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has celebrated both in prose and verse, and I alluding, as the Abate has made him, to the which the historian Dion also records as having force of the blow, or the firmness with which i suffered the same accident as is alluded to by had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore, the orator. The question agitated by the anti- of the Abate's argument hangs upon the pa quaries is, whether the wolf now in the conser- tense ; which, however, may be somewhat diar vator's palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or nished by remarking that the phrase oniy eksa that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one or that the statue was not then standing is in the other. The earlier_writers differ as much former position. Winkelmann has observed, tu as the modern : Lucius Faunus *) says, that it the present twins are modern; and it is equally is the one alluded to by both, which is impos- clear that there are marks of gilding on the sible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Ful-wolf, which might therefore be supposed to sate vius Ursinus calls it the wolf of Dionysius, and part of the ancient group. It is known that the Marlianus talks of it as the one mentioned by sacred images of the Capitol were not desto Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents. **) when injured by time or accident, but west : Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of into certain underground depositaries un the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome: favisse. It may be thought possible that but of the two raiher bends to the Ciceronian wolf had been so deposited, and had beer or statue. Montfaucon ***) mentions it as a point placed in some conspicuous situation whes the without doubt. Of the latter writers the deci- Capitol was rebuilt by Vespasian. Rycepuma sive Winkelmann proclaimg it as having been without mentioning his authority, tells tha found at the church of Saint Theodore, where, was transferred from the Comitium to the la or near where, was the temple of Romulus, and teran, and thence brought to the Capital, la consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. was found near the arch of Severus, it say bans His authority is Lucius Faunus, who, however, been one of the images which Orosias savs ** only says that it was placed, not found, at the thrown down in the Forum by lightning was Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium, by which he Alaric took the city. That it is of very ba does not seem to allude to the church of Saint antiquity the workmanship is a decisite pe Theodore. Rycquius was the first to make the and that circumstance induced Winkelmauu mistake, and Winkelmann followed Rycquius. believe it the wolf of Dionysius. The Capitale
Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, wolf, however, may have been of the same as and says he had heard the wolf with the twins date as that at the temple of Romulus. Latan was found near the arch of Septimius Severus. tius *) asserts that in his time the Ropaas *** The commentator on Winkelmann is of the same shipped a wolf; and it is known that the Lazer opinion with that learned person, and is incens- calia held out to a very late period ") RELAT ed at Nardini for not having remarked that every other observance of the ancient spent Cicero, in speaking of the wolf struck with light- tion had totally expired. This may account ning in the Capitol, makes use of the past tense. the preservation of the ancient image weet But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not than the other early symbols of Paganisa. positively assert the statue to be that mentioned It may be permitted, however, to rebari the by Cicero, and, if he had, the assumption would the wolf was a Roman symbol, but that the not perhaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet worship of that symbol is an inference draa The Abate himself is obliged to own that there by the zeal of Laciantius. The early Christe are marks very like the scathing of lightning in writers are not to be trusted in the charge the hinder legs of the present wolf; and, to get which they make against the Pagans. Eest rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius accused the Romans to their faces of sorship might have been also 'struck by lightning, or ping, Simon Magus, and raising a stater is to otherwise injured.
in the island of the Tyber. The Romans had Let us examine the subject by a reference to probably never heard of such a perros before the words of Cicero. The orator in two places who came, however, to play a considerado
to particularize the Romulus and the though scandalous part in the churcb 19. Remus, especially the first, which his audience and has left several tokens of his aerial cenu remembered to have been in the Capitol, as being with St. Peter at Rome; notwithstanding the struck with lightning. In his verses he records an inscr ption found in this very island dl be that the twing and wolf both fell, and that the Tyber showed the Simon Magus of Eusebits is latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero be a certain indigenal god, called Semo Sans does not say that the wolf was consumed : and or Fidius. Dion only mentions that it fell down, without Even when the worship of the founder of Rat
had been abandoned, it was thought expects
to humour the habits of the good matreas e de “Hic silvestris erat Romani nominis altrix
city by sending them with their sick insaan ta Martia, quæ parvos Mavortis scmine natos
the church of St. Theodore , as they had been Uberibus gravidis vitali rore rigabat, Quæ tum cum pueris flammato fulminis ictu practice is continued to this day; and the ***
carried them to the temple of Ramalos. Concidit, atque avulsa pedum vestigia liquit.") of the above church seems to be thereby in
De Consulatu, lib. 11. (lib. 1. de Divinat. c. 11.) tified with that of the temple: so that is the of *) "In eadem porticu ænea lupa, cujus uberi- had been really found there, as Winkelmast bus Romulus ac Remus lactantes inhiant, con- says, there would be no doubt of the prys spicitur: de hac Cicero, et Virgilios semper statue being that seen by Dionysius. Dei Famo intellexere. Livius hoc signum ab Ædilibus ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent fæneratores positum innuit. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficum *) "Romuli nutrix Lopa honoribes est afrda Ruminalem, quo loco pueri fuerant expositi, divinis, et ferrem si animal ipsum fuisset, locatum pro certo est."
