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passions, though in supernatural circum- | Milton is as absurd (and in fact, blasphemstances. What made Socrates the greatest ous) in putting material lightnings into the of men ? His moral truth-his ethics. What hands of the Godhead as in giving him proved Jesus Christ the Son of God hardly hands at all. less than his miracles? His moral precepts. The artillery of the demons was but the And if ethics have made a philosopher the first step of his mistake, the thunder the first of men, and have not been disdained next, and it is a step lower. It would have as an adjunct to his Gospel by the Deity been fit for Jove, but not for Jehovah. The bimself, are we to be told that ethical poet- subject altogether was essentially unpoetry, or by whatever name you term it, ical; he has made more of it than another whose object is to make men better and could, but it is beyond him and all men. wiser, is not the very first order of poetry; In a portion of his reply, Mr. Bowles And are we to be told this too by one of asserts that Pope “envied Philips” because the priesthood ? It reqnires more mind, he quizzed his pastorals in the Guardian, more wisdom, more power, than all the in that most admirable model of irony, his --forests" that ever were “walked” for their paper on the subject. If there was any thing "description,” and all the epics that ever enviable about Philips, it could hardly be were founded upon fields of battle. The his pastorals. They were despicable, and Georgics are indisputably, and, I believe, Pope expressed his contempt. if Mr. Fitzundisputedly, even a finer poem than the gerald published a volume of sonnets, Æneid. Virgil knew this; he did not order a "Spirit of Discovery," or a “Missionary,” them to be burnt.

and Mr. Bowles wrote in any periodical "The proper study of mankind is man."

journal an ironical paper upon them, would

this be “envy?” The authors of the “ReIt is the fashion of the day to lay great jected Addresses” have ridiculed the sixteen stress upon what they call "imagination” or twenty “first living poets” of the day ; and “invention,” the two commonest of but do they'envy" them? “Envy” writhes, qualities : an Irish peasant, with a little it don't laugh. The authors of the Rewhiskey in his head, will imagine and in-jected Addresses may despise some, but vent more than would furnish forth a modern they can hardly "envy” any of the persons poem. If Lucretius had not been spoiled whom they have parodied; and Pope could by the Epicurean system, we should have have no more envied Philips than he did had a far superior poem to any now in Welsted, or Theobalds, or Smedley, or any existence. As mere poetry, it is the first other given hero of the Dunciad. He could

What then has ruined it? not have envied him, even had he himself llis ethics. Pope has not this defect; his not been the greatest poet of his age. Did moral is as pure as his poetry is glorious. Mr. Ings "envy” Mr. Philips when he asked In speaking of artificial objects, I have him, “how came your Pyrrhus to drive omitted to touch upon one which I will oxen, and say, I am goaded on by love ?” now mention. Cannon may be presumed This question silenced poor Philips; but to be as highly poetical as art can make it no more proceeded from "envy” than her objects. Mr. Bowles will, perhaps, tell did Pope's ridicule. Did he envy Swift ? me that this is because they resemble that Did he envy Bolingbroke? Did he envy grand natural article of sound in heaven, Gay the unparalleled success of his “Begand simile upon earth - thunder. I shall gar's Opera ?”. We may be answered that be told triumphantly, that Milton made these were his friends - true; but does sad work with his artillery, when he armed friendship prevent envy? Study the first his devils therewithal. He did so; and this woman you meet with, or the first scribartificial object must have had much of the bler; lei Mr. Bowles himself (whom I acsublime to attract his attention for such a quit fully of such an odious quality) study conflict. He has made an absurd use of some of his own poetical intimates: the it; but the absurdity consists not in using most envious man I ever heard of is a poet, cannon against the angels of God, but any and a high one; besides it is an universal material weapon. The thunder of the clouds passion. Goldsmith envied not only the would have been as ridiculous and vain in puppets for their dancing, and broke his the hands of the devils, as the “villanous shins in the attempt at rivalry, but was saltpetre:” the angels were as impervious seriously angry because two pretty women to the one as to the other. The thunder-received more attention than he did. This bolts became sublime in the hands of the is envy; but where does Pope show a sign Almighty, not as ench but because he deigns of the passion ? In that case Dryden envied to use them as a means of repelling the the hero of his Mac Flecknoe. Mr. Bowles rebel spirits; but no one can attribute their compares, when and where he can, Pope defeat to this grand piece of natural elec- with Cowper (the same Cowper whom in tricity: the Almighty willed, and they fell

; his edition of Pope he langhs at for his his word would have been cnough; and attachment to an old woman, Mrs. Unwin :

of Latin poems.

