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whose anxious jealousy had been directed to the grounds of our naval greatness, ascribed it chiefly to "the discovery of the inexpressibly rich fishing bank of Newfoundland:" and the authority of De Witt was still great in the early years of Bolingbroke. It was the capture of Louisburg, however, in 1745, which gave the greatest shock to the French influence in that region. The peace of 1748, it is true, again sacrificed our American interest to that in the East Indies for Cape Breton was restored to France, by way of equivalent for Madras, which she had recently conquered. However, the splendid, though brief career of Wolfe, availed to re-establish our American empire on a basis more extended than ever. In 1759, the French power in this quarter was destroyed in the amplest manner, by the reduction of Cape Breton and Canada: with sufficient firmness in the diplomatic policy which followed, it was then destroyed for ever.

equally sure, the next war transferred them to Great Britain. And, finally, in the treaties which followed the fall of Napoleon, not contenting ourselves with restoring for the third time these most important islands, we have solemnly created in favour of France various privileges of fishing, which were as ruinous for us to grant, as they were unreasonable for her to claim.

With how true and long-sighted a policy France has cultivated her fishing interest, obstinately insisting in peace upon all, or more than all that she had lost in war, may be judged from this statement of Mr M'Gregor's:-Even so early as 1745, one year's fishing in the North American seas was valued at L.982,000. But this was looked to as a mere collateral trifle. The direct and paramount purpose, which France pursued in this policy, was the support and aggrandisement of her martial navy. This purpose she secured, by a domestic provision, which exacted for the crews of all vessels fitted out for the fisheries, one-third, or at the least one-fourth of green men, that is, men who had never before been at sea. The result of this one regulation was-that annually she threw from four to six thousand recruits into her maritime service.

It is notorious, however, that too often what we have gained by the sword, we lose by our diplomacy. The treaty of Fontainbleau, in 1762, conceded to France some restricted rights of fishing on these coasts, and above all, under the mask of providing a shelter for the French fishermen, it gave up the islands of St What is the consequence? In Pierre and Riquelon. Now, it has 1829, France employed from 250 to been often enough asserted, that 300 vessels on the coasts of British these islands are incapable of being America, and 25,000 fishermen. fortified; and that pretence was set And the more effectually to drive up in Parliament, by way of apology these men, when trained, into her for this article of the treaty. But domestic navy, she binds them all certainly, had that been so, it is dif- by treaty not to become residents. ficult to understand why France Nay, so keen and unsleeping is her should have entered into express vigilance in this direction, "that covenants," not to fortify the said strict naval discipline," (as we slands." [4th Art. Treat. Fontainb.] learn from Mr M'Gregor,)" is not We suspected how the matter stood: lost sight of on board of the fishingand we now find, from Mr M'Gre- vessels." So that, by this egregious gor, that "both these islands are in oversight of our British statesmen, an eminent degree, not only capable France has been enabled to create of being made impregnable, but that the most perfect apprenticeship in their situation alone would command the world for a vast and permanent the entrance to the Gulf of St Law-body of sailors, and in a quarter so rence, if put into such a state of remote from Europe, as hardly to strength as it is in the power of attract attention. France to put them."

These islands, however, were lost to France by the first war of the Revolution. The peace of Amiens, as we might be sure, restored them both; and again, as we might be

With an evil of this magnitude before us, it becomes by comparison almost a trifle to mention, that the island of St Pierre, where the French French manufactures, which are afgovernor resides, is made a depôt for

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terwards smuggled into our colonies; that, simply as regards the commercial value of the fisheries, the French, by means of cheaper outfits and lower wages of labour, enjoy a preference in the markets of the world," as well as in their own market at home; and, finally, that, having obtained in those parts ceded to them, on the coasts of Newfoundland, nothing less than "half the shores of the island," and "the best fishing grounds," they have thus secured the further advantage of having actually expelled our own fishermen, and driven them from - two to four hundred miles further north, where, again, they are met by other competitors.

