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HAVE just now read, with no and commanded the marked battery

small aftonishment, the life of Charles of Antoine. Edwart Stuart, in the Literary Ma- 7. He landed in Scotland at a gazine for March. One should have small creek in the County of Locha. thought that the principal events in ber. the life of that unfortunate man were

8. . Cameron of Lochiel refused tolerably well known, and that it 6 to raise his Clan until Charles could would have been no difficult matter ' produce, in writing, the resolution to have related them accurately ; yet of the King of France to assist and he has found an historian who treads support him with a proper number in the steps of Raguenct, Varilles o of forces.' Lochiel was one of the Leti, and Voltaire.

associates in the plan of the invasion To point out all the errors in that 1744, who invited Charles Edward narrative would be irksome.

to Scotland. When he saw him arrive I shall just mention a few circum- with so flender a force in 1745, he stances which, in the civility of mo- advised him to return to France didern language, may be termed ideal. rectly, but Charles refused : 'then,

1. Don Carlos, by the assistance of ' said Lochiel, I will share fates with a British squadron, under the com- your H-, though I foresee that: mand of Sir Charles Wager, was ad- this enterprize will be the ruin of vanced to the throne of the Two Si

your
friends and your

cause.' An cilies.

anecdote, so much to the honour of 2. Charles Edward served first as the cause in which he had unhappily a volunteer, and then as an officer in engaged ibimself, will, no doubt, be the French army, during the cam- remembered by his relations. paign of Philipsburgh.

9. The County of Fife seems to be 3. He served again in the French placed in the neighbourhood of Blair army at the battle of Dettingen,' and of Athole. che rendered himfe!f very con picu- :0. The bridges on the Mersey

ous by his bravery, being one of the having been braken down, he could • foremost in charging the enemy, not proceed to Chester and Wales.

and among the last who retreated. 11. Something is said of General Every one knows, that the foremost in Oglethorpe's great alacrity in pursu. charging at that battle were the first ing the rebels. in retreating, and that Charles Ed- 12. At Falkirk the Highlanders ward was not there.

kept up a close fire. 4. The invasion under Count Saxe 13. The Duke of Cumberland had was delayed at the request of that ge- in his army twelve regiments of Highneral_This author seems never to landers from Argyleshire, under the have heard of the tempeft which wreck- command of Col. Campbell, ed so many of the French transports, 14. The Earl of Loudon abandonand diffipated their fleer; an ed Inverness on the approach of bearing the marks, if mortals might Charles Edward. presume to judge, of an immediate 15. Charles Edward was with the interposition of Providence.

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troops which intended to surprise the 5. Charles Edward served in Flan- Duke of Cumberland. ders, and was present at three fieges. 16. At Culloden bis army confift6. He was at the battle of Fontenoi, ed of between 4009 and 5000 men.

Ee 2

event

17. The

17. The French pickets covered youngest of the children of the Prince the retreat of the Highlanders, by a of Horne, one of the Princes of the regular and well-directed fire. Empire.

18. The Princess of Stolberg, who This it is to write history! married Charles Edward, was the

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UTHENTICITY, and earli- like other parts of the world, indented valuable requisites in a Magazine, I vigable rivers and harlours. About send.

you the following account of 700 miles right fouth from Mourzouk, very important discoveries made in and at nearly the same distance souththe interior parts of Africa, abridged cast, are the cities of Cashnah, and from “The Proceedings of the Afri- Bornou, each larger than Tripoli, and can association," written by Mr Beau- respectively the capitals of two great foy, and accompanied by a map from empires, bounded towards the fouth by the hand of Major Rennel. The asso- the Niger, and forming the chief cenciation feat two millionaries to Africa, tral powers of Africa. In both counMr Lidiard, who died of a bilious tries the natives are perfectly black, disorder at Cairo, and Mr Lucas, but their features are not of the negro who returned to England last July. cast. Calhnah, which is infcrior in The materials furnished by the latter, extent and fertility, scontains 1000 authenticated by other documents, that towns, or large villages, built in nearly have since been transmitted to the asso, the fane rude stile with the towns in ciation, acquaint us, that, to the South- South Barbary. The subjects of BorEast of Tripoli, and about 350 geo- nou are an assemblage of various na. graphic miles from the Mediterrancan dires cabing dry different languuges. coait, ftands Mourzouk, the capital The capital is surrounded by a wall of the small, but compact and wealth- fourteen feet high; the streets are thy kingdom of Fezzan, formerly de- irregular, and the houses are uniformly pendant on Tripoli, but now delivered mean. like those of the Mahometans in from foreign jurisdiction by the abi- all parts of the world. In both Caihlities of the reigning Prince. Agri- nah and Bornou, the ruling nation culture and pasturage form the princi- profefses the religion of Mahomet; but Jual employment of the inhabitants of the paganism of the dependent tribes Fezzan, whose territory, a cultivated does not appear to subject them to any speck in the midst of deserts, presents hardship: "In both countries the goon all sides smiling fields and popu. vernment is elective monarchy; and lous villages. But what principally in both, the most distinguifhed senadistinguishes the Fezzaners above other tors are the electors. After the king's nations of Africa, is the enterprising death, his fons, of whom, as polygaspirit of their merchants, who often my prevails, the number is generally travel three thousand miles inland, very considerable, are shut up in fepas and who form, by their caravans, the rate cells, till one of them is chosen great bond of communication and in- to fill the vacant throne. The fortutercourse in a continent which is nọtnáte candidate is 'then conducted by

