-solitude, ib.
Maynooth, 647.

- perfect bliss, ib.—the chosen rock,
Merrifield, Mrs, translation of Cennino 177- the death - trance, ib.— Philo-
Cennini on Painting, by, 717.

mela, ib.--sacred ground, ib.—the
Mesmerism, 219.

park, 178—the teachers, ib.-mar-
Mexico in 1812-Part I., 251–Part riage unequal, ib.-holy family, ib.-
II., 331_Part III., 561.

exculpation, 179—the muses' mirror,
Michael Angelo, 1, 15.

ib.-Phoebus and Hermes, ib.-a new
Midnight Watch, the-Chap. I., 424– love, ib.—the wreaths, 180— the Swiss

Chap. II., 431– Chap. III., 439– Alp, ib.
Chap. IV., 444.

Poetry :-Borodino, an ode, by E. Peel,
Niine, Sir David, stanzas written after 30-Janus, from the Fasti of Ovid,
the funeral of, by Delta, 766.

94—to a blind girl, 98_Vanities in
Milton, critiques on, 5, 503.

verse, by B. Simmons, 114—the
Modern Political Economy, remarks on, tower of London, by Thomas Ros-
529.

coe, 158_ the poems and ballads of
Mohammed Ali, 215.

Goethe, No. II. 165–stanzas by
Montenegro, a ramble in, 33.

J. D., 314— stanzas written after the
Muse's mirror, from Goethe, 179.

fnneral of Sir David Milne, by Delta,
My first spec in the Biggleswades, 549. 766-stanzas to the memory of Tho."
Narvaez, character of, 599.

mas Hood, by B. Simmons, 768.
New love, from Goethe, 179.

Poetry, on the translation of, 507.
North's Specimens of the British Critics, Political economy, remarks on modern,

No. I., Dryden, 133_No. II., Dryden 529.
and Pope, 369_No. III., Dryden, Pompeii, 218.
503— No. IV, Dryden on Chaucer, Poole's Englishwoman in Egypt, review
617—the same, concluded, 771.

of, 286.
Novel and the Drama, the, 679.

Pope, critique on, 369.

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