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plate 2. V. 1 p. 64.
A. Jaw of Didelphy's Bucklandi, (Magnified to twice nat. size,) in the Collection of W. I. Broderip, Esq. and described by him in the Zoological Journal, V. Ill. p. 408, Pl. XI. (Broderip.) 2. Second molar tooth magnified. 5. Fifth molar tooth still further magnified. B. Fragment of lower Jaw of a small Didelphys from Stonesfield, in the Oxford Museum, (magnified one third.) This jaw has been examined by Cuvier, and is figured by M. Prevost, Ann. de Sci. Nat. Avr. 1825, p. 389, Pl. 18. The removal of a part of the bone displays the double roots of the teeth, in their alveoli, and the form of the teeth shows the animal to have been insectivorous. (Original) 4. Fourth molar tooth magnified. 9. Ninth molar tooth magnified. C. 1. Lower Jaw of Dinotherium giganteum, (Tapirus Giganteus, Cuv.) The length of this Jaw, including the Tusk, is nearly four feet. V. I. p. 110. (Kaup.) 2. Lower Jaw and part of upper Jaw of Dinotherium medium. (Kaup.) 3. Jaw of Dinotherium medium, exhibiting the Crown of five molar teeth, most nearly resembling those of a
* All these unique remains of Dinotherium are preserved in the Museum at Darmstadt; they were found in a Sand pit containing marine shells at Epplesheim near Alzey, about forty miles N. W. of Darmstadt, and are described by Professor Kaup.
Bones of Dinotherium have lately been found in Tertiary Freshwater limestone, near Orthes, at the foot of the Pyrenees; and with them, remains of a new Genus, allied to Rhinoceros; of several unknown species of Deer; and of a Dog, or Wolf, the size of a Lion.
Our figures of Dinotherium are copied from the Atlas of Kaup's Description d'Ossemens fossiles de Mammiferes, Darmstadt, 1832-3.
ExPLANATION OF PLATES 3.4. 5. 19
Plate 3. V. I. p. 70.
Imaginary restoration of four species of Pachydermata, found in the Gypsum Quarries of Mont Martre. (Cuvier.)
PLATE 4. V. I. pp. 70, 73.
Nearly perfect skeletons of the four species of fossil animals, whose restored figures are given in the last Plate. (Cuvier.)
PLATE 5. V. I. p. 112.
1. Skeleton of Megatherium, copied from Pander and D'Alton's figure of the nearly perfect skeleton of this animal, in the Museum at Madrid. 2. Bones of the Pelvis of Megatherium, discovered by Woodbine Parish, Esq. near Buenos Ayres, and now placed in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, London. The bones of the left hind leg, and several of those of the foot, are restored nearly to their natural place. (Original.) 3. Front view of the left Femur. 4. Front view of the left Tibia and Fibula. 5. Bones of the foot, imperfectly restored. 5. Large ungual bone, supposed to be that of a Toe of the hind foot. 6–11. Teeth of Megatherium.
From the near approximation of this Animal to the living Tapir, we may infer that it was furnished with a Proboscis, by means of which it conveyed to its mouth the Vegetables it raked from the bottom of Lakes and Rivers by its Tusks and Claws. The bifid ungual bone (Kaup, Add. Tab. 11,) discovered with the other remains of Dinotherium, having the remarkable bifurcation which is found in no living Quadrupeds, except the Pangolins, seems to have borne a Claw, like that of these animals, possessing peculiar advantages for the purpose of scraping and digging; and indicating functions, concurrent with those of the Tusks and Scapula". (see Vol. I. Page 110.)
12, 13. Armour, supposed to be that of Megatherium.” 14–19. Armour of Dasypus and Chlamyphorus.
PLATE 6. V. I. p. 118.
1. Sections of Teeth of Megatherium, illustrating the relative dispositions of the Ivory, Enamel, and Crusta petrosa, or Coementum. (Original. Clift.)
2. Posterior surface of a caudal vertebra of Megatherium exhibiting enormous transverse processes. On its lower margin are seen the articulating surfaces which received the chevron bone; the superior spinous process is broken off. V. I. p. 121. (Sir F. Chantrey. Original.)
PLATE 7. V. I. p. 133.