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the senators to the vault of the palace, tors, and feeding on human flesh. where his father's corpse still remains The Begarmese mounted on fleet uninterred; where he listens with at- horses, annually invade these cannitention and reverence, while the vir- bals, driving them before them like tues of the deceased are extolled, or cattle. From Begarmee, they are his vices arraigned; the orator con- sent to Abraou, and thence to cluding with peculiar earneitness; Fezzan, from which, by the Port of “ You see before you the end of your Tripoli, they are transported to the mortal career; the eternity, which Levant. fucceeds toil, will be happy or mifer- The continent of Africa has been able, in proportion as your reign proves compared by geographers to a leopa blefing or a curfe.”

ard's skin. The prevailing coloar is The inhabitants both of Calhoan that of a desert of sand, blended with and Börnou are more cultivated than a vegetable mould, in the neighbourthe natives of Africa have hitherto hood of springs or rivulets, in fome been described. They possess innu-- places broken by naked rocks, in merable herds of tame animals; they others, swelling into mountains, and cultivate Indian corn, horfe beans, and the rivers, which in other countries the common kidney bean. From the flow into each other, and finally difiron of their country they fabri. embogue in the sea, for the most part cate flight' tools for the purposes of a- lose themselves in Africa in the fangriculture; and, in their current ino- dy desert. wuch is the obscure terminey, gold and silver are mixed with a nation of the majestic Niger, which, due proportion of baser metals. Their after watering the great central emmilitary force consists entirely in ca- pires of Cashnah and Bornou, gradu, valry; the nations on the coast, jealous ally diminishes to a scanty stream, and of their power and numbers, carefully finally disappears in the fand; of conceal from them the knowledge of Tombucton. Having, already gifire arms. Their capitals are adorned ven some account of the nations by mofques, and schools are every more north of the Niger, which, in where eitablished for teaching to read the language of Africa, is called Neel the Koran, Drafts and chess are their il Abeed, that is, the Nile of the Neprincipal amusements. In their houses groes, we now proceed to mention the the higher ranks of people recline on new information that has been obtain, cushions, stuffed with wool; they are, ed concerning the countries to the furnished with brass and copper uten- south of this great

inland itream. fils, handsome carpets, and candle- The Niger abounds in fith, which sticks, in which they burn a composition the Africans, careless of such food, of bees wax and tailow, instead of a leave altogether unmolested. What vegetable oil which is used only by is equally remarkable, they never napersons of inferior rank.

vigate the river; and the merchant, Ali, the present king of Bornou for the transportation of himself and has 900 wives, and soo horses, and his goods, finds but one solitary ferry 350 chiidren, of whom 300 are males. in an hundrid miles south of Cashnah, Their principal exports are falt, civet, where, inftead of boats, he embarks gold-duft, and Naves, the last of which on an ill-constructed raft, for the they obtain in the following manner: planks are fastened to the timbers South east of Bornou, is the Mahom. with rois, and the seams are closed metan kingdom of Begarmee, the na- with tough clay. In travelling southtives of which are black, but not of ward from the Niger, the face of the the Negro caft; and beyond this king. country assumes an entirely different dom are many Negro nations, idola- appearance, and a different mode of

transportation

a

ant.