And who are these? The Americans of the United States. And whence comes their right to intrude upon our fishing stations? Simply from our own concessions. By a convention with this country, concluded in 1818, the United States have obtained a modified privilege of fishing in these latitudes; this privilege they have greatly abused, not only by too partial a construction of the terms allowed, but by the most tyrannical usurpations of powers, which no construction, however partial, could justify, and neither side - could have contemplated. Acting . much more in concert than our own people, the Americans frequently Occupy the whole of the best fishing banks, to the exclusion of our fishermen; they fish by means of seines, which they spread across the best places along the shores, and thus intercept all chances of success for the British fisherman; they have even presumed to anchor opposite to a British settlement, to cut the salmon-net of the inhabitants, to set their own in its stead, and, finally, have threatened to shoot any one who approached it. Nay, as the climax of their outrages, Mr M'Gregor assures us, that they have driven by force our vessels and boats from their stations have torn down the British flag in the harbours, and hoisted in its place that of the United States.

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The other consequences are pretty much the same as those which have followed the French encroach ments. The Americans annually employ from fifteen hundred to two thousand schooners, of 90 to 130

tons, with crews amounting to thirty thousand men. As to the quantity of produce, it may be conjectured from this-Their export of cod-fish alone averages 400,000 quintals annually, which is about half the quantity exported by the British from Newfoundland and Labrador; and their home consumption is equal to three times as much more.

These are the consequences which indirectly and remotely affect our own interests, by rapidly promoting the commercial and political importance of those who are always our rivals, and too often our enemies. Meantime, the direct and immediate consequences to ourselves, has been the depreciation of fish in the foreign markets, a ruinous reduction in the demand for fish oil, and the almost total destruction of our great nursery for seamen. With respect to this last evil, Mr M'Gregor tells us, that the fishermen, particularly in Newfoundland, now confine themselves to a shore or boat-fishing; and, from the circumstances under which that is pursued, it seems that it furnishes no regular school for training sailors. British interests have in general been confided too exclusively to the support of the sword; but we believe that no instance can be produced in which they have been neglected, we cannot say-but systematically sacrificed in an equal degree by our diplomacy. For it must not be forgotten that this very Newfoundland, thus wantonly trifled away in recent times, was "for at least two centuries and a half after its discovery by Cabot in 1479, of more mighty importance to Great Britain than any other colony;" and Mr M'Gregor justly doubts whether" the British Empire could have risen to its great and superior rank among the nations of the earth, if any other power had held the possession of Newfoundland; its fishing having ever since its commencement furnished our navy with a great proportion of its hardy and brave sailors."

Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton occupy the two next books. Neither of these islands can pretend to any considerable rank amongst our American possessions. Yet this is not so much from any want of natural resources that can be charged

upon either of them, as from the extraordinary neglect which they have experienced from government. It is true, that private enterprise has done something within the last thirty years to remedy this neglect. All the world remembers the late Lord Selkirk's intelligent plan of colonization in Prince Edward Island; and a good deal has been done for Cape Breton by English settlements since the close of the American revolutionary war. Yet, when the French possessed this island, the inhabitants employed upon the fisheries near 600 vessels, exclusive of boats, and from twentyseven to twenty-eight thousand seamen; and the French Ministry considered this fishery "a more valuable source of wealth and power to France than the possession of the mines of Mexico and Peru." Indeed Louisburg, the old French capital of the island of Cape Breton, and at that time the capital of all the French possessions, of itself sufficiently indicates the importance of this settlement. The inhabitants were 5000, without reckoning the garrison; and the reduction of the place by General Amherst, in 1758, required a powerful armament of twenty-three ships of the line, eighteen frigates, 157 sloops of war and transports, together with a land force of 16,000 men. For more than twenty years, however, after this event, the island was abandoned to a few fishermen, whose existence was scarcely known. At this time the colony, if such it could be called, was treated as an appendage of Nova Scotia. After the American war, it is true, promises appeared of a better system. A new capital, named Sidney, was founded by the first governor, Louisburg having been rased to the ground; and the colony of Cape Breton was then gratified by a distinct and independent government. This gleam of prosperity, how ever, appears to have been transitory; the succeeding governors did little to promote the welfare of the island; and since 1820 it has been re-annexed, as a dependency, to the government of Nova Scotia.

