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was extremely cold, their store-house caught fire and was consumed, with most of their provisions and lodgings. Their misfortunes were increased, soon after, by the death of their president. Rawley Gilbert was appointed to succeed him.

Lord Chief Justice Popham made erery exertion to keep this colony alive by repeatedly sending them fupplies. But the circumstance of his death, which happened this year, together with that of president Gilbert's being called to England to settle his affairs, broke up the colony, and they all returned with him to England.

The unfavourable reports which these firit unfortunate adventurers propagated respecting the country, prevented any further attempts to fettle North Virginia for several years after.

1603.-The London company, last year, fent Capt. Nelson, with two fhips and one hundred and twenty perfons, to James-Town; and this year Capt. John Smith, afterwards president, arrived on the coast of South Virginia, and by failing up a number of the rivers, discovered the interior country. In September, Capt. Newport arrived with seventy persons, which increased the colony to two hundred souls.

Mr. Robinson and his congregation, who had settled at Amsterdam, removed this year to Leyden, where they remained more than eleven years, till a part of them came over to New England.

The council for South Virginia having resigned their old commiflion, - requested and obtained a new one; in consequence of which they appointed Sir Thomas West, Lord De la War, general of the colony; Sir Thomas Gates, his lieutenant; Sir George Somers, admiral; Sir Thomas Dale, high marshal; Sir Ferdinand Wainman, general of the horse, and Capt. Newport, vice admiral.

June 8.-In June, Sir T. Gates, admiral Newport, and Sir George Somers, with seven ships and a ketch and pinnace, having five hundred

fouls on board, men, women, and children, failed from FalJuly 24. mouth for South Virginia. In crofling the Bahaina Gulf, on

the 24th of July, the feet was overtaken by a violent storm, and separated. Four days after, Sir George Somers ran his vellel ashore on one of the Bermudas Ilands, which, from this circumstance, hare been called the Somer Ilands. The people on board, one hundred and fifty in number, all got safe on shore, and there remained until the following May. The remainder of the ficet arrived at Virginia in Auguft. "The colony was now increased to five hundred men. Capt. Smith, then president, a little before the arrival of the fleet, had been very barily burnt by means of some powder which had accidentally caught fire. This unfortunate circumstance, together with the opposition he



met with from those who had lately arrived, induced him to leave the colony and return to England, which he accordingly did the last of September. Francis Weft, his successor in office, foon followed him, and George Piercy was elected president.

1610.–The year following, the South Virginia or London company, fealed a patent to Lord De la War, constituting him Governor and Captain General of South Virginia. He soon after embarked for America with Capt. Argal and one hundred and fifty men, in three ships.

The unfortunate people, who, the year before, had been shipwrecked on the Bermudas Islands, had employed themselves during the winter and spring, under the direction of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and admiral Newport, in building a floop to transport themselves to the continent. They embarked for Virginia on the 10th of May, with about one hundred and fifty persons on board, leaving two of their men behind, who chose to stay, and landed at James-Town on the 23d of the same month. Finding the colony, which at the time of Capt. Smith's departure, confiited of five hundred souls, now reduced to fixty, and those few in a distressed and wretched situation, they with one voice resolved to return to England; and for this purpose, on the 7th of June, the whole colony repaired on board their vessels, broke up their settlement, and sailed down the river on their way to their native country.

Fortunately, Lord De la War, who had embarked for James-Town the March before, met them the day after they failed, and persuaded them to return with him to James-Town, where they arrived and landed the 10th of June. The government of the colony of right devolved upon Lord De la War. From this time we may date the effectual settlement of Virginia. Its history, from this period, will be given in its proper place.

As early as the year 1608, or 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman under a commission from the king his master, discovered Long Isand, New York, and the river which still bears his name, and afterwards sold the country, or rather his right, to the Dutch. Their writers, however, contend that Hudson was sent out by the East-India company in 1609, to discover a north-west passage to China; and that having first discovered Delaware Bay, he came and penetrated Hudson's river as far as latitude 43°. It is said however that there was a sale, and that the English objected to it, though for some time they neglected to oppose the Dutch settlement of the country.

1610.-In 1610, Hudson failed again to this country, then called by the Dutch New Netherlands, and four years after, the States-General


granted a patent to sundry merchants for an exclufive trade on the 1614 North river, who the same year, (1614) built a fort on the west

fide near Albany. From this time we may date the settlement of New York, the history of which will be annexed to a description of the State.

Conception Bay, on the Island of Newfoundland, was fettled in the year 1610, by about forty planters under governor John Guy, to whom king James had given a patent of incorporation.

Champlain, a Frenchman, had begun a settlement at Quebec, 1602, St. Croix, Mount Mansel, and Port Royal were settled about the same time. These settlements remained undisturbed till 1613, when the Virginians, hearing that the French had fettled within their limits, sent Captain Argal to dislodge them. For this purpose he failed to Sagadahoc, took their forts at Mount Mansel, St. Croix, and Port Royal, with their vefleis, ordnance, cattle, and provifions, and carried them to Jaries-Town in Virginia. Quebec was left in pollellion of the French.,

1614,This year Capt. John Smith, with two ships and forty-five men and boys, made a voyage to North Virginia, to make experiments upon a gold and copper mine. His orders were, to filh and trade with t're natives, if he should fail in his expectations with regard to the mine. To facilitate this business, he took with him Tartum, an Indian, pero haps one that Capi. Weymouth carried to Engiand in 1605. In April he reached the Island Monahigan in latiende 43° 30. Here Cast. Smith was directed to stay and keep posseflion, with ten men, for the purpose of making a trial of the whaling business, but being disappointed in this, he built feven boats, in which thirty-seven men made a very fuccesful fishing voyage. In the mean time the captain himself, with eight men only, in a small boat, coafted from Penobscot to Sagadahok, Acocisco, l'af'ataquack, Tragabizanda, now called Cape Ann, thence to Acomak, u here he skirmished with some Indians; thence to Cape Cod wirere he fet his Indian, Tantum, ashore and left him, and returned to In this voyage he found two French ships in the Bay of Malachus its, who had come there fix weeks before, and during that time, had been trading very advantageously with the Indians. It was conjectured that there was, at this time, three thcusand Indians upon the labiachusetts Ilands.