jos figuram gerit." That is to say, he vend **) “Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse potent, rather adore a wolf than a prostitute. Ha quam adpinximus, quæ e comitio in Basilicami commentator has observed, that the epit Lateranam, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum of Livy concerning Laurentia being figured in reliquiis, atque hinc in Capitolium postea re this wolf was not universal. lata sit, qua invis Marlianus antiquam Capito **) To A. D. 496. Quis credere peso linam esse maluit a Tullio descriptam, cui ut says Baronius, viguisse adhuc Ronr ad Gelas in re nimis dubia, trepide adsentimur.'
tempora , quæ fuere ante esordia urbis a'i ***) “Lupa hodieque in capitolinis prostat in lialiam Lupercalia ? Gelasius wrote a letimo ædibus, cum vertigio fulminis quo ictam narrat to Andromachus, the senator, and others, * Cicero."
show that the rites should be given up
Avogadorl, the Capi de' Dieci, and those of following day, the seventeenth of April, the doors Great Council.
of the palace being shut, the Duke had his head When all were assembled, the whole story cut off, about the hour of noon. And the cap of
told to them. They were strack dead, as it estate was taken from the Duke's head before re, with affright. They determined to send he came down stairs. When the execution was
Beltramo. He was brought in before them. over, it is said that one of the Council of Ten ey examined him and ascertained that the went to the columns of the palace over against tter was true; and, althongh they were ex- the place of St. Mark, and that he showed the dingly troubled, yet they determined upon bloody sword unto the people, crying out with a ir measures. And they sent for the Capi de loud voice-"The terrible doom hath fallen upon aranta, the Signori di Notte, the Capi de the traitor!"-and the doors were opened, and stieri, and the Cinque della Pace; and they the people all rushed in, to see the corpee of re ordered to associate to their men other the Duke, who had been beheaded. id men and true, who were to proceed to the It must be known, that Ser Giovanni Sanudo, ises of the ringleaders of the conspiracy and the councillor, was not present when the aforeure them. And they secured the foremen of said sentence was pronounced ; because he was : arsenal, in order that the conspirators might unwell and remained at home. So that only I do mischief. Towards nightfall they assem- fourteen ballotted ; that is to say, five councild in the palace. When they were assembled lors, and nine of the Council of Ten. And it the palace, they caused the gates of the qua- was adjudged, that all the lands and chattels of angle of the palace to be shut. And they sent the Duke, as well as of the other traitors, should the keeper of the bell-tower and forbade the be forfeited to the state. And, as a grace to ling of the bells. All this was carried into the Duke, it was resolved in the Council of Ten, eet. The before-mentioned conspirators were that he should be allowed to dispose of two ored, and they were brought to the palace; thousand ducats out of his own property. And d as the Council of Ten saw that the Duke it was resolved, that all the councillors and all is in the plot, they resolved that twenty of the Avogadori of the commonwealth, those of , leading men of the state should be associated the Council of Ten, and the members of the them, for the purpose of consultation and de- junta who had assisted in passing sentence on jeration, but that they should not be allowed the Duke and the other traitors, should have the ballot.
privilege of carrying arms both by day and by These twenty were accordingly called in to night in Venice, and from Grado to Cavazere.
