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EXPLANATION OF PLATE 45. 71

the circular lines on the surface of its horny membrane d, are lines of growth. (Original.) Fig. 3. Belemno-sepia from the Lias at Lyme, in the Oxford Museum; the Ink-bag is preserved entire within the anterior conical sheath e. e. e. ; the greater part of this sheath is highly nacreous, in a few places (d.) it is horny. (Original.) Fig. 4. Large Ink-bag from the Lias at Lyme, in the collection of Mrs. Murchison, bearing on its surface undulating lines of growth similar to those on the surface of Fig. 1. The Ink is exposed at c. c.; in other parts it is surrounded by the sheath, e. e. e. Nearly one-half of this sheath retains the appearance of horn, whilst the other half is highly nacreous. This interchange of condition, from horn to brilliant nacre, occurs in almost every specimen from the Lias at Lyme, in which the Ink-bag is accompanied only by the flexible anterior sheath, and the calcareous sheath has perished. (Original.) Figs. 5.6.7.8. Ink-bags from the Lias at Lyme, partially surrounded by brilliant nacre. In no one of the specimens represented in Pl. 44" is the least trace of the calcareous sheath of the Belemnite preserved. See V. I. p. 283, Note. (Original.)

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Fig. 1. Limulus Americanus (Leach,) a young specimen from Honduras, one-third of nat. size. b'. Right compound Eye magnified. b”. Two single

* The following letters are applied in Pl. 45 and Pl. 46, to corresponding parts of different animals. a. the shield; a'. lateral portion of the shield; b. the eye; b. eye magnified; b.". frontal eyes; c. the back; d. the tail; e. branchiae.

Eyes in front of the shield. See V.I. p. 297. (Original.) Fig. 2. View of the under surface of Fig. 1, showing the crustaceous legs beneath the shield (a,) and the swimming feet bearing the Branchiae (e,) beneath the body (c.) Scale, one-seventh of nat. size. Fig. 2. e. Swimming feet, (see Fig. 2 e,) enlarged to the scale of Fig. 1. Fig. 2. e". Posterior surface of one of the swimming feet, bearing the fibres of the Branchiae. (Original.) Fig. 3. Front view of magnified figure of Branchipus stagnalis. 3. b. The left eye mounted on a peduncle. 3. b'. The right eye still more magnified. (Original) Fig. 4. Side view of Branchipus stagnalis, nat. size. Fig. 5. Magnified view of the back of Branchipus stagnalis. See V.I. p. 298. (Original.) Fig. 6. View of the back of a Serolis from Senegal, given by M. Dufresne to Dr. Leach. See V. I. p. 296. (Original.) Fig. 7. View of the under surface of Fig. 6, showing the union of crustaceous legs with the membranous branchiae, e.” (Original.) Fig. 8. Magnified view of the Branchiae at Fig. 7, e. Fig. 9. Back of Asaphus caudatus, from Dudley, in the collection of Mr. Stokes. (Original.) Fig. 10. Side view of the left Eye of Fig. 9, is magnified. Fig. 10'. Another Eye of Asaphus caudatus, in the collection of Mr. Bright, from the W. side of Malvern Hill. In the front of this fossil are circular depressions on the stone, from which the petrified lenses have fallen out; on each side, the lenses remain in their natural place. (Original.)

* Figs. 3, 5, 6 and 7, are from original drawings by Mr. Curtis in the collection of Mr. C. Stokes.

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Explan ATION of PLATE 46. 73

11. Anterior segment of the left Eye of Fig. 9, still
more highly magnified, to show the circular lenses
set in their respective margins, each surrounded by
six minute tubercles. (Original.)
11. Magnified view of a portion of the eye of Caly-
mene macrophthalmus. (Hoeninghaus.)
12. Under surface of the anterior portion of the
shield of Asaphus platycephalus, from Lake Huron.
A unique specimen, showing at f an entrance to the
stomach, analogous to that in recent Crabs. See
Geol. Trans. N. S. Vol. i. Pl. 27. (Stokes.)

Plate 46. V. I. p. 294 et seq.