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search and you will find it; I remember that Mr. Bowles can do in return is to apthe passage, though not the page); in par- prove the “invariable principles of Mr. ticular he requotes Cowper's Dutch deli- Southey." I should have thought that the neation of a wood, drawn up like a seeds- word "invariablemight have stuck in Souman's catalogue, with an affected imitation they's throat, like Macbeth's “* Amen!" I of Milton's style, as burlesque as the “Splen- am sure it did in mine, and I am not the did shilling." These two writers (for Cow- least consistent of the two, at least as a per is no poet ) come into comparison in voter. Moore (et lu, Brule!) also approret, one great work—the translation of Homer. and a Mr. J. Scott. There is a letter also Now, with all the great, and manifest, of two lines from a gentleman in asterisks

, and manifold, and reproved, and acknow- who, it seems, is a poet of “the highest ledged, and uncontroverted faults of Pope's rank ” — who can this be? not my friend, translation, and all the scholarship, and Sir Walter, surely. Campbell it can't be; pains, and time, and trouble, and blank Rogers it won't be. verse of the other, who can ever read Cow

“You have hit the nail in the head, and **** per? and who will ever lay down Pope, [Pope, I presume) on the head also." unless for the original? Pope's was “not

I remain yours, affectionately, Homer, it was Spondanus ;” but Cowper's

(Four Asteriak is not Homer, either, it is not even Cowper. And in asterisks let him remain, Whoever As a child I first read Pope's Homer with this person may be, he deserves, for sach a rapture which no subsequent work could a judgment of Midas, that “the nail” which ever afford, and children are not the worst Mr. Bowles has "hit in the head" should judges of their own language. As a boy I be driven through his own ears; 1 and run read Homer in the original, as we have all that they are long enough. done, some of us by force, and a few by

The attempt of the poetical populace el favour; under which description I come is the present day to obtain an ostracism nothing to the purpose, it is enough that I against Pope is as easily accounted for as read him. As a man I have tried to read the Athenian's shell against Aristides; they Cowper's version, and I found it impossible. are tired of hearing him always called "the Has any human reader ever succeeded ? Just.” They are also fighting for life; forif he

And now that we have heard the Catholic maintains his station, they will reach their reproached with envy, duplicity, licenti- own by falling. They have raised a mosque ousness, avarice-what was the Calvinist? by the side of a Grecian temple of the perest He attempted the most atrocious of crimes architecture; and, more barbarous than the in the Christian code, viz. suicide - and barbarians from whose practice I hare berwhy? because he was to be examined rowed the figure, they are not contented whether he was fit for an office which he wish their own grotesque edifice, unles seems to wish to have made a sinecure. His they destroy the prior and purely beautiful connexion with Mrs. Unwin was pure fabric which preceded, and which shame enough, for the old lady was devout, and them and theirs for ever and ever. I shall he was deranged; but why then is the in- be told that ainongst those I have been (or firm and then elderly Pope to be reproved it may be, still am) conspicuous – true, and for his connexion with Martha Blount? I am ashamed of it. I have been amongst Cowper was the almoner of Mrs. Throg- the builders of this Babel , attended by: morton; but Pope's charities were his own, confusion of tongues, but never amongst ibe and they were noble and extensive, far envious destroyers of the classic temple of beyond his fortune's warrant. Pope was our predecessor. I have loved and be the tolerant yet steady adherent of the most noured the fame and name of that illustrious bigoted of sects ; and Cow per the most bi- and unrivalled man, far more than my ore goted and despondent sectary that ever an- paltry renown, and the trashy jingle of the ticipated damnation to himself or others. crowd of “Schools” and upstarts, who pre Is this harsh ? I know it is, and I do not tend to rival, or even surpass him. Soodet assert it as my opinion of Cow per personally, than a single leaf should be torn from his but to show what might be said , with just laurel, it were better that all which these as great an appearance of truth and candour, men, and that I, as one of their set, bare as all the odium which has been accumu- ever written, should lated upon Pope in similar speculations. Line trunks, clothe spice, or, fluttering in a te, Cowper was a good man, and lived at a Befringe the rails of Bedlam or Sobo! fortunate time for his works.