Council of Ten; and they sent for my Lord And they were also to be allowed two footmen arino Faliero the Duke ; and my Lord Marino carrying arms, the aforesaid footmen living and 18 then consorting in the palace with people boarding with them in their own houses. And great estate, gentlemen, and other good men, he who did not keep two footmen might transfer ne of whom knew yet how the fact stood. the privilege to his sons or his brothers; but At the same time Bertuccio Israello, who, as only to two. Permission of carrying arms was e of the ringleaders, was to head the con- also granted to the four Notaries of the Chanirators in Santa Croce, was arrested and bound, cery, that is to say, of the Supreme Court, who Id brought before the Council. Zanello del took the depositions ; and they were Amedio, tin, Nicoletto di Rosa, Nicoletto Alberto, and Nicoletto di Lorino, Steffanello, and Pietro do e Guardiaga, were also taken, together with Compostelli, the secretaries of the Signori di Notte. veral seamen, and people of various ranks. After the traitors had n hanged, and the hese were examined, and the truth of the plot Duke had had his head cut off, the state remain19 ascertained.
ed in great tranquillity and peace. And, as I On the sixteenth of April judgment was given have read in a chronicle, the corpse of the Duke the Council of Ten, that Filippo Calendario was removed in a barge, with eight torches, to id Bertuccio lsraello should be hanged upon his tomb in the church of San Giovanni e Paolo, e red pillars of the balcony of the palace, from where it was buried. The tomb is now in that hich the Duke is wont to look at the Bull-hunt: aisle in the middle of the little church of Santa Id they were hanged with gags in their inouths. Maria della Pace, which was built by Bishop The next day the following were condemned : Gabriel of Bergamo. It is a coffin of stone, Niccolo Zuccuolo, Nicoletto Blondo , Nicoletto with these words engraved thereon: Heic jacet oro, Marco Giuda , Jacomello Dagolino, Nico- Dominus Marinus Faletro Dux."- And they did tto Fidele, the son of Filippo Calendaro, Mar- not paint his portrait in the hall of the Great
Torello, called Israello, Stefano Trivisano, Council :-But in the place where it ought ta e money-changer of Santa Margherita, and have been, you see these words :-“Hic exi locus ntonio dalle Bende. These were all taken at Marini Faletro decapitati pro criminibus" - and hiozza, for they were endeavouring to escape. it is thought that his house was granted to the Iterwards, by virtue of the sentence which was church of Sant' Apostolo; it was that great one 18sed upon them in the Council of Ten, they near the bridge. Yet this could not be the case, ere hanged on successive days, some singly or else the family bought it back from the id some in couples, upon the columns of the charch; for it stiil belongs to Cà Faliero. ! lace, beginning froin the red columns, and so must not refrain from noting, that some wished ving onwards towards the canal. And other to write the following words in the place where risoners were discharged, because, although they his portrait ought to have been, as aforesaid :ld heen involved in the conspiracy, yet they “Marinus Faletro Dux, temeritas me cepit, pænas id not assisted in it for they were given to lui, decapitatus pro criminibus."-Others, also, derstand by some of the heads of the plot, indited a couplet, worthy of being inscribed upon at they were to come arined and prepared for his tomb: e service of the state, and in order to secure “Dus Venetum jacet heic, patriam qui prodere rtain criminals, and they knew nothing else. icoletto Alberto, the Guardiaga, and Bartoloin.
tentans, eo Ciruola and his son, and several others, “Sceptra, decus, censum, perdidit , atque caput.": ho were not guilty, were discharged. On Friday, the sixteenth day of April, jade; ent was also given, in the aforesaid Council Ten, that my Lord 'Marino Paliero, the Duke,
III. hould have his head cut off, and that the exeition should be done on the landing · place of “Al giovane Doge Andrea Dandolo succedette le stone staircase, where the Dukes take their un vecchio, il quale tardi si pose al timone della uth when they first enter the palace. On the repubblica, ma sempre prima di quel, che facea.
vereign uniting exactly the opposite characteris- of the attributes ascribed to it al present risible, tics, than one possessed of all the happy quali- | The nine Muses could hardly have stood in via ties ascribed to this emperor. “When he mount- niches; and Juvenal certainly does not allude ed the throne," says the historian Dion, “he was to any individual cave. *) Nothing can be able strong in body, he was vigorous in mind ; age lected from the satirist but that somewhere bra had impaired none of his faculties; he was al- the Porta Capena was a spot in which it was together free from envy and from detraction; he supposed Numa held nightly consultations with honoured all the good and he advanced them; his nymph, and where there was a grove and a and on this account they could not be the ob- sacred fountain, and fanes once consecrated ject of his fear, or of his hate; he never listened the Muses; and that from this spot there wa i to informers; he gave not way to his anger; he descent into the valley of Egeria, where were abstained equally from unfair' exactions and un- several artificial caves. It is clear that the sa just punishinenis; he had rather be loved as a tues of the Muses made no part of the decassinan than honoured as a sovereign ; he was af- tion which the satirist thought misplaced i fable with his people, respectful to the senate, these caves; for he expressly assigns other fast and universally beloved by both; he inspired (delubra) to these divinities above the talm none with dread but the enemies of his country." and moreover tells us, that they had been pre
ed to make room for the Jews. In fact, Rienzi, last of Romans! [p. 49. St. 114. little temple, now called that of Bacchus, va The name and exploits of Rienzi must be fa- formerly thought to belong to the Moses, and miliar to the reader of Gibbon.
