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nautilus, i. 247; ditto in ammo-
nites, i. 265; ditto in belemnites,
i. 288. -

Hyenas, bones collected by, in ca-
verns, i. 80.

Hylaeosaurus discovered by Mr.
Mantell, i. 185; peculiar charac-
ter of, i. 185.

Hythe, large hamite found at, i.

Ichthyodorulites, or fossil spines, i.
220; uses and variety of, i. 220,

Ichthyosaurus, geological extent
and chief localities of, i. 133 ;
curious structure of, i. 133, 134 ;
number of species, i. 134; head,
partaking of the character of cro-
codiles and lizards, i. 135; jaw,
length of, i. 135; teeth, charac-
ter and number of, i. 135, 136;
how differing from crocodiles, i.
135; contrivances for replacing,
i. 136 eyes, magnitude of, i.
136 eyes, microscopic and tele-
scopic properties of, i. 136; eyes,
bony sclerotic of, i. 137, 138;
jaws, composed of many thin
plates, i. 138; jaw, lower, contri-
vances in, i. 139; vertebrae, num-
ber of, i. 140 ; vertebrae con-
structed like those of fishes, i.
140; ribs, structure of, and to
what purpose subservient, i. 141;
sternum like that of ornithorhyn-
chus, i. 142; paddles, anterior,
like those of whales; posterior,
like those of ornithorhynchus, i.
143, 144 ; concluding remarks
upon, i. 145, 146; intestinal struc-
ture of, i. 147; skeleton of, con-
taining coprolite, i. 150 ; small
intestine spiral, like that of sharks
and rays, i. 151; final cause of
spiral intestinal structure, i. 153 ;
skin of preserved, ii. 22; mecha-
nism of atlas and cervical verte-
brae of, ii. 24–26.

Igneous rocks, various phenomena
of, ii. 5–9.

Iguana, modern, habits of, i. 186;
dentition of, i. 190.

Iguanodon, discovered by Mr. Man-
tell, i. 185 ; remains of, where
found, i. 185, 186; a gigantic



herbivorous reptile, i. 185; teeth
like those of the modern iguana,
i. 186; the largest of known fos-
sil reptiles, i. 185, 186; climate
indicated by remains of, i. 187;
teeth, peculiar character of, i.188
—191; bony horn on the nose of,
i. 188; food of, probably tough
vegetables, i. 189.
Indusiae, fossil in fresh water forma-
tion of Auvergne, i. 98.
Infusoria, Ehrenberg’s observations
on, i. 336, 337; number of spe-
cies described, i. 336; their
powers of reproduction, i. 336;
their manners of increase, i. 337;
universal diffusion of, i. 337;
found fossil, i. 237.
Injection of igneous rocks at vari-
ous periods, ii. 6.
Ink bags, recent and fossil of loligo,
i. 230,
Insects, fossil in carboniferous strata,
308; wing covers of, at Stones-
field, i. 310 ; Count Munster’s
collection of from Solenhofen, i.
310; many fossil genera in ter-
tiary strata, i. 310.
Iron, ore abundant in coal forma-
tion, i. 59; quantity of, annually
made in England and Wales, i.
Isle of Wight, iguanodon found in,
i. 186.

Jaeger, Professor, has found copro-
lites in Wirtemberg, i. 149; his
work on fossil plants, i. 368.

Jardine, Sir W., fossil footmarks
found by, i. 198.

Juli, supposed fir cones, are copro-
lites, i. 155.

Kaup, Professor, notice on the foot-
steps of chirotherium, i. 202; his
description of fossil mammalia at
Epplesheim, i. 78; his descrip-
tion of dinotherium, i. 110, 111.
Kepler, his prayer, i. 19.
Killery, cemetery in a sand bank at,
i. 87.
King, Captain, animal of spirula
found by, i. 274; serolis found
by, i. 296.
König, Mr., his account of human

[blocks in formation]

of encrinus, i. 331 ; theory of
transmutation associated with de-
velopement by, i. 436.
Iavas, phenomena of, i. 17.
Lead, artificial crystals of, produced
by steam of water, i. 412,
Leeds, fine heads of megalichthys
at, i. 210.
Leibnitz, his anticipation of the mo-
dern Platonic theory, i. 49.
Lepidodendron, character and rela-
tions of this fossil genus, i. 350;
allied to lycopodiaceae, i. 350 ;
size and character of, i. 351;
number of known species, i. 352;
intermediate internal structure of,
i., 352.
Lepidoids, thick bony scales of, i.
214, 215.
Lepidosteus, or bony pike, i. 209,
Lepidotus, i. 215.
Level, changes of by volcanic
agency, i. 76.
Lhwyd, on insects and spiders in
coal shale, i. 306.
Lias, proof of intervals in deposi-
tion of, i. 233.
Libanus, fishes of tertiary era at, i.
Liblar, brown coal of, 382.
Liége, bones of men and hyaenas in
caverns near, i. 88, 89.
Life, organic, successive stages of,

