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Universal History,


Earliest ACCOUNT of TIME.

Compiled from


By the Authors of the Ancient PART.



Printed for T. OS BORNE, C. HITCH, A. MILLAR,

Co. T. LONGMAN, and C. WARE,


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N the year 1668, so great was the attention of the court Prosperous of France to the prosperity of Canada, that the affairs of

fiate of that colony had a most promising aspect. Gentlemen Canada. of ancient families aud small fortunes in Old France transported themselves to the New, where they had lands and lordships assigned them; and, with a very moderate share of industry, they were foon enabled to live like men of quality. The soldiers of the regiment of Carignan Salieres were now become planters and colonists, and every officer amongst them was a great landholder; a policy that cannot be fufficiently admired in the court of France, as every man thereby had an interest and a property in what he fought for. New troops were sent over, which fill added not only to the strength, but the tranquillity of the colony; and the habits of industry, application, and labour, became now to be fashionable. Happily for their neighbours, the subjects of Great Britain, those habits were forced, and of no long continuance. The moment the Frenchs planter found means

to fubfist himself with a little outward shew and splendour, - all toil and application was laid aside; which always gave the

English an important superiority in the solid possessions of life. The tranquillity, however, which the colony enjoyed Mop. Hist: 'VOL. XL.



was a proof of its prosperity; so that, towards the end of this
year, even the Tsonnonthouans applied to M. Courcelles for a
millionary to instruct them, and he sent them father Fremin.
The Agniers, who had hitherto appeared the most determined
enemies of the missionaries, and who had so often embrued
their hands in their blood, became now reconciled to their
doctrines; and vast numbers of converts were made about the
falls of St. Lewis, and the mountain ; but the Onneyouths
and Goyogouins were less tractable. By this time, the Iroquois,
remaining in perfect peace, the Algonquins, whom they had
dislodged and driven away, returned to their former habita-
tions, all of them converts to christianity, or rather to popery,
though Charlevoix ingenuously confesses“, that most of those
conversions were the effect of interest and convenience only,
and seldom sincere. About this time, father Nicholas, who
was labouring with Allouez at Chagouamigon, conducted to
Quebec savages who are known by the name of Pierced-noses,
from their practice of piercing their noses, and hanging beads
and plates to them. After disposing of their merchandizes

they returned to Chagouamigon.
Differences About the year 1668, or 1669, a misunderstanding grew

up between Courcelles the governor-general, and Talon, the Courcelles intendant general of New France. Both of them were men and Talon.

great and acknowledged ablities. Talon understood the interests of the colony, and had done it great services ; but being an accomplished courtier, he espoused on all occasions the interests of the jesuits, whom Courcelles disliked. The latter had fine parts, and would have been a most excellent governor, had he been a little more active; or, if he could have suffered Talon to have supplied his place. Talon saw this weakness, and often ventured to dispatch business without consulting the governor general, so that they lived uneasily together, and Talon going over to France was succeeded by M. Bouteroue. This minister brought along with him a letter from M. Colbert to Courcelles, which politely gave him to understand that he ought to live upon better terms than he did with the bishop of Petrée and the jesuits, and that M. Bouteroue was preferred to the intendency of the province, chiefly on account of the great regard he had for

that order. Quebec For some years past a negotiation had been on foot bemade a

tween the courts of France and Rome about erecting Quebec bikaprick into a bishopric. As there was at this time but a very indif



ferent undertanding between the two courts, bis holiness

* CHARLEVOIX, Vol. II. p. 187.


made great difficulties on account of the independency, which a bishop of Quebec might affect in so distant a country. At laft, all difficulties were got over ; his most christian majesty, to make suitable provision for the new bishopric, gave to it, and the chapter of the cathedral, the rents of the ab. bey of Maubec, which was afterwards encreased with those of the abbey of Benevent. So miserably poor, however, was the new bishop of Quebet, and so griping the papal court, that the bulls of his creation lay for four years at Rome for want of money to defray the expence of passing them. About this time, Maisonneuve, who had so long and so worthily governed Montreal, resigned his poft, and M. Bretonvilliers, as fuperior general of the

seminary of St. Sulpice, named M. Perrot to succeed him. The latter, who had married a niece of Talon, thought it beneath his character to act under a commission from a private subject, and, therefore, had intereft enough to obtain commiflion from the king, which, however, exprelly mentioned that it was granted upon the nomination of M. Bretonvillieri.

NOTWITHSTANDING the natural inactivity of Courcelles, Conduft yet he was extremely alert in every thing relating to the in- of Cours tereft of New France, especially with regard to the favages. celles. Understanding that the Iroquois, who lay towards the lake Ontario, had lent presents to the Outaouais to engage them to bring their furs to them that they might dispose of them to the English of New York, he resolved to check them. For that purpose he embarked with a body of troops on the river St. Laurence, and notwithstanding the great number of falls and rapids he met with between Montreal and Jake Ontario, he shewed the savages that it would always be in the power of the i French to invade them by, boats; which had all the effect he could have wished for, by their breaking off their commerce with the Outaouais, and the other northern savages. This voyage, however, did so much prejudice to his health, that he soon after defired to be recalled. The remaining term of his government was chiefly taken up in replacing the French settlements of Acadia and Newfoundland, which had been ceded to the crown of France, by the treaty of Breda. In

1670, the year 1670, M. Talon, who had retired from the intendency of New France, only that he might resume it with greater advantages, returned to Canada. That able minifter, notwithstanding all 'bis attachment to the jesuits, was convinced that their ministry was prejudicial to the temporal affairs of the colony; and, during his absence in France, he had obtained the re-establishment of the fathers recollects, who the reader may remember, were the first millionaries in Cara

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