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302 ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION, NO. CXLIX.

[Oct. were certainly once continued up- lumns, they bear but little change. wards, so as to constitute the mul- Ju the mouldings, some novelty is Jions ; but the openings to the win- brought forward, in the many squares dows are now wholly curtailed of or fillets, mixed with the hollows such dividing particulars, and the and rounds; and in the foliages a more consequent tracery. Pateras are in- minute, and less conspicuous boldness troduced likewise on the architraves, of Icafing occurs. The arches to the both to the arches of the windows, windows in the side walls give, at and to that of the entablature. These their springings, certain degrees of pateras, thus introduced, are peculiar a circle struck from the necessary to this Chapel, as are the infinity of centre, from whence the Pointed arch minute ornaments, laid on every itself is extended to the required moulding throughout the design. height, forining a new species of From the nature of the entablature, Pointed arch, struck from four cenrumuing in a direct line above the tres. Here a remarkable deviation windows, on each side the building, from the true geometric or triana it is very certain, that there never gular proportioned arch appears, and were any groins intended to complete which conception in the succeeding the same, but some open timber- reigas was carried sțill fartber, by wrought roof, correspondent to the taking more of the circular and less general contour of the main work. of the extending sweep: Thus this Those spaces, left untooled by, the kind of Pointed arch continued to Mason, or Sculptor, are penciled depress or fatten itself, until at last upon by the Painter, in armorial, the heads of the windows fell to a ornamental, historical, and scriptural mere straight, or forizontal lipe.. subjects, In fact, this last artist has The great feature in the iuterior of pot left the smallest moulding or this august erection is, the openfoliage untouched; as they are either worked tinber roof, ouce profesfilled iu with various tints, or over- sionally walled one of the wonders laid by. gilding, which niust have of the world ; and I hope there are produced, upon the whole, the most still those, whose feelings can give sublime and gorgeous scene that ever way to something like enthusiastic adorned this kingdom.

praise. I bear my weakness in this - Pointed Style of Architecture froin sort, if it is a weakness, and own,

the reign of Edward III. to the that ever as I comment on its surreign of Henry VI.

prizing framing, draw from its geo, WESTMINSTER Halt. This struc- inetric composure, its all enduring, ture, excepting the dados on its sides, resisling powers ; some new attracEast and West, (these parts of the tion, or some new stroke of art, walls are the remains of the Hall of still presents itself to my admiring · William II.) is allowed to have been vicw. I shall here presume to lay erected in the reign of Richard II. down its geometric principle. The West Front, although it carries The stone walls on the sides of the on in some respects the splendour of Hall, from which the several divisions the Edwardian ærı, evinces inany de- of the wood framing take their rise, partures therefrom. The tracery to is done nearly into two equal beights, the windows, more immediately the in the dado and window lines. On great centre window, is purely archi. the top of the walls, or window lines, tectural, without ornamental or fo- (speaking of one half of the framing) ljaged ideas introduced thereon, as the first, or principal rafter, springs before practised. The height of the pyramidally to its pitch or apex, in mullions divided by transoms of mould- the centre of the roof; the second ings and compartments, and the tra. rafter springs from consoles on the cery run into various compartmented top of the dado line, in one prodi. forms likewise. The heads of the digious regular Pointed arch. From niches bear octangular canopies, with the top of the window line is laid, square, instead of pyramida! Vermi- 'horizontally, a flying, joist to a nations; and on cach side the openings given length, supported by a second of the niches are small clusters of pointed r.Iter, rising from the above buttresses. In those parts where any

console.

This arched rafter, with thing like a pyramidal idea is retained, the horizontal joist, support a it takes the sweeping direction. In third pointed rafter, meeting in regard to the clustering of the cdo the çeutre, and uniting itself with

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the first arched rafter. These con- and in' constant practice, until the junctions act in the most satisfactory art itself was lost in the universal manner to support à ' second horic change wrought in men and things in zontal juist, bringing the whole of the sixteenth century. Turning with the connecting mediums near the contempt from the innovations, both summit of the first exterior, or pyra- external and interpal, such as the midal rafter. The voids within the cieling by Sir Christopher Wren, the several rafters and joists are filled in South pürcle by a living Artist, and with perforated compartments, cu- the metamorphosis of the charming riously contrived as perpendicular compartmented divisions for the sel. supports to the whole mass of framing ting up of monuments, &c. &c.; let Viewing narrowly the properties of it be observed, that the arches of the the roof, for the express purpose of door-ways and windows (in general) illustrating this paper, I found that shew the new conjunctive sweep, as since my first drawing its parts, sone premised in the Westminster Hati fourteen years past, the greater Surveys and in one instance, the East portion of the perforated compart. door-way to the crypt, the arch is inents have heen destroyed. Surely flattened to that extreme, as almost this deserves repréhension ; not alone to mark at once the total extiuction as a pleasing decoration is lost; but, of the form. But this expedient, at what is of greater importance, much this state of the art now under notice, of the collateral strength of the roof was rare ; and we may conclude thç itself done away, and rendered less idea did not at its first dawn meet able to resist the push of Time than with the approhation of professional heretofore.