transportation must therefore be adopt- try is so perfeetly secure, that a shereef ed. "High mountains, and narrow val- of Vezza (a shereef is a dignified and . leys, extensive woods, and miry roads, facred person descended from Mahosucceed to the vast plains and fandy met and often a merchant by profeffoil of the Zachra and its neighbour- fion) offered to conduct Mr Lucas by ing kingdoms. The traveller now the way of Cashnah, across the Niger, finds abundance of animal and vege- to Affente, which borders on the coast table food, but the raging heat of the of the Christians. torrid zone increasing as he proceeds, The articles of export from these requires the application of wet cloths countries consist in flaves, and gold to the mouth, especially in the woods, duft, cotton cloth, goat skins of beauto allay, for the purpose of respiration, tiful dyes, chiefly red or yellow hides the violence of the burning sun. The of cows and buffaloes, and a species of broad and soft foot of the camel, which a nut called Gooroo, highly prized by treads with security on the yielding the nations of the north. Fire-arms sand, lides on a wet surface, and is are wuknown here, as well as to the injured by the resistance of stones. people beyond the Niger, and for that Though he moves with singular fafety fame cause, the inhabitants of the on a level plain, his hoof is incapa- of dreading to furniih them with an ble of faftening with any strength on article, which might render them dan- . the ground of a steep ascent, and in a gerous neighbours and formidable eshelving declivity, furnishes not any nemies. solid or suficient support. The merch The information communicated by ant, therefore, must lay aside the use the African society is equally interestof those humble companions of his toil, ing to the philosopher and the merchwhom he had hitherto found so fer- The former will rejoice that, viceable, and have recourse to mules while Mr Bruce is publishing his de. and horses, which the country fupplies fcription of Abyssinia, and other eastin great abundance.

ern parts, and Mr Gordon, another From the banks of the Niger to the Scotch gentleman, who is Dutch gocoast of Guinea, the Africans are di- vernor at the Cape, is preparing his vided into many small nations, some journey from the land of the HotPagan, and some Mahometan; from tentots through Caffraria, the muni. Major Rennels' map, it would

ficence and discernment of this Engthat Mahomedanism prevails till the lifh association has used, and is still 12th parellel of north latitude; so using, the properest means for exthat the acknowledgment and worship ploring the great northern. mass of A. of one God has penetrated much fur- frica, and discovering the secrets of ther in this great continent, than the those vast inland provinces, which have accounts, or rather conjectures, of pre- hitherto been considered as inaccesible. ceding travellers afforded reason to The attention and enterprise of the believe. Time, probably, has introdu- merchant will be excited to the dif. ced very important alterations; and covery of a new and boundless markmany African tribes, whom Leo de- et, an hundred millions of Africans fcribes two hundred years ago, as eagerly coveting his commodities, for Pagans, facrificers of human victims, which they can make him the most va. and cannibals, have gradually embra- luable returns ; but, not able at preced the comparatively milder faith of sent to obtain them, except by the Mahomet. The natives of this vast land-conveyance of 3000 miles from region, whether Pagans, or Mahome- the Mediterranean, subjected to the tans, are now harmless and inoffen- complicated disadvantages of a high ave; and travelling thro' their coun- fricc, inferior quality, and various

appear,

exactions

exactions from despotic governments of find it their interest to frequent, Barbary. Yet, from the highest reaches notwithstanding the above inconveniof the Gambia, the English trader encies; a new prospect of commercial might arrive, by a journey of some hund- intercourse, the most magnificent that reds of miles from his ships, to the the history of the world has ever at fame markets, which the Fezzaners any time presented.

Account of a remarkable Atmospheric Phenomenon, or Water Spout, which hap

pened in Orkney in September last.

A

FEW days prior to the 15th white one. At 12 the cloud wore a

Sept. last it was observed, in most aweful and gloomy aspect ; and the parish of Bursay, in Orkney, that as if it had split asunder, there issued a vast number of clouds were collect- from it, attended with a tremenduous

' ing themselves together. On the noise, louder than thunder, a fall or morning of that day the whole form- spout of water, the most dreadful ied a frightful appearance to the east- maginable. The body of water apward ; about 10 o'clock A. M. it peared, at nearly two miles distance; seemed to take motion, winging its to be about 50 feet in circumference, course westward. It was a perfect and continued pouring down without calm over all, excepting the space o- intermission for upwards of 40 minutes. ver which this huge mass of air paf. The sea, where it fell, was in terfed, as appeared from its influence on rible conflict and agitation. the water. About 11 the cloud was The above circumstance is very suspended directly above the heads of remarkable in Orkney; no such other an astonished multitude of people instance having ever been seen or who were employed in cutting down heard of by any mortal now living

On this occafion a great there—Happily no damage ensued, white stream appeared rising perpen. owing to the water's falling in the dicular from the fea; and a number of sea.

G. M. smaller and darker streams were run- Bursay in Orkney, 3 March 1790. Ring with great velocity towards the

corns.

Detached Thoughts.

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N general, we call those men fools may likewise despise them, because be those men barbarous whose manners A man of genius passes his time aare different from ours.

mong fools who cannot understand People are more intent upon vindi- him, and among men of wit who will cating what they believe than in examining the reasons of their belief. The man who has most strength

The same effects often proceed and activity of mind is he who most from opposite causes; a man of genius feels his own weakness. That strength may despise human attainments be- incessantly forces him against obstacles, cause he fees where they end ; a fool and continual and laborious experi

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