Figs. 1. 2. 3. Calymene Blumenbachii, from the Tran

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sition Limestone of Dudley. a. The shield cover-
ing the head. a'. Lateral portion of the shield,
separated by a suture from a.; the central part of
this suture forms the lateral Margin, or Rim of the
cavity of the Eye. This Margin is composed of
two parts, united to receive the Lens, like the rims
that enclose the edges of the glasses, in a pair of
Spectacles. The Lens has usually fallen out from
the Eyes of fossils of this species, as often happens
after death in the Eyes of the recent Grapsus pictus,
and also in the common Lobster. b. The Eye. c.
The dorsal portion, composed of articulating plates,
that move on one another like the plates of a Lob-
ster's tail. d. The tail.
1. Side view of the animal rolled up like an Oniscus.
(Scharf.)
2. View of the back of the Animal expanded for
swimming; the Tail d, is composed of plates that
had no movable articulations. (Original.)
3. Front view of the same animal rolled up; the
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shell, in this position, must have given perfect pro-
tection to the soft parts of the body enclosed within.
(Scharf.)
4. Side view of Calymene macrophthalmus, rolled
up, with its tail closed on its shield. (Curtis.)
5. Front view of another specimen of C. Macroph-
thalmus, rolled up like Fig. 4. The Eyes in fossils
of this species are usually well preserved, and their
facets large. (Curtis.)
6. Asaphus tuberculatis; a highly ornamented
species from the Transition Limestone of Dudley;
in the collection of Mr. Johnson, of Bristol. The
back alone is composed of flexible plates. (Curtis.)
7. Asaphus De Buchii, from the transition slate of
Llandilo; the tail is surrounded with an inflexible
Margin, slightly fluted. (Brongniart.)
8. Restoration of Paradoxoides Tessini, (Brong-
niart. Hist. Nat. de Crustacés, Pl. IV. Fig. 1.)
9. Oxygia Guettardii, (Brongniart, Hist. Nat. de
Crustacés, Pl. III. Fig. 1.)
10. Highly ornamented tail of Asaphus gemmulife-
rus, (Phillips,) from the Transition Limestone of
Dublin, magnified four times. (Curtis.)
11. Tail of Asaphus caudatus, from Carboniferous
limestone, at Beadnell, Northumberland; in the col-
lection of the Geol. Soc. of London. (Original.)
12. Tail of Asaphus caudatus, from Transition lime-
stone, near Leominster; in the Oxford Museum.

Plate 46. V. I. p. 306.

1. Back of a fossil Scorpion of a new genus (Cyclophthalmus) found by Count Sternberg in the Coal formation of Bohemia, in a quarry of sandy

Explan Ation of PLATE 46". 75

argillaceous Schist, sufficiently hard to be used for
building. Nat. size. (V. I. p. 307, Note.)

Even the skin, hairs, and pores of the tracheae of

this animal are preserved. In the same stone are many carbonized fragments of Vegetables, and on the right of the body is a large fossil Nut (a); this side of the animal has been laid open by cutting away the stone. (Sternberg.) 2. Lower surface of the same animal, discovered in split

ting the stone in search of fossil Plants; nat. size.
Near the point of the right claw, is a fragment of

the tail of another and larger Scorpion. (See Pl. 46", Fig. 13.) We have here also the side of the same nut that is seen in Fig. 1. a. This trifid nut exhibits traces of the structure of the outer coating in which it was inclosed. (Sternberg.) 3. Magnified representation of the Head and Eyes. See W. I. p. 307. (Sternberg.) 4. Magnified jaw, armed with teeth, and partially covered with minute hairs. (Sternberg.) 5. Hairs on Fig. 4, highly magnifed. (Sternberg.) 6. Magnified representation of a portion of the skin, consisting of two divisible layers. See W. I. p. 308. (Sternberg.) 7. Magnified impressions of muscular fibres connected with the legs. (Sternberg.)

PLATE 46". W. I. p. 308.

Fossil Insects, Arachnidans, and Limulus.

The following description of the Insects represented in this Plate is founded on information received from Mr. Curtis and Mr. Samouelle.

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