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Buried in her palace-that the thick walls may deaden the horror breathed from the field where her husband fights. Too sacred a thing was such sorrow as hers to Homer's soul, to suffer the Bard of Nature to smite it with such affliction as the sight of him alive, and about to die, under the hands of that inexorable homicide. He mentions her not; but all the people thought of her then-and how many million eyes have since wept for her, unnamed at that catastrophe! We remember the parting between her and her hero-her hopes and her fears-her tears and her smiles-as their Astyanax hung back alarmed from the waving crest of his father. At this moment her once prophetic soul has lost its gifted vision-and she is dreaming of his return!

But how fares it now with the noble Hector? Not unheard had been the outcries of his parents-for Hector to them was pious, as he was to the gods. For their sakes he desired to live-and think ye, that at that moment, though he names not her name, that the image of his Andromache came not across him with Astyanax on her "fragrant bosom?" But Polydamas would reproach him-if now he shunned the combat-Polydamas, who bade him lead the Trojans back that last calamitous night "In which Achilles rose to arms again!" Man and matron-base and brave alike-will dishonour Hector as the cause of all that slaughter-if he slay not or be slain by Achilles. Shall he then seek to parley with the king of the Myrmidons, and offer to restore Helen to the sons of Atreus, and all the treasures Paris brought with her in his fleet to Troy? Perish all such thoughts-let them meet at

once in mortal combat, and leave the victory in the hands of Jove! So communed Hector with his own heart; nor can we imagine words more affecting than are Homer's in this place-in the divine skill of Genius, instructed by the nobility of nature. He shews us a hero struggling against fear-and at last overcome-taking to flight-and yet still a hero. Should any one deny it—he may depend upon it that he is himself a cowardand what is worse-a blockhead.

Not so thought Homer-not sc thought the immortal gods. They saw Hector flying before Achillesas flies a dove before a hawkfawn before a hound, 66 as trembling she skulks among the shrubs"-anc yet they despised him not-but they pitied the hero. The sire of god exclaimed

"Ah! I behold a warrior dear to me Around the walls of Ilium driven, an grieve

For Hector! who the thighs of fatter bulls

On yonder heights of Ida many-valed Burn'd oft to me, and in the heights c


But him Achilles, glorious chief, aroun The city walls of Priam now pursues. Think then, ye gods, delay not to decide Shall we preserve, or leave him now t fall,

Brave as he is, by Peleus' mighty son?'

So said Jupiter-and therefore it sig nifies nothing what says Jew Peter.

But we are hurried away by ou scorn of hypocrisy ;-look at Achil les ere Hector flies, and then at th Flight and the Pursuit, all of which you must be contented with in our prose-for we have not room always to quote all the great trans lators.


These (thoughts) he revolved while tarrying: but near to him came Achilles,
Equal to the helm-shaking warrior Mars,

Over his right shoulder brandishing the Pelian spear

Terrible and around him shone the brass like to the flash

Of blazing fire, or of the rising sun.

Hector, therefore, when he saw (him), trembling seized, nor dared he

There remain, but left the gates, and flying went.

The son of Peleus, to his swift feet trusting, rushed after,

Like as a falcon on the mountains, the swiftest of birds,

Darts easily on a trembling dove:

But it flies aslant; and he near-at-hand shrill screaming,

Rushes frequently, and his appetite impels him to take her:

Thus eagerly indeed did he (Achilles) flee on him directly: trembling, fled Hector Under the walls of the Trojans, and plied his agile limbs.

But they past the prospect-mount and the wind-exposed fig-tree,
Out-from-beneath the wall along the chariot road rushed on:
To the beautiful-flowing fountains they came, where springs
Two (in number) up-rise from the gyrating Scamander.
The one with tepid waters flows, and around a smoke

Arises from it, as from flaming fire.

But the other in summer even out-rushes, like to hail
Or cold snow, or crystallized water (Kgvoruλ2w.)
There near-by them are broad washing tanks,
Beautiful, of-stone, where their gorgeous robes,

The Trojan dames, and their daughters fair, were-wont-to-wash
Erst in time of peace, ere the sons of the Greeks had come.