zuen, but was left to take it course, In direct opposition to those opi- until, at a distant day, it became bjons gone before me, I maintain the masonic Page, as

no kind of addition of stone work to the interior edifice was raised without this conof the dado walls, and octaugular juuctive arch. The tracery in the pilasters, run up about thirty years windows, like those in Westminster ago, are not of that distinct use, by Hall, is architectural, and the mouldway of support to the roof, as then ings and ornaments are more in ad. supposed ; but an useless and irrele- Vance than there found. As the devant waste of 'material and inasonry, coratious of the internal walls of this and disfiguring the symmetry of the Civic mansion are so far gone into whole design. I argue thus : The with high embellishment, while the side walls are kept from falling out Royal Palace at Westminster has by the vast buttresses externally set little to boast of in this respect, may against them; and froiu' falling in- we usurmise, that it might be poswards, by the pressure of the timbers sible the roof of the former, before themselves, right and left. There- the Fire of London, outshone the fore, while coinmon attention by latter ? But the absolute existing way of repair is paid to the real state gigantic beauties of the of the walls and timbers, more than us to give way to a futile supposition to patch and restore them with pe- in favour of the other, now departed; rishable materials (as is seen on the therefore, let thus much be observed Last external wall) little lear can be with reference to Westiniaster Hall, entertained for the safety of a pile, that its roof is not alone the most which may be confidently asserted, is extraordinary performance of the (reviving the old designation) one kind, but the earliest in point of workof the professional “Wonders of the manship that we have now remaining. World.”

May admiration still continue to be GUILD- HALL, London. Another paid to its stupendous construction, work erected about the date of the notwithstanding Sir C. Wren, in the preceding Halls, and, if History did Parentalia, calls the builders of this Dot, its great similitude of style roof, " senseless artificers !" would confirm the same; not with

AN ARCHITECT. standing many of the decorations

(To be continued.) must have been executed subsequent

*** The View of the West Front of to the other, as they are of a inuch Licäriend Cathedrat, promised in vol. later turn, and seeni to have led the LXOX. p. 30, as a companion to that of way to those decided features, which, York, vol. LXXIX. p. 700, will be given in process of time, became general, in the Magazine for next month.

METE

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Meteorological Journal kept at Clapton. [Oct. METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL kept at Clapton, in Hackney, from the 21sl of

September to the bih of October, 1810.
Thermometer. Barometer.
Day of

Wind.
Month.

Weather, &c.
Max. | Min. Max, Min.

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Sept.21 71 53 30.13 30.10 W.--S. misfy-fair--misty

22 70 49 30.08 29.97 S. S. E. foggy and calm-fair
23 62 51 30.03 29.95 S. clear-showers-clear
24 67 56 30:19 30.10 N-N.E. clear-clouded and windy
25

52 30-20 30.14 N. N. E. clouded-very clear
26

47 30.14 30-10 E. clear 27

47 30.05 29.95 E.-S. E. misty-clear and clouds 28

68 45 30.05 29.98 S.--S.W. fogfair
29
56 30:10

30.06 SE---SW foggy-fair----cloudy
30

59 30.12 30.03 NE-SW. clouds-fair-cloudy Oct. 1 66 45 30:28 30-20 SE.-.-E. clouded-clear

65 45 30:30 30.29 N.-E. misty-clear
65 47 30-30 30-29 N.-E. clear

66 45 30:30 30.28 N.-S.E. clear
5 65 47 30.20 30.01 N.-S.E. clear

60 45 29.98 29.96 S.W. foggy-fair-foggy
64 46 30.00 30.00 S.E-S.W. foggy--fair--foggy

OBSERVATION'S.
Sept. 21. Some Cirro-cumuli appeared about 5 p. m. : the evening became

misty. 22. A great disturbance of the Elcctric state of the atmosphere was con

spicuous this day. A fog covered the ground at sun-rise ; about poon it was become clear, when I observed Cirri spread about at a great altitude : these were succeeded by Cirro-strati, Cirro-cumuli, and Cumuli of various appearances; some large and lowering, others loose dark-coloured fleeces, floating in a lower region. Towards evening the wind rose, and barometer fell; but the night

turned out calm and clear, and summer lightning prevailed. 23. Several modification of cloud in the sky during day.