We are not without hopes that the present work will once more call the attention of government to a possession with such extended capacities, both for internal improvement, and for external aid to the whole system

of colonies amongst which it is placed. The abundant fisheries on its coasts, its numerous harbours, its great plenty of wood for ship-building, a soil sufficiently fertile, and excellent land for grazing, are alone ample elements of a vast internal developement which waits only for a

sufficient population; and that ought long since to have been furnished from our own shores. But beyond all other constituents of a flourishing colony, Cape Breton has that of coal mines, which must sooner or later raise it to a first-rate importance. This fact we have first learned from the work before us. And really, when we lay all these considerations together, we cannot but agree with Mr M'Gregor, that it is "difficult to account for this colony having been so long neglected, while the attention of government has been directed to the colonization of countries so distant as the Cape of Good Hope and Van Dieman's Land." The only solution of this difficulty is to be found, as he suggests, in the general ignorance of the advantages held out by this colony-an ignorance common to government and to all those who are speculating on emigration. Hence we shall not be surprised, if Mr M'Gregor should himself prove the greatest of all benefactors to Cape Breton, by causing the current of emigration to turn for a time into that direction. Certain it is that not one of our colonies is So much coveted by the United States; and if they should once obtain possession of it, there is every reason to believe with Mr M'Gregor, that, as a position for commanding the surrounding seas and coasts, it would protect the nursery for their navy until it would have sufficient strength to cope with any power in Europe, not even excepting England.' Thus it will be seen that we have graver reasons for attending to the condition of Cape Breton, than merely those which respect the interests of our emigrants. Yet it is certain that the same measure would provide for all these objects at once. Let

government select a proper body of emigrants; grant them suitable encouragements; and have them trained, according to Mr M'Gregor's suggestion, as a militia;-in that case the internal prosperity of this

valuable island, and its defence against the Americans, would be secured at one blow, and with an expense in the utmost degree insignificant by comparison with the great ends attained.

At present it is probable enough that the whole attention of the government at home, which is disposable in this direction, settles upon the two principal colonies of Nova Scotia and Canada. Yet even these suffer in some degree from neglect. And apparently this neglect has pursued them from the earliest times. Nova Scotia, which had been one of the earliest British acquisitions in right of Cabot's discovery on behalf of Henry VII., for a long period was carelessly resigned to the French. That active nation zealously profited by our torpor; but misfortunes blighted their efforts, after a brief prosperity of eight or ten years. This catastrophe was followed by various changes of fortune, alternately establishing the French and British sovereignty, until in 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht finally secured this colony to the British crown. In that allegiance it has ever since continued; and, according to Mr M'Gregor, no colony is less likely to throw it off. So long, however, as the French were in possession of Prince Edward Island, (then called St John's,) of Cape Breton, and the Canadas, this colony was never at ease from French intrigues; nor was it until Wolfe's expedition to Quebec that a perfect state of security was established. Up to that era, it is notorious that the British settlers were frequently scalped by Indian tribes, instigated and bribed by France; an atrocity which has stamped the memory of the French governors in that age with everlasting infamy. At present this colony possesses all the civil establishments which are essential to its own welfare, and suitable to its connexion with so great a mother country. Halifax, the capital, has a population of sixteen thousand people, the best harbour in North America, and the most respectable

dockyard out of England. Hitherto, indeed, it has been the great central rendezvous for his Majesty's shipping in those seas, and the head-quarters of the troops in the Lower American provinces. Yet at this time it seems there is a ruinous job going on for transferring these establishments to the Bermudas, that is, from a station with every natural advantage to one with none at all.

Intellectually speaking, that is, with a view to the blessing of cultivated society and of education, Nova Scotia stands at the head of our North American colonies. During the government of Lord Dalhousie a college was established, and endowed with funds to the amount of nearly ten thousand pounds, as a measure of relief to the class of students who decline subscribing the Thirty-nine Articles; students of the Church of England were already provided for by the College of Windsor. The same enlightened nobleman established an agricultural society. And, upon the whole, there is perhaps no settlement in the world where equal culture of mind is combined with the same simplicity of manners.