The moment Homer's imagination
re-creates Achilles, he re-appears ter-
rible, and more terrible, his figure and
his aspect sublimed by more tran-
scendent imagery, borrowed from
the great phenomena of earth and
heaven. Stars, comets, moon, and
sun-and no objects less glorious
-are made to aggrandize the hero of
the Iliad; and yet the same images
are always, in something mighty,
when applied to him, new; as, in-
deed, to the eye of a poet, they are
always new, even in themselves
no two sunrises, or sunsets, being
identical to the vision of a" Maker."
The Apparition that puts Hector to
flight, is the most insupportable of
all; and, though seen from afar, felt,
on its close approach, sudden as su-
pernatural. More deadly is he, thus
opposed, Mars to mortal, than when
the whole army fled before him;-
there is intenser concentration of
terror in his armour, “like lightning,
or like flame, or like the sun ascend-
ing." Had Hector not fled, Homer
had nodded when broad awake. The
Prince of Troy would not have fled
from Ajax, the son of Telamon, nor
from Diomed, who, when Achilles
lay in his wrath among his ships, was
thought equal to Achilles, nor from
Agamemnon, king of men. But there
was one, in presence of whose spear
no hero might abide-before whom
the river gods themselves quailed,
" and hid themselves among their
reedy banks;" and at close of that
combat, in which he shone brightest
even in the midst of the celestials, it
was inevitable in nature, that even the
defender of his country should be ap-
palled. For he was not goddess-born;
bright indeed were the arms he wore
-once worn by Achilles-but what
were they to the Vulcanian panoply,
at whose sound, as Thetis let them
fall at her son's feet, fear "bowed
the astonished souls" of the Myr-

midons? It would have been most
unnatural for man of woman born
not to fly. Then, how absorbed
is all that might have been in
any way degrading in the emotion
inspired by the Destroyer! Most
mournful but magnificent picture!
King and queen shrieking in their
old age, about to be utterly desolate,
from the doomed city walls that
quake to the dreadful voice of that
Invincible! All the power within
silent; and the gods themselves
looking down, and descending to
decide the final issue of the ten years'
strife-for Troy was to fall with
Hector, and Ilion to be shorn of her
towery diadem. As for Achilles,
he saw not-heard not Priam and
Hecuba-he cared not in his passion
even for the gods. His eyes were
all on Hector.

"The son of Peleus, as he ran, his brows
Shaking, forbade the Grecians to dismiss
A dart at Hector, lest a meaner hand
Should pierce him, and USURP THE FORE-

So blent into one in his fiery spi-
rit were Revenge and the Love of

Apollo still strove to save his be loved prince; but now, balancing his golden scales, Jove placed in each a lot-one Achilles, and one consigning Hector to the shades.

"Seized by the central hold, he poised the

Down went the fatal day of Hector, down
To Hades, and Apollo left his side."

The blue-eyed Pallas exultingly cried to Achilles that he should return, "crowned with great glory, to the fleet of Greece," for that not even could the King of radiant shafts himself now save the life of Hector, not even were Apollo to roll himself in supplication at the feet of the

Thunderer. By her deceived, Hector turns and faces Achilles. The heroes

seem to our ears to speak well-thus in our Greek-resembling English

Thee no more, son of Peleus, shall I fly as before:

Thrice around Priam's mighty city have I fled, nor ever durst I
Await thy onset ;-but now doth my spirit impel me

To withstand thee-slay I, or be slain.

But come now, call we the gods (to testify), for they the best
Witnesses and guardians of covenants shall be.

Not savagely will I dishonour thee, if to me Jupiter

Vouchsafe a steady-fought-victory (xaμpovíny), and I shall take away thy life:
But when I shall have despoil'd thee of thy illustrious arms, Achilles,

Thy corse to the Greeks will I restore: do thou so likewise."

Him eyeing sternly, the swift-footed Achilles address'd

"Hector, thou never-to-be-forgotten one, speak not to me of covenants. As between lions and men there are no faithful covenants,→→

Nor have wolves and lambs a same-thinking disposition,

But perpetually are plotting evil to each other;

În like manner it cannot be that I and thou can have friendship, nor between us

Can covenants exist, until one of us prostrate

Shall satisfy with his blood Mars, the indefatigable warrior.

Call to mind (thy) every-kind of valour: much now it behoves thee

To be a combatant, and a doughty warrior.