Nardini places them in a poplar-grove, which
was in his tine above the valley. Egeria! sweet creation of some heart
It is probable, from the inscription and posla Which found no mortal resting-place so fair tion, that the cave now shown may be obtu
As thine ideal breast. [p. 49. St. 115. the "artificial caverns," of which, indeed, tee The respectable authority of Flaininius Vacca is another a little way higher up the ralim, would incline us to believe in the claims of the under a tuft of alder bushes: but a single grote Egerian grotto. He assures us that he saw an of Egeria is a mere modern invention, grated inscription in the pavement, stating that the npon the application of the epithet Egeria w fountain was that of Egeria dedicated to the these nymphea in general, and which might trai nymphs. The inscription is not there at this us to look for the haunts of Numa apo the day but Montfaucon quotes two lines *), of banks of the Thames. Ovid from a stone in the Villa Giustiniani, which Our English Juvenal was not seduced into a he seems to think bad been brought from the translation by his acquaintance with Pepe: be same grotto.
carefully preserves the correct pluralThis grotto and valley were formerly frequented in summer, and particularly the first Sunday
Thence slowly winding down the vale we vies in May, by the modern Romans, who attached a
The Egerian grots; ok, how unlike the cree! salubrious quality to the fountain which trickles The valley abounds with spring, and me from an orifice at the bottom of the vault, and, these springs, which the Muses might bant overflowing the little pools, creeps down the from their neighbouring groves, Egeria presiune matted grass into the brook below. The brook hence she was said to supply them with water is the Ovidian Almo, whose name and qualities and she was the nymph of the grottos throeg are lest in the modern Aquataccio. The valley which the fountains were taught to flow. itself is called Valle di Calfarelli, from the dukes The whole of the monuments in the vicinit of that name who made over their fountain to of the Egerian valley have received sans the Pallavicini, with sixty rubbia of adjoining land. will, which have been changed at will. Ter
There can be little doubt that this long dell is owns he can see no traces of the temples of the Egerian valley of Juvenal, and the pansing- Jove, Saturn, Juno, Venus, and Diana, which place of Umbricius, notwithstanding the general. Nardini found, or hoped to find. The 5*** ity of his commentators have supposed ihe des- rium of Caracalla's circus, the temple of tiene cent of the satirist and his friend to have been and Virtue, the temple of Bacchus, and abort into the Arician grove, where the nymph met all, the temple of the god Rediculus, are che Hippolitus, and where she was more peculiarly antiquaries' despair. worshipped.
The circus of Caracalla depends The step from the Porta Capena to the Alban of that emperor cited by Pulvins l'rsinos hill, fifteen miles distant, would be too consider which the reverse shows a cireus, supposed, b* able, unless we were to believe in the wild ever, by some to represent the l'ircus Marian conjecture of Vossius, who makes that gate tra It gives a very good idea of that place el nog vel from its present station, where he pretends cise. The soil has been but little raised, if * it was during the reign of the Kings, as far as may judge from the small cellular stracture # the Arician grove, and then makes it rccede to the end of the Spina, which was probablosbe its old site with the shrinking city. The tufo, or chapel of the god Consus. This cell is ball be pumice, which the poet prefers to marble, is the neath the soil, as it must have been in ton et substance composing the bank in which the groito cus itself
, for 'Dionysius could not be persuaded is sunk.
to believe that this divinity was the Rean The modern topographers find in the grotto Neptune, because his altar was underground the statue of the nymph and nine niches for the Muses, and a late traveller has discovered that the cave is restored to that simplicity which the “) Substitit ad veteres arcas, madidappat poet regretted had been exchanged for injudi
Capenam, cious ornament. But the headless statue is pal Hic ubi nocturna Numa constituebat snie pably rather a male than a nymph, and has none Nunc sacri fontis nemus, et delabra locant
Judæis quorum copbinus fenuen que supe les
Omnis eniin populo mercedem pendere jaune “) in villa Justiniana exstat ingens Japis quadratus solidus in quo sculpta hæc duo Ovidii Arbor, et ejectis mendicat silva Capezis carmina sunt:
Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clander
lu vallem Egeria descendimus, et opeo Egeria est quæ præbet aquas dea grata Camenis.