There are those who will believe this, and Mr. Bowles, apparently not relying en- those who will not. You , sir, know box tirely upon his own arguments, has , in far I am sincere, and whether my opinios

, person or by proxy, brought forward the not only in the short work intended for names of Southey and Moore. Mr. Southey publication, and in private letters which can “agrees entirely with Mr. Bowles in his never be published, has or has not beca invariable principles of poetry.” The least the same. I look upon this as the declining

age of English poetry; no regard for others, the posterity of strangers shonld know that

no selfish feeling, can prevent me from see- there had been such a thing as a British = ing this, and expressing the truth. There | Epic and Tragedy, might wish for the

can be no worse sign for the taste of the preservation of Shakspeare and Milton; but

times than the depreciation of Pope. It the surviving world would snatch Pope i would be better to receive for proof Mr. from the wreck, and let the rest sink with Cobbett's rough but strong attack upon the people. He is the moral poet of all Shakespeare and Milton, than to allow this civilization; and, as such, let us hope smooth and “candid” undermining of the that he will one day be the national poet reputation of the most perfect of our poets of mankind. He is the only poet that never and the purest of our moralists. of his shocks ; the only poet whose faultlessness power in the passions, in description, in has been made his reproach. Cast your the mock-heroic, I leave others to descant. eye over his productions; consider their I take him on his strong ground, as an extent, and contemplate their vàriety:ethical poet: in the former none excel, in pastoral, passion, mockheroic, translation, the mock-heroic and the ethical none equal satire, ethics,- all excellent, and often perhim; and in my mind, the latter is the fect. If his great charm be his melody, highest of all poetry, because it does that how comes it that foreigners adore him

in verse, which the greatest of men have even in their diluted translations ? But I wished to accomplish in prose. If the es- have made this letter too long. Give my sence of poetry must be a lie, throw it to compliments to Mr. Bowles. the dogs, or banish it from your republic,

Yours ever, very truly, as Plato would have done. He who can

BYRON reconcile poetry with truth and wisdom, is Postscriptum.-Long as this letter has the only true "poet” in its real sense : "the grown, I find it necessary to append a maker," "the creator" – why must this mean postscript,- if possible, a short one. Mr. the “liar," the “feigner,” “the tale-teller?" Bowles denies that he has accused Pope A man may make and create better things of “a sordid money-getting passion;" but than these.

he adds, “if I had ever done sh, I should I shall not presume to say that Pope is be glad to find any testimony that might as high a poet as Shakspeare and Milton, show he was not so.” This testimony he though his enemy, Warton, laces him may find to his heart's content in Spence immediately under them. I would no more and elsewhere. First, there is Martha say this than I would assert in the mosque Blount, who, Mr. Bowles charitably says, (once Saint Sophia's), that Socrates was a “probably thought he did not save enough greater man than Mahomet. But if I say for her as legatee.” Whatever she thought that he is very near them, it is no more upon this point, her words are in Pope's than has been asserted of Burns, who is favour. Then there is Alderman Barber; supposed

see Spence's Anecdotes. There is Pope's "To rival all but Shakspeare's name below."

cold answer to flalifax when he proposed

a pension; his behaviour to Craggs and to I say nothing against this opinion. But Addison upon like occasions ; and his own of what “order,” according to the poetical two lines — aristocracy, are Burns's poems? 'There are And, thanks to Homer, since I live and his opus magnum, “Tam O'Shanter,” a tale;

thrive, the Cotter's Saturday Night,” a descriptive

Indebted to no prince or peer alive. sketch; some others in the same style; the written when princes would have been rest are songs. So much for the rank of proud to pension, and peers to promote him, his productions ; the rank of Burns is the land when the whole army of dunces were very first of his art. of Pope I have ex- in array against him, and would have been pressed my opinion elsewhere, as also of but too happy to deprive him of this boast the effect which the present attempts at of independence. But there is something poetry have had upon our literature. If a little more serious in Mr. Bowles's deany great national or natural convulsion claration, that he “rould have spoken ” of could or should overwhelm your country. his “noble generosity to the outcast, Richin such sort as to sweep Great Britain from ard Savage," and other instances of a the kingdoms of the earth, and leave only compassionate and generous heart, had that, after all the most living of human they occurred to his recollection when he and read, and imitated by the wise of future Mr. Bowles sit down to write a minute and far generations npon foreign shores; and laboured life and edition of a great if your literature should become the learno poet? Does he anatomize his character, ing of mankind, divested of party-cabals

, moral and poetical? Does he present us ternporary fashions, and national pride and with his fanlts and with his foibles? Does prejudice; an Englishman, anxious that he sneer at his feelings and doubt of his

sincerity? Does he unfold his vanity and as often as Mr. Bowles, and have had a duplicity? and then omit the good qualities pleasant things said, and some as unpleasant

