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THE vast tract of country, bounded west by the Pacific Ocean, fouth and east by California, New Mexico, and Louisiana-the United States, Canada and the Atlantic Ocean, and extending as far north as the country is habitable (a few scattered English, French, and some other European fettlements excepted) is inhabited wholly by various nations and tribes of Indians. The Indians also possess large tracts of country within the Spanish, American and British dominions. Those parts of North Ame. rica not inhabited by Indians, belong, if we include Greenland, to Denmark, Great Britain, the American States, and Spain. Spain claims East and West Florida, and all west of the Mississippi, and south of the northern boundaries of Louisiana, New Mexico and California. Great Britain claims all the country inhabited by Europeans, lying north and cast of the United States, except Greenland, which belongs to Denmark. The remaining part is the territory of the Fifteen United States. The particular Provinces and States, are exhibited in the following table :

Belorg Countries, Provinces, Number of
ing to.
and States.

Inbabitaris. Chief Towns.

85,539 Windsor, Rutland
New Hampshire

141,885 Portsmouth, Concord
Diffich femine

387,787 Boston, Salem, Newbury Port

96,540 Portland, Hallowell Rhode II and

68,825 Newport, Providence Connecticut

237,946 New Haven, Hartford New York

340,120 New York, Albany

184,139 Trenton, Burlington, Brunswick Pennsylvania

434,373 Philadelphia, Lancaster Delaware

59,094 Dover, Wilmington, Newcastle Maryland

319,728 Annapolis, Baltimore Virginia

747,610 Richmond, Petersburgh, Norfo'k Kentucky

73,677 Lexington North Carolina

393,751 Newbern, Edenton, Halifax South Carolina

249,073 Charleston, Columbia Georgia

82,548 Savannah, Augusta Territory S. of Ohio

35,691 Abingdon
Territory N. W. of Ohio

New Butiin

Upper Canada

20,000 Kingston, Detroit, Niagara Lower Canada

} 130,000 Quebec, Montreal Cape Breton 1.

1,000 Sidney, Louisburgh
New Brunswick

Nova Scotia 15


S. John's IN. S in 1783 5,000 Charlottetown
Newfoundland Inand

7,000 Placentia, St. John's

New Jersey

United States of America.

Denm. Span. Provin, British Provinces.


10,000 New Herrnhut

East Florida
West Florida
New Mexico
Mexico, or New Spain

New Orleans
St. Fee
St. Juan




Degrees. Length 12501

31° and 46° North Latitude.

Between 8° E. and 24° W. Long. froin Philadelphia, Breadth 1040

64° and 96" W. Longitude from London,

BOUNDARIES, Bounded north and east by British America, or the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and New Brunswick ; southeast, by the Atlantic Ocean; south, by East and West Forida; weft, by the river Mislilippi.

In the treaty of peace, concluded in 1783, the limits of the American United States are more particularly defined in the words following: “And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and Mall be their boundaries, viz. From the north-west angle of Nova Scotia, viz. That angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the Highlands, alang the said Highlands, which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the At. lantic Ocean, to the north-westernmost head of Connecticut river; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence by a line due west on the said latitude, until it Itrikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of the said river into Lake Ontario, through the middle of the said Lake, until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie ; thence along the middle of the said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of the said lake, until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence through the middle of the said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Philipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of the said Long Lake, and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most northwestern point thereof, and from thence, on a due west course, to the River Mississippi ; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said River Miffissippi, until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. South, by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line laft mentioned, in the latitude of

thirty-one degrees north of the equator, to the middle of the River Apalachicola, or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River; thence ftrait to the head of St. Mary's River; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the River St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy, to its fource; and from its source directly north, to the aforesaid Highlands, which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which fall into the River St. Lawrence, comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova-Scotia on the one part, and Eaft-Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia."

The following calculations were made from afinal mcasurement of the best

maps, by Thomas Hutchins, geographer to the United States.