Dissimiles veris: quanto prestantius esset Ula Numa conjux consiliumque fuit.
undas Qui lapis videtur ex eodein Egeria fonte, ant
Herba, nec ingenuum violarent naran ejus siciuia isthuc comportatus.
Yet let us ponder boldly. (p. 50. St. 127.
I see before mo the Gladiator lie. "At all events," says the author of the Aca
(p. 52. St. 140. denical Questions, “I trust, whatever may be Whether the wonderful statue which suggested the fate of my own speculations, that philosophy this image be a laquearian gladiator, which in will regain that estimation which it ought to spite of Winkelmann's criticism has been stoutly possess. The free and philosophic spirit of our maintained, or whether it be a Greek herald, as sation has been the theme of admiration to the that great antiquary positively asserted ) or world. This was the proud distinction of Eng- whether it is to be thought a Spartan or barlishmen, and the luminous source of all their barian shield-bearer, according to the opinion of glory: Shall we then forget the manly and dig- his Italian editor, it must assuredly seem a nified sentiments of our ancestors, to prate in copy of that masterpiece of Ctesilaus which rethe language of the mother or the nurse about presented "a wounded man dying, who perfectly our good old prejudices ? This is not the way expressed what there remained of life in him." **) to defend the cause of truth. It was not thus Mountfaucon and Maffei thought it the identical hat one fathers maintained it in the brilliant statue ; but that statue was of bronze. The glaperiods of our history. Prejudice may be trust- diator was once in the villa Ludovisi, and was d to guard the outworks for a short space of bought by Clement XII. The arm is an entire ime while reason slumbers in the citadel : but restoration of Michael Angelo. is the latter sink into a lethargy, the former will quickly erect a standard for herself. Philo
--He, their rire, sophy, wisdom, and liberty, support each other; Butcher`d to make a Roman holiday. se who will not reason, is a bigot; he who can
[p. 52. St. 141. not, is a fool; and he who dares not, is a slave." Gladiators were of two kinds , compelled and
voluntary; and were supplied from several con
-Great Nemesis ! ditions ; from slaves sold for that purpose ; from Here, where the ancient paid thee homage long. culprits; froin barbarian captives either taken
(p. 51. St. 132. in war, and, after being, led in triumph, set We read in Suetonius that Augustus, from a apart for the games, or those scized and conwarning received in a dream, counterfeited, once demned as rebels; also from free citizens, some 1 year, the beggar, sitting before the gate of sighting for hire (auctorati), others from a his palace with his hand hollowed and stretched depraved ambition: at last even knights and but for charity. ') A statue formerly in the Villa senators were exhibited, a disgrace of which the Horghese, and which should be now at Paris, first tyrant was naturally the first inventor. ***) represents the Emperor in that posture of sop- In the end, dwarfs, and even women, fought; an plication. The object of this self-degradation enormity prohibited by Severus. Of these the *as the appeasement of Nemesis, the perpetual most to be pitied undoubtedly were the barbaattendant on good fortune, of whose power the rian captives ; and to this species a Christian Roman conquerors were also reminded by cer- writer +) justly applies the epithet “innocent," tain symbols attached to their cars of triomph. to distinguish them from the professional glaThe symbols were the whip and the crotalo, diators. Aurelian and Claudius supplied great which were discovered in the Nemesis of the numbers of these unfortunate victims; the one Vatican. The attitude of beggary made the above after his triumph, and the other on the pretext statue pass for that of Belisarius : and until the of a rebellion." No war, says Lipsius, was ever criticism of Winkelmann had rectified the mis- so destructive to the human race as these sports. take, one fiction was called in to support another. In spite of the laws of Constantine and Constans, li was the same fear of the sudden termination gladiatorial shows survived the old established of prosperity that made Amasis king of Egypt religion more than seventy years; but they warn his friend Polycrates of Samos, that the lowed their final extinction to the courage of a pode loved those whose lives were chequered Christian. In the year 404, on the kalends of with good and evil fortunes. Nemesis was sup- January, they were exhibiting the shows in the posed to lie in wait particularly for the prudent: Flavian amphitheatre before the usual immense that is, for those whose caution rendered them concourse of people. Almachius or Telemachus, accessible only to mere accidents: and her first an eastern monk, who had travelled to Rome altar was raised on the banks of the Phrygian intent on his holy purpose, rushed into the midst #sepus by Adrastus, probably the prince of that of the area, and endeavoured to separate the same who killed the son of Cresus by mistake. combatants. The prætor Alypius, a person inHence the goddess was called Adrastea.