There is no escape for thee more; thee forthwith Pallas Minerva

By my spear subdues: now at once shalt thou expiate all

The agonies of my companions-whom with the spear in thy fury thou did'st slay."
The combat-though we know it
must be fatal to Hector-is not felt
to be altogether hopeless on his part,
because of the uplifting of our spirits
by the return of his heroism to its
former high pitch, and because of the
love and admiration with which we
regard his character, that has sustain-
ed no loss from his god-driven flight
thrice round the towers of the city
which his valour was unavailing to
save. There is now glory accumu-
lated on glory around each illustrious
crest. Hector's has not been "shorn
of its beams" by any disgrace. His
flight is more than forgiven; and we
admire him more now than when he


set fire to the fleet. It has been said
that Homer was partial to Hector.
So are all men. But believe us when
we say, that his favourite was Achilles.
He in all things was the greater spirit.
From whom would he have fled?
Not from Mars and Bellona.
qualm of fear would have destroyed
that transcendent ideal of uncon-
querable will. But he was invulner-
able. Would that in our boyhood we
had never been confounded by that
lie! He was of all the heroes who
fought before Troy the sole Doom'd
Man, yet never knew he fear within
the perpetual shadows of death. But
again behold Achilles!


Achilles too rush'd forward, and his soul he fill'd with anger
Savage, and his breast his shield o'er-spread,

Beautiful, Dædalean: with his shining helm he nodded

Four-coned, waved were the beautiful hairs

Of-gold, which in profusion Vulcan around the crest had placed.

Such as when among the stars at the milking-time of night comes forth the star
Hesperus, which is placed in the firmament the brightest star;

In like manner beam'd (the light) from the well-pointed spear which Achilles
Brandish'd in his right-hand, planning evil to the noble Hector,

Looking-into his beautiful body, where it might yield (to the spear-point) most easily.


So fell in Hector; and at him Achilles; his mind's fare

Was fierce and mighty; his shield cast a sun-like radiance;

Helm nodded; and his four plumes shook; and when he raised his lancé,
Up Hesperus rose 'mongst th' evening stars! His bright and sparkling eyes
Look't through the body of his foe, &c.


Nor less Achilles his fierce soul prepares;

Before his breast the flaming shield he bears,

* Vid, Milton" Hesperus, that led the starry host," &c.

Refulgent orb! Above his fourfold cone
The gilded horse-hair sparkled in the sun,
Nodding at every step: (Vulcanian frame!)
And as he moved his figure seem'd on flame.
As radiant Hesper shines with keener light,
Far-beaming o'er the silver host of night,
When all the starry train enblaze the sphere :
So shone the point of great Achilles' spear.
In his right hand he waves the weapon round,
Eyes the whole man, and meditates the wound.


Achilles opposite, with fellest ire,

Full-fraught came on; his shield, with various art
Divine portray'd, o'erspread his ample chest,
And on his radiant crest terrific waved,
By Vulcan spun, his crest of bushy gold.
Bright as, among the stars, the star of all
Most splendid, Hesperus, at midnight moves,
So in the right hand of Achilles beam'd
His brandish'd spear, while, meditating woe
To Hector, he explored his noble form,
Seeking where he was vulnerable most.


Thus Hector rush'd, and as he onward flew,
The Son of Peleus gloried at the view:
Before his breast, with outstretch'd arm upraised,
The shield that brightly in its horror blazed:
And, while his heart boil'd with o'erflowing ire,
Rush'd like the fierceness of consuming fire.
On as th' avenger in his terror trod,

His casque, four-coned, the wonder of the God,
In restless motion round about him roll'd
The fulness of its hairs that blazed with gold.
As Hesper's star, the brightest of the bright,
Outshines heaven's radiant host at dead of night:
Thus, vibrated aloft, the Pelian lance
Shot from its sharpen'd point the lightning glance,
While stern Achilles keenly eyed the foe,
And paused upon the meditated blow.

All the versions are very noble Chapman's the most so-then perhaps Sotheby's, which is more liberal than usual, but splendid;-but take your choice of the four, heroic reader of Homer. Such combat soon comes to a close. The "ashen beam"

is driven through his throat-but it takes not from Hector-now lying in the dust-the power of utterance. You must be contented with the colloquy in prose-perhaps it may be felt more touching so than in numerous verse."


In the dust, therefore, he fell, and over him gloried the illustrious Achilles,----
"Once wert thou wont to think, Hector, when despoiling-the-slain Patroclus,
That thou should'st be safe, and nought stood'st in awe of me when absent.
Fool! I, his avenger, mightier far (than thou) apart,

At the hollow ships was left behind

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And have unnerved thy limbs: thee, indeed, the dogs and birds of prey
Shall tear unseemly, him shall the Greeks bury-with-due-funeral rites.'
Him, the waving-plume-helm'd Hector exhausted, addressed :-
"By thy life, by thy knees, and by thy parents-thee I supplicate;
Let not the dogs of the Greeks at the hollow ships tear-and-devour me
Brass in abundance, and gold, do thou receive

As gifts, which my father and my venerable mother will give thee;

But send home my body,that of a funeral pyre, me,

When dead, the Trojans and Trojan matrons may make a partaker."