Until the year 1785, the province of New Brunswick formed a part of Nova Scotia; and we may properly enough, therefore, notice its present circumstances in this place. Mr M'Gregor supposes that it is capable of

maintaining" at least three millions of inhabitants;" which single statement is a sufficient indication of its importance. Yet with all these immense resources, it was not until 1762 that this country attracted any British settlers. In that year a few families made the first attempt at colonization. Their sufferings were great; but still greater (if we may trust a pamphlet written by a gentleman at Fredericton, in the same province) were the sufferings of those who followed in the spring of 1784. They were American loyalists, who were obliged to leave comfortable homes in the United States after the close of the war of independence, "Scarce

* There is a truly characteristic anecdote connected with this French possession of Nova Scotia, (or Acadia, as it was then called,) De Monts, who had a commission from Henri IV. of France, constituting him governor of this and other countries, under the general name of New France, thought proper to confiscate the property of one Rossignol; but, on the other hand, by way of consoling the unhappy Frenchman for his loss, he called a certain harbour, now known as Liverpool harbour, by the flattering name of Port Rossignol.

ly had these firm friends of their country (meaning Great Britain) begun to construct their cabins, when they were surprised by the rigours of an untried climate; their habitations being enveloped in snow before they were tenantable. The climate at that period being far more severe than at present, they were frequently put to the greatest straits for food and clothing to preserve their existence; a few roots were all that tender mothers could at times procure to allay the importunate calls of their children for food. Sir Guy Carleton had ordered them provisions for the first year at the expense of government; but food could scarcely be procured on any terms. Frequently had these settlers to go from fifty to one hundred miles with handsleds or toboggans, through wild woods or on the ice, to procure a precarious supply for their famishing families. Frequently in the piercing cold of winter, a part of the family had to remain up during the night to keep fire in their huts to prevent the other part from freezing. Some very destitute families made use of boards to supply the want of bedding; the father or some of the older children remaining up by turns, and warming two suitable pieces of boards which they applied alternately to the smaller children; with many similar expedients." However, in spite of these hideous difficulties, already in 1785 a royal charter was granted to New Brunswick, as a distinct province independent of Nova Scotia. Fredericton is now the seat of government; but the largest town is that of St John's, which has a population of twelve thousand people.

No town, however, is more heard of in this country, on account of its immense timber trade, than that of Miramichi. We mention it here as connected with one of those tremendous fires which sometimes arise in the American forests, and spread havoc by circles of longitude and latitude. In the autumn of 1825, such a calamity occurred on the river Miramichi, which extended 140 miles in length, and in some places 70 in breadth. It is of little consequence that no wind should be stirring at the time; for, as Mr M'Gregor observes, the mere rarefaction of the air creates a wind, "which increases till it blows


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a perfect hurricane." In the present case, the woods had been on fire for some days without creating any great alarm. But, " on the 7th of October, it came on to blow furiously from the westward; and the inhabitants along the banks of the river were suddenly surprised by an extraordinary roaring in the woods, resembling the crashing and detonation of loud and incessant thunder, while at the same instant the atmosphere became thickly darkened with smoke. They had scarcely time to ascertain the cause of this awful phenomenon, before all the surrounding woods ap. peared in one vast blaze, the flames ascending from one to two hundred feet above the tops of the loftiest trees; and the fire, rolling forward with inconceivable celerity, presented the terribly sublime appearance of an impetuous flaming ocean.' Two towns, those of Douglas and Newcastle, were in a blaze within the hour; and many of the inhabitants were unable to escape. Multitudes of men, on lumbering parties, perished in the forest; cattle were destroyed by wholesale; even birds, unless those of very strong wing, seldom escaped, so rapid was the progress of the flames. Nay, the very rivers were so much affected by the burning masses projected into their waters, that in many cases large quantities of salmon and other fish were scattered upon their shores. Perhaps the plague of fire has never been exhibited, or will be, till the final destruction of this planet, on so magnificent a scale. Such disasters, however, are repaired in wonderfully short space of time; wooden cities being easily rebuilt in a country where timber is a weed. Weed, however, as it is in a domestic sense, by means of exportation to English markets, timber has turned out a more valuable possession to New Brunswick than diamond mines could possibly have proved to a country in her situation. Mr M'Gregor gives us a very impres sive picture of the mode in which timberis cut, hauled to the banks of rivers, and finally floated in the shape of rafts to Miramichi or other ports. The class of people engaged in these labours are called lumberers; they live like Indians in the woods; and a life bours carried on under circumstances of greater hardship than theirs, or la

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