credibly attached to these games, gave instant The Roman Nemesis was sacred and august; orders to the gladiators to slay him; and Telethere was a remple to her in the Palatine under machus gained the crown of martyrdom, and the the nane of Rhamnusia : so great indeed was the title of saint, which surely has never either propensity of the ancients to trust to the revo- before or since been awarded for a more noble lution of events, and to believe in the divinity exploit. Honorius immediately abolished the of Fortune, that in the same Palatine there was shows, which were never afterwards revived. #temple to the Fortune of the day. This is the last superstition which retains its' hold over the human heart, and , from concentrating in one *) Either Polifontes, herald of Laius, killed object the credulity so natural to man, has al by Edipus; or Cepreas, herald of Euritheus, was appeared strongest in those unembarrassed killed by the Athenians when he endeavoured by other articles of belief. The antiquaries have to drag the Heraclida from the altar of Mercy, *opposed this goddess to be synonimous with for and in whose honour they instituted annual tone and with fate : but it was in her vindictive games, continued to the time of Hadrian; or quality that she was worshipped under the name Anthemocritus, the Athenian herald, killed
by the Megarenses, who never recovered the
impiety. ') Suetonius in vit. Augusti, cap. 91. Casan *) Vulneratum deficientem fecit in quo posbon, in the note, refers to Plutarch's Lives of sit intelligi quantum restat anima. Plin. Nat. Camillos and Æmilius Paulus, and also to his Hist. XXXIV. 8. Apophthegme, for the character of this deity. ***) Julius Cæsar, who rose by the fall of the The hollowed hand was reckoned the last aristocracy, brought Furius Leptinus and A. degree of degradation : and when the dead Calenus upon the arena. body of the præfect Rufinns was borne about +) Tertullian, “certe quidem et innocentcs in iriumph by the people, the indignity was gladiatores in ludum veniunt, ut voluptatiu increased by putting his hand in thai position. publicæ hostiæ fiant."
Lansdown, Jersey, and Landerdalo; Messrs. since I left their country, and almost all the Scott, Hainmond, Sir Humphry Davy, the late ! had known before. The others, -and God M. Lewis, W. Bankes, Mr. Hoppner, Thomas knows there were some hundreds, who bere Moore, Lord Kinnaird, his brother, Mr. Joy, me with letters or visits, I refused to have a and Mr. Hobbouse, I do not recollect to have communication with, and shall be proud to exchanged a word with another Englishnan happy when that wish becomes mutual
APPENDIX TO THE TWO FOSCARI.
Extrait de l'Histoire de la République de Venise, constance que de l'obstination; de ce got tale
sait le fait, on conclut que ce fait existzitte
attribua sa fermeté à la magie, et on le relepe Depuis trente ans, la république n'avait pas à la Canée. De cette terre lointaine, le banel, déposé les armos. 'Elle avait acquis les pro- digne alors de quelque pitié, ne cessait d'étter vinces de Brescia, de Bergaine, de Crème, et la à son père, à ses amis, pour obtenir quelque principauté de Ravenne.
adoucissement à sa déportation. N'ebtesant rien Mais ces guerres continaelles faisaient beau- et sachant que la terrear qu'inspirait le tausch coup de malheureux et de mécontents. Le doge des dix ne lui permettait pas d'espérer de tu François Foscari, à qui on ne pouvait pardon- ver dans Venise une seule vois qui s'életta der d'en avoir été le promoteur, manifesta une sa faveur, il fit une lettre pour le norteat int seconde fois, en 1412, et probablement avec plus de Milan, par laquelle, an nom des baus oli de sincérité que la première, l'intention d'abdi- que Sforce avait reçus du chef de la république quer sa dignité. Le conseil s'y refusa encore. il implorait son intervention en faveur du On avait exigé de lui le serment de ne plus noceni, du fils du doge. quitter le dogat. Il était déjà avancé dans la Cette lettre, selon quelques historiens, f vieillesse, conservant cependant beaucoup de confiée à un marchand qui avait pronis de la force de tête et de caractère, et jouissant de la faire parvenir an duc, mais qui, trop aterie
limites de ses domaines pendant son admini- médiaire d'une pareille correspondance, se bits stration.