, which might, in part, have covered this as could well be pronounced. In the revien multitude of sins?" and then plead that of "The Fall of Jerusalem," it is stated “they did not occur to his recollection?” Is that I have devoted "my powers, to the this the frame of mind and of memory with worst parts of Manicheism,” which, being which the illustrious dead are to be ap- interpreted, means that I worship the devil proached ? If Mr. Bowles, who must have Now, I have neither written a reply, mer had access to all the means of refreshing complained to Gifford. I believe that !! his memory, did not recollect these facts, observed in a letter to you, that I thought he is unfit for his task ; but if he did re- that the critic might have praised Milma collect, and omit them, I know not what without finding it necessary to abuse me;' he is fit for, but I know what would be but did I not add at the same time, or goed fit for him. Is the plea of “not recollect- after (apropos of the note in the books of ing” such prominent facts to be admitted? Travels), that I would not, if it we Mr. Bowles has been at a public school, even in my power, have a single line ca and as I have been publicly educated also, celled or my account in that nor in any I can sympathize with his predilection. other publication? - Of course, I reserve When we were in the third form even, had to myself the privilege of response whes we pleaded on the Monday morning, that necessary. Mr. Bowles seems in a whiswe had not brought up the Saturday's exer- sical state about the article on Spence

. Yer cise because “we had forgotten it,” what know very well that I am not in your would have been the reply? And is an ex- confidence, nor in that of the conductor el cuse, which would not be pardoned to a the journal. The moment I saw that article schoolboy, to pass current in a matter I was morally certain that I knew the at which so nearly concerns the fame of the thor "by his style.” You will tell me tha

: first poet of his age, if not of his country? I do not know him: that is all as it sbould If Mr. Bowles so readily forgets the virtues be; keep the secret, so shall I, though sa of others, why complain so grievously that one has ever intrusted it to me. He is net others have a better memory for his own the person whom Mr. Bowles devoices faults ? 'They are but the faults of an au- Mr. Bowles's extreme sensibility reminde thor; while the virtues he omitted from me of a circumstance wbich occurred ca his catalogue are essential to the justice board of a frigate, in which I vai due to a man.

passenger and guest of the captain's for a Mr. Bowles appears, indeed, to be sus- considerable time. The surgeon on board, ceptible beyond the privilege of authorship. a very gentlemanly young man, and 1 There is a plaintive dedication to Mr. markably able in his profession, vare: Gifford, in which he is made responsible wig. Upon this ornament he was extremely for all the articles of the Quarterly. Mr. tenacious. As naval jests are sometimes i Sonthey, it seems, “the most able and elo- little rough, his brother-officers made **** quent writer in that Review," approves of casional allusions to this delicate appeadaze Mr. Bowles's publication. Now, it seems to the dvctor's person. One day a verre to me the more impartial, that, notwith- lientenant, in the course of a facetions de standing that the great writer of the Quar-cussion, said, “Suppose, now, doctor. terly entertains opinions opposite to the should take off your hat." "Sir," replied able article on Spence, nevertheless that the doctor, “I shall talk no longer vi essay was permitted to appear. Is a Review you ; you grow scurrilous." He would be to be devoted to the opinions of any one even admit so near an approach as to the man? Must it not vary according to cir- hat which protected it. In like manei, cumstances, and according to the subjects if any body approaches Mr. Bowles's laurels to be criticised ? I fear that writers must even in his outside capacity of an editor take the sweets and bitters of the public “they grow scurrilous." You say that it journals as they occur, and an author of are about to prepare an edition of Pop so long a standing as Mr. Bowles might you cannot do better for your own credi have become accustomed to such incidents; as a publisher, nor for the redemption de he might be angry, but not astonished. I Pope from Mr. Bowles, and of the public have been reviewed in the Quarterly almost taste from rapid degeneracy.



NOTES TO CANTO I. tion, reconciled rival superstitions, and baffled

an enemy who never retreated before his prees! sigh'd o'er Delphi's long-deserted shrine. decessors.

