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their spiritual sponsors. About the Augustus made lotteries which conyear 1116 long hair was confidered fifted of things of little value, but as a luxury, and a mark of eifemina- Nero established some for the people, cy. Eighty years after, whoever in which a thousand tickets were wore long hair was, by a canon, ex- distributed daily, and several of those cluded from entering the church ; who were favoured by Fortune got and on Christmas-day at mass, God. rich by them. Heliogabalus inventfroy, bishop of Amiens, refused at St. ed some very singular; the prizes Omer, in presence of Robert, Earl were either of great value or of none of Flanders, the offerings of those at all; one gained a prize of fix slaves, who had preserved their hair. Frag- and another of six flies ; some got va. cis l. wore his hair short on account luable vases, and others vases of comof a wound which he had received

mon earth. A lottery of this kind in his head ; his courtiers followed exhibited an excellent picture of the his example, and the people imitated inequality with which Fortune disthe courtiers.

tributes her favours. The invention of bells is attributed The firft watches were made at to the Egyptians : however this may Nuremberg in 1500, by Peter Hell, be, it is certain that they were al- and called Nuremberg eggs, on acways

used to announce the feftivals in count of their oval form. The same honour of Osiris. Amongst the He- year George Purbach, a mathematibrews the high prieft in grand cere- cian of Vienna, employed a watch monies wore a kind of tunic, orna- that pointed to seconds, for aftronomented with small golden bells.. Atmical observations. Athens, the priest of Proserpine and The art of making perukes was Cybele used them during their facri- invented at Paris, about the end of fices, and in some measure they made the reign of Lewis XIII. and peo. a part of their mysteries. Bells were ple then gave over the use of calotknown also among the Persians, the tes ornamented with a double row Greeks, and the Romans. Pope Sa- of hair, quite straight or frizzled. binian, and St. Paulin of Nola, in- The Abbe la Riviere fort set the extroduced them into the church, to call ample; his peruke weighed two the faithful to divine worship, and pounds. These head-dresses were to distinguish the canonical hours, heavy, and of an enormous size, unbut it does not appear that large bells til 1680, when the Sieur Ervais dewere used before the sixth century. vised a method of curling the hair. In 610 the army of Clotaire, who were Perukes then became real ornaments, besieging Sens, were so frightened by and seemed to banith the marks of the noise of the bells of the church old age. of St Stephen, which Loup, bishop Nonius Marcellus refers the origina of Orleans, ordered to be rung, that of New-ycar's gifts among the Rothey raised the fiege, and betook mans to Tatius, king of the Sabines, themselves to flight, About the be. who reigned at Rome conjointly with ginning of the following century Romulus, and who having confiderbells were baptised; for Alcuin, pre- ed as a good omen, a present of som, .ceptor to Charlemagne, considers branches cut in a wood confecrated this ceremony as much older than to Strenia, the goddess of strength, the year 770.

which he received on the first day of The Romans invented lotteries, the new year, authorised this custom to enliven their Saturnalia. This afterwards, and gave to these persons festival began by the distribution of the name of Strenæ. However this Tickets which gained some prize. may be, the Romans on that day ce


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Obfervations on the Origin of certain Customs and Inventions. 55 lebrated a festival in honour of Janus, searching for the philosopher's stone, and paid their respects at the same and having thrown to the hogs what time to Juno; but they did not pass remained after some of his experiit in idleness, left they should become ments, observed, that those who indolent during the rest of the year. swallowed it, after being violently They sent presents to one another of purged, became much fatter. He figs, dates, honey, &c. to shew their took it into his head to make a trial friends that they wilhed for a happy of it upon some of his brother monks; and agreeable life. Clients, that is but, as the dose was too strong, they to say, those who were under the all died. Hence comes the name of protection of the great, carried pre- antimoine in French, which has been fents of this kind to their patrons, given to this mineral substance. adding to them a small piece of fil- Posts were established in 1462, ver. Under Augustus the senate, the under Louis XI. King of France, on knights and the people presented account of the siege of Nanci ; the such gifts to him, and in his absence proceedings of which were regularly deposited them in the Capitol. Of conveyed to him, by couriers, ftathe fucceeding princes fome adopted tioned at certain distances on the this custom, and others abolished it, road. This expedient was found to but it always continued among the be convenient, and it was afterwards people. The early Christians con- continued, and brought to perfecdemned it, because it appeared to tion. be a relique of Paganism, and a fpe- The custom of saying God bless cies of fuperftition ; but when it be- you to those who sneeze, is said to gan to have no other object than that have originated from Pope Gregory, of being a mark of veneration and surnamed the Great, during the time esteem, the church ceased to disap- of an epidemical disorder, which car