Tim, eyeing sternly, the swift-footed Achilles, addressed!—

'Dog, me supplicate-not-embracing-my-knees, by my knees, nor by my parents. Fould that my rage and fury would by any means permit me

To chop and devour thy raw flesh, for what thou hast done to me.

No-not even if ten or twenty-fold-equally-great ransoms

Were they to bring hither and place (in the balance), and promise others besides : No, were he even to counterpoise thy body with gold,

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Priam, the son of Dardanus;-not even thus should thy venerable mother,
Having placed thee on thy bier, lament him whom she bore;
But dogs, and birds of prey, shall thoroughly devour thee.'
Him, the waving-plume-helm'd Hector dying, addressed :-
"Knowing thee well, I foresaw, indeed, that never should I
Persuade thee; assuredly within thee is a spirit of steel.

Beware now, lest towards thee I become the subject of-anger to the gods
On that day, when Paris and Phoebus Apollo, thee,

Brave though thou be, shall destroy in the Scæan gate."
Him, while thus speaking, the completion of death veil'd;
And his spirit flying from his limbs to Ades descended,―

Its fate bewailing in having left the robustness and vigour of youth.
Him also, when dead, the illustrious Achilles address'd :-

"Die! fate will I then receive whenever

Jove may wish to bring it about, and the other immortal gods."

He said, and from the corpse he drew the brazen spear,

And placed it apart; and from his (Hector's) shoulders forced away his armour,
Blood-stained; around him hastened the other sons of the Greeks,

Who gazed-with-wonder on the size and the grand form

Of Hector: nor did any approach without-inflicting-a-wound (on the corpse);
And each, as he looked to his neighbour, thus spoke :-

"Ha! ha! assuredly much more gentle in being handled

the inexorable inflamed Achilles ?

Is Hector, than when he fired the fleet with glowing flames."
Thus, indeed, spoke each; and, standing near, inflicted wounds.
This is tragical-for it is sur-
charged with pity and terror. We
weep for the dying Hero, whose last
words betray the anguish of nature,
for his own miserable fate even be-
yond the sable flood,-for the wretch-
edness of his father and mother, in
vain longing for his corpse, which is
out of the reach of ransom. There is
no savage spirit of revenge in the
prophecy that expires on his lips;-
it is almost a passionless prediction
of death to one who feared not death
-an enunciation of the will of hea-
ven about to be executed by a god.
It adds to the greatness of Achilles;
for he was not to fall by the unaid-
ed arrow of such a person as Paris,
but to receive the winged fate from
Phoebus Apollo; and what moral su-
blimity in the answer of "the dread-
less angel!"

"Die Thou the first! when Jove and
Heaven ordain-

I follow thee, he said, and stripp'd the slain."

And what must we say of the behaviour of the common soldiers? Eustathius tells us that Homer introduces them wounding the dead body of Hector, in order to mitigate the cruelties which Achilles exercises upon it; for if every common soldier takes a pride in giving him a wound, what insults may we not expect from


Pope, whose notes are almost all good, confesses himself unable to vindicate Homer in giving us such an idea of his countrymen; for what they say over Hector's body is a mean insult, and the stabs they give it are cowardly and barbarous. cannot deny the truth of Pope's remark. But vulgar souls-and there were many such, doubtless, who fought at Troy as well as at Waterloo -are subject to strange fits of vulgar passion; and their own mean nature will at times suddenly ooze out, repressed, for the most part, by the glorious deeds, looks, and words of the Heroes.. They misunderstood the character and conduct of Achilles. They beheld him triumphing, exulting, insulting, over Hector. But they knew not, neither could they conceive, the trouble of his soul-to them the flashings of his eyes were a mystery-they comprehended not, even in his agonies, his own sublime submission to the decrees of heaven. Seeing how," with visage all inflamed," Achilles" incensed stood," they caught the contagion of his ire-but the fever falling into baser blood, it boiled up in unworthy outrage; they grew sarcastic, and they stabbed, and lo! Hector lies beneath ther brutalities,

"Smear'd with gore, and ghastly pal!"

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