en débarquant à Venise, de la remettre au chel Au milieu de ces prospérités, de grands cha- du tribunal. Une autre version, qui parait per grins vinrent mettre à l'épreuve la fermeté de sure, rapporte que la lettre fut surprise para son àme.
espion, attaché aux pas de l'exilé. Son fils, Jacques Foscari, fut accusé, en 1445, Ce fut un nouveau délit dont on eut à premis d'avoir reçu des présents de quelques princes Jacques Foscari. ou seigneurs étrangers, notamment, disait-on, du prince étranger était un crime, dans un saje de
Réclamer la protective in duc de Milan, Philippe Visconti. C'était non- la république. Une galère partit sur-le-clan seulement une bassesse, mais une infraction des pour l'amener dans les prisons de venise lois positives de la république.
son arrivée il fut soumis à l'estrapade. Cec: Le conseil des dix traita cette affaire comme une singulière destinée pour le citoyen Cum s'il se fut agi d'un délit commis par un parti- république et pour le fils d'un prince, dem culier obscur. L'accusé fut amené devant ses trois fois dans sa vie appliqué à la pertine juges, devant le doge, qui ne crut pas pouvoir cette fois la torture était d'autant plus dlies s'abstenir de présider' le tribunal. Là, il fut qu'elle n'avait point d'objet, le fait qu'on **** interrogé, appliqué à la question, déclaré cou- à lui reprocher étant incontestable. pable, et il entendit, de la bouche de son père, Quand on demanda à l'accusé, dans les inter farret qui le condamnait à un bannissement per valles que les bourreanx lui accordaient. meter pétuel, et le reléguait à Naples de Romanie, quoi il avait écrit la lettre qu'on lui prodaise pour y finir ses jours.
il répondit que c'était précisément pare ! Embarqué sur une galère pour se rendre an ne doutait pas qu'elle ne tombåt entre les liou de son exil, il tomba malade à Trieste. Les da tribunal, qne toute autre voie lui avait en sollicitations du doge obtinrent, non sans diffi- fermée pour faire parvenir ses réclamatica
, culté, qu'on lui assignat une autre résidence. qu'il s'attendait bien qu'on le ferait amene! Enfin le conseil des dix lui permit de se retirer Venise, mais qu'il avait tout risqué peer sa à Trévise, en lui imposant fobligation d'y res- la consolation de voir sa femme, son père, et ter sous peine de mort, et de se présenter tous sa mère encore une fois. les jours devant le gouverneur.
Sur cette naive déclaration, Il y était depuis cinq ans, lorsqu'un des chefs sentence d'exil; mais on l'aggrava, en y ajo du conseil de dix fut assassiné. Les soupçons tant qu'il serait retenu en prison pendant u se portèrent sur lui: un de ses domestiques qu'on avait vu à Venise fut arrêté et subit la torture. Les bourreanx ne purent lui arracher Ce terrible tribunal se fit amener
perta sunt, de quibus existit indicia manifes.
videtur propter obstinatam mentem suam, lo maitre, le soumit aux mêmes épreuves ; il ré- esse possibile extrahere ab ipse illam verita sista à tous les tourments, ne cessant d'attester
tem, quæ clara est per scripturas et per testi son innocence ; ) mais on ne vit dans cette ficationes, quoniam in fune aliquam nec vetes
nec gemitum, sed solum intra dentes en *) Voici le texte du jugement: “Cum Jaco
ipse videtur 'et anditur infra se loqui
. To bos Foscari per occasionem percussionis et
men non est standum in istis terminis, prop
ter honorem status nostri et pro moltis re* mortis Hermolai Donati fuit retentus et examinatus, et propter siguificationes, testificationes,
pectibus, præsertim quod regimen rostrun *** et scripturas quæ habentur contra eum, clare
chpatur in hac re et qui interdictum est as
plins progredere: vadit pars quod dicta apparet ipsum essc reum criminis prædicti, sed propter incantationes et verba quæ sibi re
cobus Foscari, propter ea quæ habentur & illo, mittatur in continium in civitate Canez