ried people off in a fit of sneezing. The origin of abbeys is very an- Some, however, pretend that this cient, and may be traced back to the custom is much older, and that it was first ecumenical council of Nicea in known to the Greeks and the Ro. the fourth century. Some active ec- mans long before the Chriftian æra. clefiaftics cultivated the earth, with Cards were invented under the an intention of consecrating the fruits reign of Charles VI. King of France, of their labour to the relief of indi- to amuse him during the intervals of gence ; and while with one hand that disorder which conducted him they fertilised the deserts, they assist-. to the grave. The world would have ed the distressed with the other. By been at no loss, had his Majesty been their benefaations they acquired suffered to die in peace without this friends, and by their labour they invention. procured riches. Their inftruments Burying grounds were not estae of husbandry appeared to be incon- blished until the year 200. People teítible titles of their right of possef- before were interred in the highways, fion; and, in the course of time, dif- and ancient tombs are still to be seen mal and barren solitudes were con- on the roads leading to Rome. Hence verted into rich houses. The name these words, fo often repeated in epi. of monastery seemed then no longer taphs, Sta viator : Stop, traveller. applicable to them, and they exchan- John Van-Eick, better known unged it for that of abbey,

der the name of John of Bruges, inAntimony, that remedy fo cele- vented painting in oil, about the combrated, was discovered by a German mencement of the fourteenth cenmonk, named Ball Valentine, who, tury.


prove of it.

In 1474, the physicians and fur- granted, the first operation of cutting geons of Paris represented to Louis for the stone was performed publicly XI. that several people of distinction at Paris, in the burying ground of St were afflicted with the stone, and that Severin. The criminal was comit would be of the highest utility to pletely cured in the space of a fortanatomy to examine, in a living sub. night, and obtained, besides his

parject, that part of the human body don, a considerable reward. We canwhich is the seat of this disorder. not here help observing, that this is a They therefore requefted his Ma- striking instance of the vicissituảes of jesty, that he would order a person, life, fince, to be cured of his disornamed Franc Archer, who had been der, it was necessary that this unhapsubject to this maiady, and who was py man should be condemned to the condemned to be hanged, "to be deli- gallows. vered into their hands. This being


On the Gallantry of the Roman Ladies, as compared with that of the


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IUSTOMS founded upon the censed at the worthless conduct of

pasfions and the affections of their fair spouses : on the contrary, the heari, must be prevalent in all they were often the best friends of ages, and common to every pation, their gallants. Of all customs, none is more gene

What renders their customs in this ral than that of gallantry. Every where, respect perfectly finilar to ours is, and in every period, there have been that among them, the greatest men ardent lovers, jealous and deceived were most liable to be disgraced by husbands, insipid coquettes, and vain the infidelity of their wives. This coxcombs, who have boasted of the observation is so just, that we shall favours conferred upon them by the scarcely find an illustrious character, fair sex. A like cause must always in the last age of the republic, who produce like effects. The Romans, may not serve as a model of the from whom we often take examples, unfortunate husbands of the present in the most flourishing times of the day. republic, conducted themselves, with Julius Cæfar, without doubt, was respect to gallantry, almost in the same one of the first personages at Rome, manner as we. Their's, however, and, at the age of tweety-three, pofcould not properly be called gallan- fessed a conliderable share of merit; iry; it was rather a real species of de- he was one of the best made men of bauchery, authorised by example and his time, and enjoyed, in an emioent custom.

degree, the favour of the Roman la. Irregularities of this kind, among dies. Every body, however, who women of the first class, were lo has read ancient history, is acquainted common at Rome, that it often ap- with the illicit correspondence of his peared furprising, that there were wife Pompeia with Clodius, and the found a few who formed an excep- adventure which the latter had at the tion ; and though, among the Ro- sacrifices offered up to the Bona Dea, mans, there were some delicate huf. The address with which Cæfar extri. bands, as among us, it is certain that, cated himself from this affair is worthy in general, they were not much in- of admiration. Being, unwilling to




quarrel with Clodius, he repudiated authors have assured us, that he had his wife, whom he asserted to be in- married Cleopatra, it is certain that

; but he did not by this en- he was cruelly deceived by that queen tirely shelter her from fufpicion. who saw Delius in private, under What man, then, is there who will pretence of his being the friend and. not be comforted under such a mis. confident of Anthony. fortune, when he considers that Julius The father of Brutus the conspiCæsar himself was not exempted from rator, faw, without emotion, the ait?