In July, Capt. Smith embarked for England in one of the verlels, leaving the other under the command of Capt. Thomas Hunt, to equip for a voyage to Spain. After Capi. Sinith's departure, Hunt perfidi. cully alluri twenty Indians (one of whom was Saranto, afterwards to ferviceable to the Englio) to come on board his ship at Patuxit, and

seven more at Nausit, and carried them to the Island of Malaga, where he fold them for twenty pounds.cach, to be Naves for life. This conduct, which fixes an indelible ftigma upo- the character of Hunt, excited in the breasts of the Indians such an inveterate hatred of the English, as that, for many years after, all commercial intercourse with thein was rendered exceedingly dangerous.

Capt. Smith arrived at London the last of August, where he drew a map of the country, and called it New-England. From this time North-Virginia assumed the name of New England, and the name Vira ginia was confined to the soutliern colony.

Between the years 1614 and 1620, several attempts were made by the Plymouth Company to settle New-England, but by various means they were all rendered ineffectual. During this time, however, an advantage. ous trade was carried on with the natives.

1617.-In the year 1617, Mr. Robinson and his congregation, infuenced by several weighty reasons, meditated a removal to America.

Various difficulties intervened to prevent the success of their de1620 signs, until the year 1620, when a part of Mr. Robinson's congre

gation came over and settled at Plymouth. At this time commerced the settlement of New-England,

The particulars relating to the first emigrations to this northern part of America; the progress of its sertlement, &c. will be given in the hiltory of New England, to which the reader is referred. In order to preserve the chronological order in which the several colo

nies, not grown into independent states, were firkt settled, it will be 1621 ncceffary that I should just mention, that the next year after the

settlement of Plymouth, Captain John Mason obtained of the

Plymouth council a grant of a part of the present state of New2623 Hampshire. Two years after, under the authority of this grant,

a small colony fixed down near the mouth of Pifcataqua river. From this period we may date the settlement of New Hampshire.

1627.--In 1627, a colony of Swedes and Fins came over and landed at Cape Henlopen; and afterwards purchased of the Indians the land from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of Delaware on both sides the river, which they called New Szvedeland Stream. On this river they built several forts, and made settlements.

1628. On the 19th of March, 1628, the council for New England sold to Sir Henry Rofwell, and five others, a large tract of land, lying round Massachusetts Bay. The June following, Capt. John Endicot, with his wife and company, came over and settled at Naumkeag, now called Salem. This was the first settlement which was made in Mafia


chusetts Bay. Plymouth, indeed, which is now included in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, was settled eight years before, but at this time it was a separate colony, under a distinct government, and continued so until the second charter of Massachusetts was granted by William and Mary in 1691; by which Plymouth, the Province of Main and Sagadahok were annexed to Massachusetts.

June 13, 1633.- In the reign of Charles the First, Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, applied for and obtained a grant of a tract of land upon Chesapeek Bay, about one hundred and forty miles long and one hundred and thirty broad. Soon after this, in confequence of the rigor of the laws of England against the Roman Catholics, Lord Baltimore, with a number of his persecuted brethren, came over and settled it, and in honour of queen Henrietta Maria, they called it Maryland. The first grant of Connecticut was made by Robert, Earl of Warwick,

president of the council of Plymouth, to Lord Say and Seal, to 1631 Lord Brook and others, in the year 1631. In consequence of

feveral sınaller grants made afterwards by the patentees to particu

lar persons, Mr. Fenwick made a settlement at the Mouth of Con1635 necticut river, and called it Saybrook. Four years after a number

of people from Massachusetts Bay came and began settlements at Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor on Connecticut river. Thus commenced the English settlement of Connecticut.

Rhode Island was firit settled in consequence of religious persecution. Mr. Roger Williams, who was among those who early came over to Massachusetts, not agreeing with some of his brethren in sentiment, was

very urjustifiably baniihed the colony, and went with twelve 1635 others, his adherents, and settled at Providence in 1635. From

this beginning arose the colony, now state of Rhode-Ifand. 1664.-On the 20th of March, 1664, Charles the Second grarted to the Duke of York, what is now called New-Jersey, then a part

of large tract of country by the name of New Netherland. Some parts of New Jersey were settled by the Dutch as early as about 1615.

1662.-In the year 1662, Charles the Second granted to Edward, Earl of Clarendon, and feven others, almost the whole territory of the

three Southern states, North and South Carolinas and Georgia. 1664 Two years after he granted a second charter, enlarging their

boundaries. The proprietors, by virtue of authority vested in them by thcir charter, engaged Mr. Locke to frame a system of laws for

the government of their intended colony. Notwithstanding these 1669 preparations, no effectual settlement was made until the year 1669, (though one was attempted in 1667) when Governor Sayle came


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