Clear night, and summer lightning. 25. Overcast at sun-rise ; very clear day afterwards; falling stars ob

served at night. Stars shine very bright. 26. Clear day, and rather windy in the iniddle; calm clear night. Small

meteors observed. 27. Cirro-stratus prevails during the day, disposed in beds of small ag

gregates, extending in arcs across the zenith. Clear night; small

meteors, called falling stars, frequent. 28. Small meteors observed at night. 29. Foggy at sun-rise. After it cleared off, I observed the modificatioa

of Cirro-strutus dispersed about in the atmosphere; in some places in thin films, in others in rows of small spots.Cirro-cumulus also appeared. Loose flocks of dark reddish Cumulus floating beneath in a lower region. At sun-set a very highly coloured Cirro-stratus, on an almost goldca sky, gave the Western horizon a very beau

tiful appearance. Rain came on during the night. 30. Pleasant day after the rain ; Cirrus and Cirro-stratus prevail. The

Western sky appeared deep red after sun-set. Oct. 1. At night the stars' light suddenly diminished, and a lucid' Burr (not

a Halo) was observed round Jupiter. 2. Electric state of the atmosphere very much disturbed ; various mo.

difications of cloud prevail. A breeze rose from E.'at 10 a. m.

Clouds highly coloured at sun-set.
3. Clear day; only Cumuli passed over with the wind.
5. Cirri and Cirro-strati observed.

6. Cirre-cumuli ; heat increasing. Glapton, Oct, 22, 1910. .

THOMAS FORSTER.

Mr.

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Meteorological Journal kept at Clapton. [Oct. METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL kept at Clapton, in Hackney, from the 21st of

September to the 6th of October, 1810. (Thermometer. Barometer. Day of

Wind.
Month.

Weather, &c.
Max.
Min.
Max,

Min.

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Sept. 21 71 53 30:13 30.10 W.-S. misty-fair--misty

29 70 49 30.08 29.97 S. S. E. foggy and calm--fair
23 62 51 30.03 29.95 S. clear-showers-clear
24 67 56 30:19 30.10 N-N.E. clear-clouded and windy
25

52 30-20 30.14 N, N. E. clouded-very clear
26

47 30.14 30-10 E. clear 27

47

30-05 29.95 E.-S. E. misty—clear and clouds 28

45 30:05 29.98 S.-S.W. fog-fair
29 66 56

30.10
30.06 SE---SW

foggy-fair--cloudy
30 69 59 30.12 30.03 SE-SW. clouds—fair-cloudy
Oct. 1 66 45 30:28 30-20 SF.---E. clouded clear
2 65 45 30:30 30.29 N.-E.

misty-clear
3 65 47 30:30 30.29 N.-E. clear
4 66 45 30:30 30.28 N.-S.E. clear

65 47 30.20 30-01 N.S.E. clear
602 45 29.98 29.96 S.W.

foggy-fair-foggy
7 64 46 30.00 30.00 S.E-S.W. foggy--fair--foggy

OBSERVATION'S. Sept. 21. Some Cirro-cumuli appeared about 5 p. m. : the evening became

misty. 22. A great disturbance of the Electric state of the atmosphere was con

spicuous this day. A fog covered the ground at sun-rise ; about noon it was become clear, when I observed (inri spread about at a great altitude : these were succeeded by Cirro-strati, Cirro-cumuli, and Cumuli of various appearances; some large and lowering, others loose dark-coloured fleeces, floating in a lower régiou. Towards evening the wind rose, and barometer fell; but the night

turned out calm and clear, and summer lightning prevailed. 23. Several modification of cloud in the sky during day.

Clear night, and summer lightning. 25. Overcast at sun-rise ; very clear day afterwards ; falling stars ob

served at night. Stars shine very bright. 26. Clear day, and rather windy in the iniddle; calm clear night. Small

meteors observed. 27. Cirro-stratus prevails during the day, disposed in beds of small aggregates, extending in arcs across the zenith. Clear night;

small meteors, called falling stars, frequent. 28. Small meteors observed at night. 29. Foggy at sun-rise. After it cleared off, I observed the modification

of Cirro-strutus dispersed about in the atmosphere; in some places in thin films, in others in rows of small spots.Cirro-cumulus also appeared. Loose flocks of dark reddish Cumulus floating beneath in a lower region. At sun-set a very highly coloured Cirro-stratus, on an almost golden sky, gave the Western horizon a very beau

tiful appearance. Rain came on during the night. 30. Pleasant day after the rain ; Cirrus and Cirro-stratus prevail. The

Western sky appeared deep red after sun-set. Oct. 1. At night the stars' light suddenly diminished, and a lucid Burr (not

a Halo) was observed round Jupiler. 2. Electric state of the atmosphere very much disturbed various mo.

difications of cloud prevail. A breeze rose from E.'at 10 a. m.

Clouds highly coloured at sun-set.
3. Clear day; only Cumuli passed over with the wind.
5. Cirri and Cirro-strati observed.

6. Cirro-cumuli ; heat increasing. Glapton, Oct, 22, 1310. .

THOMAS FORSTER.

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