mours of his wife Servilia with CæPompey, the celebrated rival of far, and heard it publicly declared Cæfar, who was styled The Great, that Brutus was his son. Servilia was at the age of twenty-five, when re- the uterine sister of Cato, that stern turning from the Mithridatic war, philofopher, and the private comwas informed of such strange things merce which Cæfar carried on with respecting the conduct of his wife her did not end but with the death Mutia with Cæfar, that he could not of both; for, amidst the numberless help repudiating her. We, however, political intrigues which Cæsar was find, that he afterwards united himself engaged in, he always retained his in the closest manner with Cæfar: passion for Servilia, who, on her part, and this did not prevent Mutia from continued inviolably faithful to her marrying a man of better family than admirer. Pompey. So true it is, that all these Lucullus, whose mildness, greata great men were extremely tractable, ness of mind, and magnificence, were and easy on this headWe must in- never exceeded, experienced the same deed acknowledge that Pompey was fate with his wife Claudia, who carnot betrayed by his wife but in his ried her debauchery and perversity fo absence, whereas that of Cæsar car- far, as to give herself


to her own ried on her intrigue in an open and brother, and in such a scandalous fcandalous manner, and during the and public manner, that her conduct time of a celebrated and splendid fel- was well known to every body. tival.

The father of Lucullus had been The famous triumvir Mark An- equally unfortunate as his son. It is thony, who, as we are told, was a well known to what exceffes Cecilia, man of

great merit among the ladies, the mother of Lucullus, proceeded, was well assured, and even a witness They were so shameful and dishonorof the infidelity of his spouse with rable, that it required all the merit of Dolabella; but, notwithstanding, he her fon to prevent the splendor of the lived with the latter in habits of the actions, which that young man permost intimate friendship, there is eve- formed, from being tarnished by ry reason to believe also that he was them. not ignorant of the passion which We should never have done, were his second wife Fulvia entertained we to quote all the examples which for Auguftus, who was neither fuf- history furnishes us on this subject. ficiently prudent, nor so much his We must however confefs, that, amidst friend, as to conceal this distresing so many irregularities, and that uni

, secret*. And if it be true, as several versal corruption which prevailed aVol. XI. No 61. H


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Profligate fools, in all ages of the world, have boasted of their own disgrace, and even added insult to injury, by revealing to the world the frailty of the unhappy object by whom they have been favoured. Were examples of this truth in modern times required, we need not go far to look for them.

mong the ladies at Rome, there were of the most beautiful and enchanting some women of so rare and sublime part of the creation, would give virtue, that, in a great measure, they themselves the trouble to read the effaced those stains which the rest history, and study the private manbrought upon the whole sex.

ners of the Romans, they would find In Octavia, the third wife of An, that their women were much less de-' thony, and sister of Auguftus, we licate in that respect than ours. And observe the most beautiful and exalted who are those who take such liberties character that can adorn bumanity. with the most agreeable part of soHer charms, the great number of ciety? Old-bachelors, or young liberher admirers, and the inconftancy of tines. her husband, all invited her to prove The first, like the butterfly, have unfaithful, but nothing was capable stained so many roses, that they are of making her deviate even for a mo- fully perfuaded it is impossible for ment from her duty.

them ever to find one unsullied. DeLivia, the wife of Augustus, abso- bauchees by taste and by habit, and lute mistress of the empire, and of deaf to the voice of sentiment and the emperor himself, and whose in- friendship, they have feduced withfluence was great in a luxurious and out remorse the wives of their best refined court, never gave the least oc- friends, and, judging of the perversity casion for the voice of scandal to de.. of the rest by that of those who have fame her reputation.

been the miserable victims of their Cornelia, the laft wife of Pompey, unbridled passions, they ihirk thenwhose fidelity and greatness of mind selves authorized to swear that they have been a subject of admiration will never marry, left they should be in all ages, made it be said, and with exposed to that misery which they great justice, that she was still more have occasioned to more perhaps than illustrious than her husband, and even one husband. According to them a than the conqueror of her husband. virtuous woman is a phenix that ne

The wife of Paulus Emilius exhi- ver had existence but in the imaginabits also a great and virtuous charac- tion; and at the very moment when ter'; but we shall find one ftill more they advance this ridiculous assertion, magnanimous in Portia, the wife of if you should ask them, whether their Brutus. As their history is well mothers were virtuous and chaste, known, it will be needless to enlarge' they would not hesitate to answer in upon it here; but whatever may have the negative*. been the virtues of these Roman la- Libertines from the age of twenty dies, it must be acknowledged, that to twenty-five, calumniate the fair fuch instances were rare, and that sex in a different manner. Elated they were only to be met with now with the advantage which age and and then in an age.

the bloom of youth give them over We may daily hear illiberal de- the ladies, and

being best acquainted tractors of the fair sex decry the la- with those only who will dispose of dies of the present day, and reproach their favours to the highest bidder, them with their inclination for gal- they boldly declare that there is no lantry; but if these ignorant despisers woman whom an amiable and handsome

young * The following repartee is very applicable to the present subject: A certain per

. fon having asserted, in company, that all women without exception were unchafte; one present, immedtately replied, “ You are then, Sir, the son of a strumpet, or you · have advanced an infamous falsehood."

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