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their imaginations delight to indulge. found, that they are equally insensi.

-The fame observation is equally ble to all the Sublimity or Beauty applicable to the different tastes of which the relt of the world find in the men in Poetry, and the rest of the obj-cts of such Emotion. fine arts ; and the productions that 5. Belides the influence of permaall men peculiarly admire, are those nent habits of thought, or of the diwnich fúit that peculiar strain of E- versities of original disposition upon motion, to which, from their original our sentiments of Beauty, every man constitution, they are most strongly mat have had opportunity to observe, disposed. The ardent and gallant that the perception of Beauty demind fickens at the infipidity of af- pends also on the temporary sensibitoral and the languor of elegiac poei- lity of his mind; and that even cbry, and delights only in the great in- jects of the most experienced Beauty terests of the Tragic and the Epic fail in exciting their usual delight, Muse. The tender and romantic per- when they occur to him in moments, mse, with indifference, the Iliad and when he is under the dominion of the Paradise Lost, and return with different emotions from those with gladness to those favourite compofi- which he usually regards them. In rions which are descriptive of the our seafors of gaiety, we behold with jows or sorrows of Love. The gay indifference, the fame objects which and the frivolous, on the contrary, delight our imaginations, when we alike insensible to the sentiments ei- are under the impressions of tender, ther of Tenderness or Magnanimity, nefs or melancholy. In our seasons find their delight in that cold but of despondence, we turn with some lively style of poetry, which has been kind of aversion from the objects or produced by the gallantry of modern the reflections that enchant us in our times, and which, in its principal hours of gaiety. In the common features, is so strongly characteristic hours of life, in the, fame manner, of the pasion itself. In general, those when we are either busy or unoccukinds of poetry only are delightful, or pied, and when our minds are free mwaken us to any very fenGble Emo- from every kind of sensibility, the tions of Sublimity or Beauty, which objects of Taite make but a feeble fall in with our peculiar habits of impression upon us; and are either fentiment or feeling; and if it rarely altogether neglected, or tacitly refer. happens, that one species of

ved to another time, when we may be reliihed to the exclusion of every o. inore in the temper to enjoy them. ther, it arises only from this, that it The husbandman who goes out to obis equally rare, that one species of serve the state of his grounds, the Emotion should have fo completely man of business who walks forth to the dominion of the heart, as to ex- ruminate about his affairs, or the phiclude all Emotions of any other kind. lofopher to reafun or reflect, whaterer, In proportion, however, as our sens- their natural sensibilities may be, are bility is weak, with regard to any at such times infensible to every beauclass of objecis, it is observable, that ty that the scenery of nature may our sense of Sublimity or Beauty in exhibit; nor do they begin to feel fuch objects, is weak in the same pro. them, until they withdraw their atportion; and wherever it happens tention from the particular objects of (for it fometimes does happen) that their thought, and abandon theinmen from their original constitution selves to the emotions which such are incapable of any one species of scenes may happen to inspire. Emotion, I believe it will also be There are even moments of lift

poetry is


Jeffness and languor, in which no ob- them, for this we frequently attempt, jects of Taite whatever can excite and attempt in vain ; but it is because their usual delight, in which our fa- we come to them either with minds vourite books, our favourite land- fatigued, and with spirits below their scapes, our favourite airs, cease alto- usual tone, or under the influence of gether to affect us ; and when some other feelings than are necessary for times we almost wonder what is the their enjoyment. Whenever we resecret spell that hangs over our minds, turn to that state of mind which is fa. and prevents us from - enjoying the vourable to such emotions, our depleasures that are within our reach. light returns with it, and the objects It is not that the objects of such plea- of such pleasures become as favourite sures are changed; it is not even

as before. that we have not the wih to enjoy

of the Sublimity and Beauty of Sound. By the fams.


LL sounds ingeneral are Sub- 1. Such founds, instead of having

lime, which are associated any permanent or definite Character of with Ideas of Danger; the howling Sublimity, varyin their effect, with the of a Storm,--the murmuring of an qualities they happen to express, and Earthquake,--the Report of Artil- assume different characters, according lery,—the Explosion of Thunder, to the nature of these qualities. &c.