Ichthyosaurus platyodon from the Lias at Lyme Regis, discovered by T. Hawkins, Esq. and deposted in the British Museum, together with all the other splendid fossil remains that are engraved in his memoirs of Ichthyosauri and Plesiosauri. This animal, though by no means full grown, must have measured twenty-four feet in length. The extremity of the tail, and left fore paddle, and some lost
* Mr. Darwin has recently discovered the Remains of Megatherium along an extent of nearly six hundred miles, in a North and South line, in the great sandy plains of the Pampas of Buenos Ayres, accompanied by bones and Teeth of at least five other Quadrupeds. He has also found that the Bones of this Animal are so often accompanied by those of the Mastodon angustidens, as to leave no doubt that these two extinct species were contemporary.
I learn from Professor Lichstenstein, that a fresh importation of Bones of Megatherium, and bony armour has lately been sent to Berlin from Buenos Ayres, and that there remains no room to doubt that some portion of this armour appertained to the Megatherium.
It appears very probable, from more recent discoveries, that several other large and small animals, armed with a similar coat of mail, were co-inhabitants of the same sandy regions with the Megatherium.
ExPLANATION OF PLATES 8. 9, 10. 21
fragments of the rest of the skeleton, are artificially restored. (Hawkins.)
PLATE 8. W. I. p. 135.
1. Skeleton of a young Ichthyosaurus communis, in the collection of the Geological Society of London, found in the Lias at Lyme Regis. (Scharf. Original.)
2. Ichthyosaurus intermedius, from Lyme Regis, belonging to Sir Astley Cooper. (Scharf. Original.)
Plate 9. V. I. p. 135.
1 and 2. Ichthyosaurus tenuirostris, from the Lias near
Glastonbury, in the collection of the Rev. Dr. Williams, of Bleadon, near Bristol. The position of the ribs is distorted by pressure. (Scharf. Original.)
3. View of the right side of the head of the same animal. (Original.)
Plate 10. V. I. pp. 135, 137.
1. Head of Ichthyosaurus platyodon, in the British Museum, from the Lias at Lyme Regis, copied from Sir E. Home's figure in the Phil. Trans. 1814. 2. Copied from Mr. Conybeare's figure, (in the Geol. Trans. Lond. O. S. Pl. XL. Fig. 11.) showing the analogies between the bones of the head of Ichthyosaurus, and those which Cuvier has marked by corresponding letters in his figure of the head of the Crocodile. 3. Two of the bony plates in the sclerotic coat of the Eye of Ichthyosaurus platyodon. 4. Circle of bony plates in the Eye of the snowy Owl. (Yarrel.) 5. Circle of similar plates in the Eye of the golden Eagle.
6. Front view of bony plates in the Eye of an Iguana. 7. Profile of the same. 8. Two of the fourteen component scales of the same. I owe these three last figures to the kindness of Mr. Allis of York. A 1, 2, 3, 4. Petrified portions of the skin of a small Ichthyosaurus, from the Lias of Barrow on Soar, Leicestershire, presented to the Oxford Museum, by the Rev. Robert Gutch, of Segrave. (Original.) In Fig. 1; a, b, c, d, are portions of ribs, and e, f, g, h, are fragments of sterno-costal bones (nat. size.) The spaces between these bones, are covered with the remains of skin; the Epidermis being represented by a delicate film, and the Rete mucosum by fine threads of white Carbonate of Lime; beneath these the Corium, or true skin, is preserved in the state of dark Carbonate of Lime, charged with black volatile matter, of a bituminous and oily consistence. * 2. Magnified representation of the Epidermis and Rete mucosum. The fine superficial lines represent the minute wrinkles of the Epidermis, and the subjacent larger decussating lines, the vascular net-work of the Rete mucosum. In Fig. 3, the Epidermis exhibits a succession of coarser and more distant folds or wrinkles overlying the mesh-work of the Rete mucosum. In Fig. 4, the Epidermis has perished, and the texture of the fine vessels of the Reta mucosum is exhibited in strong relief, over the black substance of the subjacent Corium, in the form of a net-work of white threads.”
* Nothing certain has hitherto been known respecting the dermal covering of the Ichthyosauri; it might have been conjectured that these reptiles were incased with horny scales, like Lizards, or that their skin was set with dermal bones, like those on the back of Cro