i. 51 ; organic has not existed,

from eternity, i. 53, 54.
Light, essential to the growth of an-

cient vegetables, i. 34; undula-

tory theory compared with Ge-

nesis i. 3, i. 35 ; history of il-

lustrated by fossil eyes, i. 303,
too, tertiary, localities of, i. 381,
82, 383 ; memoir on, by M.
Alexandre Brongniart, i. 381.
Limestone, origin of, i. 76,77; com-

binations in crystals of, i. 429,
Limulus, in iron stone of coal for-
mation, ii. 77; allied to trilobite,
i. 297 ; where found fossil, i. 297.
Lindley, Professor, his observations
on existing lycopodiaceae, i. 351 ;
experiments on the durability of
recent plants immersed in water,
i. 361.
Lindley and Hutton, their descrip-
tion of plants preserved in coal
mines at Newcastle, i. 344 ; ob-
servations on lepidodendron, i.
351, 352; recent discoveries of
stigmaria, i. 358; on fossil cones
of zamia from I. Wight, i. 370.
Links, in the mammalia supplied
by fossil remains, i. 75, 76.
Lituite, locality and character of, i.
275, 276.
Locke, his notice of spiral intes-
times at Leyden, i. 153 ; his opi-
nion of the necessity of a revela-
tion, i. 438.
Loligo, vulgaris, structure, and ha-
bits of, i. 230; fossil pens and
ink bags of, i. 230, 231; horny
pen of, preserved in lias, i. 231 :
destroyed and buried suddenly, i.
232, 233; found in the lias of
Wurtemburg, i. 233.
London, Artesian wells near, i. 420,
Lonsdale, Mr., his discovery of mi-
croscopic shells in chalk, i. 337.
ii. 64.
Lophiodon, character and place of,
i. 71.
Louth, Artesian wells near, i. 420.
Lowestoffe, irruption of sea into
lake of, i. 101.
Lulworth, subterranean forest near,
i. 372.
Luminaries, celestial, described in
their relations to our planet, i.
Lukis, Mr., experiments on changes
in the stems of succulent plants,
i. 386.
Lycopodiaceae, character, affini-
ties, and distribution of, i. 350.
I.yell, Mr., his refutation of the
doctrine of transmutation of spe-
cies, i. 51; his map of Furope


in the tertiary period, i. 67; his
division of the tertiary series, i.
68; on fossil indusiae, i. 98, 99.
Lyon, Captain, on the action of the
wind in forming sand hills round
extraneous bodies in Africa, i. 104.
Lyme Regis, ichthyosauri found at,
i. 133; specimens from described,
i. 134; coprolites abundant" on
the shore of 148; plesiosaurus
discovered at, i. 158; pterodac-
tyle found at, 171, 173, 175;
bones of large sauroid fishes
found at, 211; fossil pens and
ink bags found at, i. 231 ; fossil
ink bags found at, i. 282.

Machopoxa, only sauroid fish in
chalk, i. 216, 211.
Madrid, skeleton of megatherium
at, i. 115.
Maestricht, locality of most recent
belemnites, i. 280.
Mallotus villosus, i. 208
Mammalia, earliest remains of, i.
64; of eocene period, i. 705 of
miocene period, i. 77 ; of plio-
cene periods, i. 79.
Man, relation of the earth to the
uses of, i. 83; all things not
created exclusively for his use,
i. 84 ; prospective provisions for
use of i. 414.
Mansfeld, fossil fishes at, i. 203.
Mantell, Mr., on double convex
vertebra of gavial, ii. 26; fossil
birds found by him in Tilgate
Forest, i. 74; his history of the
Wealden formation, i. 99; refers
juli to coprolites derived from fos-
sil sharks, i. 154, 155 ; mosa-
saurus found by, in Sussex, i. 168;
megalosaurus found by, in Til-
gate Forest, i. 180; his discovery
of iguanodon and hylaeosaurus, i.
185; his discovery of petrified
stomach and coprolites within
fossil fishes, i. 216.
Mantellia, genus of cycadites, named
by Ad. Brongniart, i. 373.
Mansfeldt, fossil fishes of, i. 103.
Marble, entrochal, composed of
crinoidea, i. 324.
Margate, gigantic ammonites near,
j. 253.