(pag. 3. Stanza 1. "HB little village of Castri stands partly on Yet Mafre shall one moment claim delay. site of Delphi. Along the path of the moun

(p. 6. st. 29. 1, from Chrysso, are the remains of sepul- The extent of Mafra is prodigious; it contains es hewn in and from the rock: “One," said a palace, convent, and most superb church. The gaide, "of a king who broke his neck hunt- six organs are the most beautiful I ever beheld

His Majesty had certainly chosen the in point of decoration; we did not hear them, est spot for such an achievement. A little but were told that their tones were correspondwe Castri is a cave, supposed the Pythian, ent to their splendour. Mafra is termed the immense depth; the upper part of it is paved, Escurial of. Portugal. I now a cowhouse. On the other side of Castri nds a Greek monastery ; way above Well doth the Spanish hind the difference know ich is the cleft in the rock, with a range of Twist him and Lusian slave, the lowest of the low. erns difficult of ascent, and apparently lead

[p. 1. St. 33. s to the interior of the mountain; probably to As I found the Portuguese, so I have charac

Corycian Cavern mentioned by Pausanias. terized them. That they are since improved, at om this part descend the fountain and the least in courage, is evident. Jews of Castalie."

When Cava's traitor-sire first calld the band And rest ye at our 'Lady's house of woe.” That dyed thy mountain-streams with Gothic gore? (p. 5. St. 20.

(p. 7. St. 35. The Convent of “Our Lady of Punishment," Count Julian's daughter, the Helen of Spain. basa Sennora de Pena *), on the summit of the Pelagius preserved his independence in the fastck. Below, at some distance, is the Cork Con- nesses of the Asturias, and the descendants of nt, where St. Honorius dug his den, over his followers, after some centuries, completed hich is his epitaph. From the hills, the sea their struggle by the conquest of Grenada. Ids to the beauty of the view.

No! as he speeds, he chaunte: Viva el Rey!" hroughout this purple land, where law secures

[p. 8. St. 48. not life.

[p. 5. St. 21. “Viva el Rey Fernando!"-Long live King It is a well known fact, that, in the year 1809, Ferdinand! is the chorus of most of the Spanish le assassinations in the streets of Lisbon and patriotic songs: they are chiefly in dispraise of s vicinity were not confined by the Portuguese the old king Charles, the Queen, and the Prince their countrymen ; but that Englishmen were of Peace. I have heard many of them ; some of rily butchered : and so far from redress being the airs are beautiful. Godoy, the Principe de btained, we were requested not to interfere if la Paz, was born at Badajoz, on the frontiers e perceived any compatriot defending himself of Portugal, and was originally in the ranks of gainst his allies. I was once stopped in the the Spanish Guards, tili his person attracted ay to the theatre at eight o'clock in the eve- the queen's eyes, and raised him to the dukeing, when the streets were not more empty dom of Alcudia. It is to this man that the han they generally are at that hour, opposite Spaniards universally impute the ruin of their > an open shop, and in a carriage with a friend; country. ad we not fortunately been armed, I have not he least doubt that we should have adorned a Bears in his cap the badge of crimson hue, ale instead of telling one. The crime of as- Which tells you whom to shun and whom to greet. assination is not confined to Portugal : in Sicily

(p. 8. St. 50. od Malta we are knocked on the head at a The red cockade with "Fernando Septimo" in andsome average nightly, and not a Sicilian the centre. r Maltese is ever punished !

The ball-piled pyramid, the ever-blazing match. Behold the hall where chiefs were late convened!

[p. 8. St. 51. (p. 6. St. 24. All who have seen a battery will recollect The Convention of Cintra was signed in the the pyramidal form in which shot and shells are alace of the Marchese Marialva. The late ex-piled. The Sierra Morena was fortified in every loits of Lord Wellington have effaced the fol-defile through which I passed in my way to ies of Cintra. He has, indeed, done wonders : Seville. le has perhaps changed the character of a na

Foild by a woman's hand, before a batter'd wall ?

(p. 9. St. 56. Since the publication of this Poem, I have Such were the exploits of the Maid of Sarabeen informed of the misapprehension of the goza. When the author was at Seville she walkterm Nossa Senora de Pena. It was owing ed daily on the Prado, decorated with medalo to the want of the tilde, or mark over the n, and orders, by command of the Junta. which alters the signification of the word: with it, Pena signifies a rock; without it, The seal Love', dimpling finger hath impressid Pena has the sense I adopted. I do not think Denotes how soft that chin which bears his touch. it necessary to alter the passage, as though

(p. 9. St. 58. the common acceptation affixed to it is “our “Sigilla in mento impressa Amoris digitulo Lady of the Rock," I may well assume the "Vestigio demonstrant mollitudinem." other sense from the severitics practised there.


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