The territory of the United States contains þy computation a million of square miles, in which are

610,000,000 of acres Deduct for water


Acres of land in the United States, 589,000,000

That part of the United States comprehended between the west boundary line of Pennsylvania on the east, the boundary line between GreatBritain and the United States, extending from the river St. Croix to the north-west extremity of the Lake of the woods on the north, the river Millisippi, to the mouth of the Ohio on the west, and the river Ohio on the fouth to the aforementioned bounds of Pennsylvania, contains by computation about four hundred and eleven thousand square miles, in which are

263,040,000 acres Deduct for water


To , }

220,000,000 of acres,

when purchased of the Indians.

The whole of this immenfe extent of unappropriated western territory, containing as above stated, 220,000,000 of acres, and several large tracts fouth of the Ohio *, have been, by the ceslion of some of the

Ceded by North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, with certain rcfervation for the Indians and other purposes, as will be mentioned hereafter.


original thirteen states, and by the treaty of peace, transferred to the federal government, and are pledged as a fund for linking the debt of the United States. Of this territory the Indians now possess a very large proportion. Mr. Jefferson, in his report to Congress, Nov. 8, 1791, describes the boundary line between us and the Indians, as follows:

Beginning at the mouth of the Cayahogana, which falls into the Southernmost part of Lake Erie, and running up the river to the portage, between that and the Tuscaroro or N. E. branch of Mukingum; then down the said branch to the forks, at the crossing place above Fort Lawrence; then westwardly, towards the portage of the Great Miami, to the main branch of that river, then down the Miami, to the fork of that river, next below the old fort, which was taken by the French in 1752; thence due west to the river De la Panse, a branch of the Wabalh, and down that river to the Wabash. So far the line is precisely determined, and cleared of the claims of the Indians. The tract comprehending the whole country within the above described line, the Wabash, the Ohio, and the western limits of Pennsylvania, contains about 55,000 square miles.

How far on the western fide of the Wabash, the southern boundary of the Indians has been defined, we know not. It is only un. derstood, in general, that their title to the lower country, betweon that siver and the Illinois, was formerly extinguished by the French, while in their poffeffion.

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Eftimate of the number of acres of water, north and westward of the river Obio, within the territory of the United States.

Acres. In Lake Superior,

21,952,780 Lake of the Woods,

1,133,800 Lake Rain, &c.

165,200 Red Lake,

551,000 Lake Michigan,

10,368,000 Bay Puan,

1,216,000 Lake Haron,

5,009,920 Lake St. Clair,

89,500 Lake Erie, western part,

2,252,800 Sundry small lakes and rivers,



Yol. I.



Eftimate of the number of atres of water within the Thirteen United States. In the lakes as before mentioned

43,0.10,000 In Lake Erie, westward of the line extending from the north-west corner of Pennsylvania, due north, to the boundary between the British territory and the United States,

410,000 In Lake Ontario,

2,390,000 Lake Champlain,

500,000 Chesapeek bay,

1,700,000 Albemarle bay,

330,000 Delaware bay,

630,000 All the rivers within the thirteen states, including the Ohio,



Total 51,000,000



may in truth be said, that no part of the world is so well watered with springs, rivulets, rivers, and lakes, as the territory of the United States. By means of these various streams and colleations of water, the whole country is chequered into islands and peninsulas. The United States, and indeed all parts of North America, seem to have been formed by nature for the most intimate union. The facilities of navigation render the communication between the ports of Georgia and New Hampshire, far more expeditious and practicable, than between those of Provence and Picardy io France; Cornwall and Caithness, in Great-Britain; or Gallicia and Catalonia, in Spain. The canals proposed between Susquehannah, and Delaware, between Pasquetank and Elizabeth rivers, in Virginia, and between the Schuylkill and Sulquehannah, will open a communication from the Carolinas to the western countries of Pennsylvania and New-York. The improvements of the Potomak, will give a passage from the southern States, to the western parts of Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and even to the lakes. From Detroit, to Alexandria, on the Patomak, six hundred and seven miles, are but two carrying places, which together do not exceed the distance of forty miles. The canals of Delaware and Chesapeek will open the communication from South Carolina to New Jersey, Delaware, the most populous parts of Pennsylvania, and the midland counties of


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