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Marsupialia, extent and character
of, i. 64, 65.
Massey’s patent log, improvement
suggested in, i. 264.
Matter, creation of, announced in
Gen. i. 1, i. 32 : molecular con-
stitution and adaptations of, de-
cidedly artificial, i. 431; abori-
ginal constitution of, exalts our
ideas of creative intelligence, i.
Medusae, numbers of in Greenland
seas, i. 290.
Megalichthys, new genus of sauroid
fishes, i. 209; localities where
found, i. 210 ; further discoveries
of, ii. 43; structure of teeth of,
ii. 44.
Megalosaurus, genus established by
the author, i. 180, 181; where
occurring, i. 180, 181; size and
character of, i. 181 ; lived upon
land, i. 181; medullary cavities
in bones of, i. 182; habit car-
nivorous, i. 182; character of
jaw, i. 182; structure of teeth,
i. 182–184.
Megaphyton, character of, i. 357.
Megatherium, allied to the sloth, i.
113 ; allied to sloth, armadillo,
and chlamyphorus, i. 116; found
chiefly in S. America, i. 114; by
whom described, i. 114; larger
than rhinoceros, i. 116; head of,
like sloth, i. 117; structure of
teeth, i. 117, 119 ; lower jaw of,
i. 120 ; bones of trunk, i. 120;
peculiarities of vertebrae, i. 120;
magnitude and use of tail, i. 120;
ribs apparently fitted to support
a cuirass, i. 121 ; scapula, re-
sembling sloth, i. 121 : uses of
clavicle, i. 121 ; peculiarities of
arm and fore arm, i. 122 ; fore
foot, a yard in length, i. 123 :
fore foot, used for digging, i.
123; large horny claws, adapted
for digging, i. 123; peculiarities
of pelvis, i. 124; magnitude of
foramina for nerves, i, 124; pe-
culiarities of thigh and leg bones,
i. 125; hind foot, peculiarities
of, i. 125 + bony armour, like
that of armadillo and chlamy-
phorus, i. 126; probable use of,
i. 128 ; size, character, and
habits, i. 129; further disco-
veries of, ii. 20.
Meisner, lignite of, near Cassel, i.
Metals, advantageous dispositions
os, i. 84, 413–415; important
properties of, i. 414, 415.
Meyer, Herman Von, notice of ink
bags with fossil internal shells of
sepia, ii. 52; on ink bag in con-
tact with belemnite, ii. 69 ; his
description of fossil mammalia
of Georgensgemund, i. 78; his
notices of fossil crustaceans, i.
Mineral bodies, proofs of design in,
i. 426.
Milan, bones in museum at, i. 80.
Miller his Natural History of cri-
noidea, i. 314, 315, 321, 322, 325,
Milliola, vast numbers in strata
near Paris, i. 290.
Minerals, proofs of design in com-
postion and adaptations of, i. 426.
Miocene division of tertiary strata,
i. 68 ; period, mammalia of, i.
Mississippi, drifted trees in Delta
of, i. 382.
Mitscherlich, his production of ar-
tificial crystals by fire, i. 42.
Molasse, localities of lignite in, i.
Molusca, many genera of, in tran-
sition strata, i. 56.
Mollusks, fossil remains of, i. 224 ;
naked, fossil remains of, i. 230.
Monitors, character of recent spe-
cies, i. 167; type of, enlarged
in fossil saurians, i. 170.
Monpezat, granite enclosed in lava
at, ii. 7. f
Molecules, successive condition o
in crystalline bodies, i. 428,429,

Monte Bolca, vast accumulation of
fossil fishes at, i. 101 ; fishes pe.
rished suddenly, i. 101 ; fossil
fishes of, i. 203, 216 : fishes of,
rearranged by Agassiz, i. 217.

Mont Martre, list of vertebrata found
at, i. 73; fishes of, i. 217.

Morton, Dr., mosasaurus found by,
in America, i. 167.

Moses, his cosmonogy reconcileable
with geology, i. 26 object of his
account of creation, i. 35.
Mosaic history in accordance with
geology, i. 21.
Mosaic cosmogony, attempts to re-
concile with geology, i. 23.
Mosasaurus, great animal of Maes-
tricht, i. 167; allied to monitors,
i. 167, 168; described by Cam-
per and Cuvier, i. 167 ; coeval
with the cretaceous formation, i.
167; remains of where found, i.
167 ; length and character of, i.
168; teeth, peculiar character
of, i. 169; vertebrae, number of,
i. 169 ; extremities, character of,
i. 169; character, predicted by
Cuvier, i. 170; a link between
the monitors and iguanas, i. 170;
habit, aquatic, i. 170.
Moscow Bulletin Soc. Imp. de,
observations on coprolites in, i.
Moschus pygmaeus, tendons in back
of, i. 175.
Muller, on eyes of insects, &c. i.
Multilocular shells, extinct genera
of, i. 238.
Munster, Count, foraminiferes dis-
covered by, in Maestricht stone,
ii. 64; his discovery of mamma-
lia at Georgensgemund, i. 78;
pterodactyle described by, i.
173; his figures of horny sheaths
of belemnites, i. 283 ; his col-
lection of crustaceans from So-
lenhofen i. 292.
Murchison, Mr., his discovery of
fishes in old red sandstone, i.
211 : Silurian system established
by, i. 394; fishes, &c. found in
Wolverhampton coal field by, ii.
43. ,
Myliobates, fossil plates of, i. 221.