If sounds in themselves were Su2. All sounds are in general Sub- blime, it might reasonably be expectlime, which are associated with Ideas ed in this, as in every other case of of great Power or Might ; the noise Sense, that their difference of effect of a Torrent,--the fall of a Cataract, would be striAly proportioned to —the uproar of a Tempest,—the Ex- their difference of charaĉter, and that plosion of Gun-powder,—the dashing Sounds of the same kind or characof the waves, &c.

ter would invariably produce the 3. All sounds, in the same manner, fame Emotion. The following inare Sublime, which are associated with stances, however, seem to show, that Ideas of Majesty or Solemnity, or no specific character of Sublimity be deep Melancholy, or any other strong legsto mere Sound, and that the same Emotion: the Sound of the Trum- Sounds may produce very different pet, and all other warlike Inftru- kinds of Emotion, according to the ments--the Note of the Organ,--the qualities with which we associate them. Sound of the Curfew,-the tolling The Sound of Thunder is perhaps of the paffing Bell, &c.

ofallothersin Nature the mostSublime. That the Sublimity of such founds In the generality of mankind this arises from the Ideas of Danger or Sublimity is founded on Awe, and Power, or Majesty, &c. which are af- fome degree of Terror; yet how difsociated with them, and not from the ferent is the Emotion which it gives Sounds themselves, or from any ori- to the peasant, who fees at laft, after ginal fitness in such sounds, to pro- a long drough, the consent of Heaven duce this Emotion, seems to be obvi- to his prayers for rain,--to the phious from the following confidera- lofopher, who from the height of the tions :

Alps, hears it roll beneath his feet, VOL. XI. No. 63. Bb



-o the soldier, who, under the The sound of a trumpet is often sub. impression of ancient fuperftition, lime ; but how different the fublimiwelcomes it, upon the moment of en- ty in the day of battle, -in the march gagement, as the omen of victory! of an army in peace, -or amid the In all these cases, the Sound itself is splendours of a procession. There the same; but how different the

are few simple sounds more sublime nature of the Sublimity it produces ! than the report of a cannon; yet eveThe report of artillery is Sublime, iy one must have felt the different es from the images both of Power and motions of sublimity with which the of Danger we associate with it. The same 'found affects him, and at the noise of an engagement heard from a fame intervals, in moments of public distance is dreadfully Sublime. The sorrow, or public rejoicing. firing of a Review is scarcely more In these, and many other instances than magnificent. The sound of 2 that might be mentioned, the nature real skirmish between a few huodred of the emotion we experience corremen, would be more fublime than all fponds, not to the nature of the found the noise of a feigned engagement itself, but to the nature of the associabetween a hundred thousand men. tion we connect with it; and is in The ftraggling fire of a company of fact altogether the same with the esoldiers upon a field-day, is contemp- motion which the same quality protible, and always excites , laughter. duces, when unaccompanied with The straggling fire of the same num- sound. If sounds in themselves were ber of men, in a riot, would be ex- fitted by the constitution of our natremely sublime, and perhaps more ture to produce these emotions, it terrible than an uniform report.

would seem, that greater uniformity The howling of a Tempest is power- would be found in their effects, that fully Sublime from many affociations; the difference of their effects would yet how different to the inhabitant of be proportioned to the difference of the land, and the sailor, who is far their nature as sounds; and that the from refuge,--to the inhabitant of the same sounds would permanently proTheltered plain, and the traveller be- duce the same emotion. wildered in the mountains, to the 2. If any particular sounds are fit. poor man who has nothing to lose, ted by our constitution to produce and the wealthy, whose fortunes are the emotion of fublimity, it seems at the mercy of the storm!

In all impossible that sounds of a coutrary these cases, the sound itself is the same, kind should produce the fame emobut the nature of the fublimityit produ: tion. If, on the contrary, the fulli- . ces is altogether different, and corre. mity of sounds arises from the qualisponds, not to the effect upon the organ ties we asociate with them, it may of hearing, but to the character or situa- reasonably be expected, that sounds tions of the men by whom it is heard, of all kinds will produce this emoand the different qualities of which tion, when they are expresíve of such it is expreflive to them.

qualities as are in themselves subThe lound of a cascade is almost al. lime. Many very familiar observaways

sublime ; yet no man ever felt in tions seem to illustrate this point. it the same species of sublimity, in a The most general character, perfruitful plain, and in a wild and ro. haps, of fublimity in sounds, is that inantic country, in the pride offum- of loudness, and there are doubtless iner, and in the desolation of winter, many inftances where such sounds ---in the hours of gaiety, or tranquil. are very constantly sublime; yet there lity, or elevation,--and in seasons of are many instances also, where the inelancholy, or anxiety, or despair, contrary quality of founds is also sub

lime; and when this happens, it will low and feeble sound which frequentuniversally be found, that such sounds ly precedes it, more sublime in reaare affociated with ideas of power or lity than all the uproar of the storm danger, or some other quality capable, itself, and which has accordingly been of exciting Itrong emotion. The loud frequently made use of by poeis, in and tumultuous found of a storm is heightening their descriptions of such undoubtedly sublime; but there is a scenes.

Along the woods, along the moorish fens
Sighs the said Genius of the coming storm,
And up among the loose disjointed cliffs
And fractur'd mountains wild, the brawling brook
And cave presageful send a hollow moan
Resounding long in Fancy's listening ear.
Then comes the Father of the Tempest forth, &c.