Nacre, causes of preservation of, i.

Natural religion, addition to its
evidences by geology, i. 22 ;
links in evidences of supplied by
geology, i. 436. -

Nautilus, fossil species peculiar to
certain formations, i. 235; de-
scription of, i. 242; mechanical
contrivances in, i. 238; Mr.
Owen's memoir, on, i. 238;
chambers, act as floats, i. 240 ;
siphuncle, its functions and mode
of action, i. 241, 243, 246; si-
phuncle, calcareous sheath of
i. 248 ; siphuncle, substance of,
i. 248 ; use of air chambers, i.
243 ; contrivances to strengthen
the shell, i. 244–246 : number
of transverse plates, i. 246 ; ac-
tion of pericardial fluid, i. 247–
249 ; like that of water in the
water balloon, i. 248 ; its manner
of floating, rising, sinking and
moving at the bottom, i. 249,
250 ; opinions of Hook and Par-
kinson concerning, i. 250; the
Author's theory, i. 250.
Nautilus sypho, intermediate cha-
racter of, i. 269–273.
Nautilus zic zac, intermediate cha-
racter of, i. 269–273.
Nebular hypothesis, consistent with
geological phenomena, i. 40
Nelson, Lieut, on strata formed
by the wind in the Bermudas, i.
Newcastle, plants preserved in coal
mines at, i. 344.
Newhaven, nodules of iron-stone
containing fishes and coprolites
at, i. 212.
Newton, his religious views result-
ing from philosophy, i. 19, 440.
Nichol, Mr., observations on fossil
pinus and araucaria, i. 364, 365,
Noggerath, Professor, chronometer
in fossil wood, observed by, i.
Norfolk, remains in crag formation
of, i. 79; fishes in crag of, i. 217.
Norland House, Artesian well at, i.
North Cliff, bones in freshwater
formation at, i. 79.
Nummulites, their extent and num-
ber, i. 288, 289; functions and
structure, i. 289; influence on
stratification, i. 289.


Oberau, granite overlying creta-
ceous rocks, at ii. 5.
Odier, M., his discovery of chitine,


or elytrine in wings of insects, i.
Oeland, orthoceratites in limestone
of, i. 274; lituite found in the
same, i. 275.
Oeningen, plants of 382, et seq.;
fossil fishes of, i. 203, 217; de-
scription of fossil plants at, by
Professor Braun, i. 384–386;
plants in brown coal formation
at, i. 382; fossil salamander of,
i. 386.
Ogyges, i. 295.
Onchus, i. 220.
Opossum, remains of in secondary
and tertiary strata, i. 63; bones
of, in oolite at Stonefield, i. 191.
Organic remains, best summaries of,
i. 39; argument from absence of,
i. 50; general history of, i. 88;
afford evidence of design, i. 89;
important inferences from, i. 91;
study of, indispensable to geolo-
gy, i. 92; successive stages of
deposition, i. 94; best ground-
work of geological divisions, i.
94; supply deficient links in the
existing animal kingdom, i. 94.
Orodus, i. 220.
Ornithicnites, in new red sandstone
of Connecticut, ii. 40.
Ornithorhynchus, sternal apparatus
like that of ichthyosaurus, i. 142,
145; Mr. R. Owen's papers on,
i. 142.
Orthoceratite, character and extent
of, i. 274.
Osseous breccia, in fissures of lime-
stone, i. 80.
Osler, Mr., on proboscis of bucci-
num, i. 226.
Owen, Mr., on peculiarities of mar-
supialia, i. 64; on comparative
organization of ornithorhynchus
and reptiles, i. 142; on bones of
land tortoises, i. 181; on nautilus
pompilius, i. 238, 244, 248, 249,

Pachydermata, existing genera of,
in pliocene strata, i 79.

Pain, aggregate of diminished by
the agency of carnivora, i. 105.

Palaeotherium, remains of in Cal-

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