Thomson's Winter. “ Did you never observe (says Mr passed by, and a great and strong

Gray in a letter to a friend) while “ wind rent the mountains, and brake rocking winds are piping loud, that « in pieces the rocks before the Lord;

pause, as the gust is recollecting it- " but the Lord was not in the wind : “ se!f, and rising upon the ear in a " and after the wind an earthquake; « fhrill and plaintive note, like the 66 but the Lord was not in the earth66 [well of an Æolian harp. I do " quake : and after the earthquake a “ assure you there is nothing in the « fire ; but the Lord was not in the “ world so like the voice of a spi. “ fire: and after the fire a still small Such a found in itself is in.

66 voice.

And it was so, when Eli. considerable, and resembles many o- jah heard it, that he wrapped his thers which are very far from being « face in his mantle." sublime; but as the forerunner of the Another great division of sounds storm, and the figo of all the imagery is into grave and acute. If either of we connect with it, it is sublime in a these classes of found is sublime in it very great degree. There is in the self it should follow, according to the fame manner said to be a low rumb- general laws of sensation, that the oling noise preceding an earthquake, ther should not be fo. In fact, howin itself very inconsiderable, and ge- ever, the sublime is found in both, nerally likened to some very con- and perhaps it may be difficult to say temprible sounds; yet in such a situa- to which of them it most tion, and with all the images of dan- ly belongs. Instances of this kind ger and horror to which it leads, I are within the reach of every person's question whether there is another observation. found fo dreadfully sublime. The

In the same manner,


be ob soft and placid tone of the human served, that the most cominon, and in voice is surely not sublime ; yet in the general, the most insignificant founds following passage, which of the great become sublime, whenever they are images that precede it, is so power- associated with images belonging to fully fo? It is a passage from the first power, or danger, or melancholy, or book of Kings, in which the Deity any other strong emotion, although is described as appearing to the pro- in other cases they affect us with no phet Elijah. “And he said, Go forth emotion whatever. There is scarce" and Itand upon the mount before ly in nature a more trifling sound “ the Lord. And behold, the Lord than the buzz of flies, yet I believe Bba

there these

66 rit."



One can

there is no man of common taste, who, at intervals from the roof, than which in the deep filence of a fummer's I know not if there is a single found noon, has not found something strik- 'more strikingly sublime. ingly sublime in this inconsiderable scarcely mention a found less producsound. The falling of a drop of wa-. tive of the sublime, than the found of ter, produces in general a very infig- a hammer. How powerfully, however, nificant and unexpressive found ; yet in the following description has sometimes in vaults, and in latge Ca- Shakespeare made this vulgar sound thedrals, a single drop is heard to fall fublime !


From camp to camp, thro' the foul womb of night,
The bum of either army stilly sounds,
That the fix'd fentine's almoft receive
The secret whispers of each other's watch.
Fire answers fire, and thro' their paly flames
Each battle fees the other's umber'd face;
Steed answers steed in high and boastful neighs
Piercing the earth's dull car, and from the tents
The armourers accomplishing the knights
With busy hammers, closing rivets up
Give dreadful note of preparation,

Heirry V. act 3. Chorus.


The sound of oars in water is surely by the treachery of his companions very far from being Sublime, yet in a upon a desarı island), he describes the tragedy of Thonifon's, this found is horrors he felt, when he first found made strikingly Sublime, when (in his being deferted : And adds, the perfon of a man who had been left

I never heard A found so dismal as their parting :: Instances of the same kind are fo n!. lities of power, or danger, or awful. merous, that it is unnecessary to infilt nefs, which they fignify, and which upon them. If sounds are Sublime the objects themselves permanently in. in themselves, independently of all volve, is established not by man, but asociation, it seems difficult to ac- by nature. It has no dependence upon count for contrary sounds producing his will, and cannot be affected by the same effect, and for the fame founds any discipline of his imagination. It producing different effects, according is no wonder, therefore, while fuch to the associations with which they connections are so permanent, that are connected.

the fublimity which belongs to the 3. When such associations are dif- qualities of the objects themselves, folved, the founds ihemselves ceafe should be attributed to their exterto be sublime. There are many ca- nal signs, and that such ligns should fes, undoubtedly in which this expe- be considered iò themselves as fitted riment cannot be made, because in to produce this emotion. The only many

cases the connection beiween case in which these associations are fuch' founds, and the qualities they positively diffolved, is when, by some indicate, is constant and invariable. error of judgment, we either milThe connection between the sound of take some different sound, for the thunder, of a whirlwind, of a tor- sound of any of these objects, or are rent, of an earthquake, and the qua- impoled upon by some imitation of

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