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Cotta on fossil arborescent ferns, i.
Crag, in Norfolk, geologicacal place
of, i. 140.
Craters, various phenomena of, ii. 8.
Creation, Mosaic account of, ac-
cords with natural phenomena, i.
21 ; origin of material elements
by, i. 81.
Creator, necessity of, shown by
geology, i. 54.
Crinoideans, geological importance
of, i. 314, 324 ; nature and cha-
racter of, i. 314 ; most remark-
able genera of, i. 315 ; living
species rare, i. 315; abundance
and importance of fossil species,
i. 315, 324; anatomical structure
of, i. 316; reproductive powers
of, i. 317 early extinction of
many species and genera, i. 324.
Crocodileans, fossil forms of, i. 191;
slender character of snout, i. 192;
habit probably piscivorous, i. 192.
Crocodiles, modern, habits of, i.
192 ; gavial, gangetic, piscivo-
rous, i. 192; functions of fossil
species, i. 192; Cuvier's obser-
vations on, i. 193; number of
living and fossil species of, i.193;
dentition, provisions in mode of,
i. 194; fossil forms of, at vari-
ance with all theories of gradual
transmutation or developement,
i. 195.
Crustaceans, extent of fossil re-
mains of, i. 292.
Crystalline rocks, influenced by
chemical and electro-magnetic
forces, i. 38; eight distinct vari-
eties of, i. 39 ; their position be-
neath stratified rocks, i. 42 ; pro-
bable igneous origin of, i. 40;
gradations in character of, i. 41 ;
proofs of intention in phenomena
of, i. 44; proofs of design afford-
ed by, i. 428.
Crystals, definite forms and compo-
sition of, i. 428,430; component
molecules of, i. 428,430.
Ctenoidean order of fishes, i. 206.
Curculionidae in iron stone of Coal-
brook Dale, i. 309.
Cuttle fish, structure and habits of,
i. 230; internal ink bag of, i. 231.

Cuvier, his conclusion that organic
life has not existed from etermity,
i. 54; his account of the basin of
Paris, i. 67 ; his account of dis-
coveries at Mont Martre, i. 72;
consigns his materials for a work
on fossil fishes to M. Agassiz, i.
156, 204; his conjecture con-
cerning plesiosaurus, i. 162; had
observed nearly 8,000 species of
living fishes, i. 263; perfection
of his reasoning on contrivances
and compensations in the struc-
ture of animals, i. 113.
Cycadeae, abundant in strata of the
secondary series, i. 368, 369;
number and extent of recent and
fossil species, i. 369 ; leaves fos-
sil in oolite of Yorkshire and at
Stonesfield, i. 370 ; in coal for-
mation of Bohemia, i. 369; habit
and structure of, i. 370; interme-
diate character of, i. 370; fossil
on the coast of Dorset, i. 371 ;
peculiarities in structure of trunk
of, i. 371, 372; mode of increase
by buds, i. 375; link supplied by
the discovery of, i. 377.
Cycadites, once natives of England,
i. 371 ; microphyllus, microscopic
structure of, 373, 376 ; megalo-
phyllus, buds in axillae of scales,
i. 375; resemblance of fossil and
living species, i. 376.
Cycas revoluta, buds on trunk of, i.
375; circinalis, height of, i. 371.
Cycloidean order of fishes, i. 206.
Cypris, microscopic shells of, in
Wealden formation, i. 97; in coal
formation near Edinburgh, i. 209.

DAPenium, scales of, i. 215.

D'Alton, his figures of megatherium,
i. 114.

. Darmstadt, remains of mammalia in

museum at, i. 79.

Darwin, Mr. C., megatherium found
by, ii. 20; his observations on the
Cordilleras of Chili, i. 410, 411.

Daubeny, Dr., on cause of thermal
springs, is 425; on indivisibility
of ultimate particles of matter, i.

Days, supposed to imply long pe-
riods, i. 24.


Dax, shells found at, i. 270. Death, sudden, desirable for irrational animals, i. 106. Dekay, Dr, discovered coprolites in New Jersey, i. 149. De la Beche, his belief in succes. sive creations of new species, i. 51 ; his figures of ichthyosauri, i. 138, 139; on different specific gravity of shells, i. 229; observations on living polypes of caryophyllia, 334,335; observations on genera of corals in transition rocks, i. 335. Deluge, mosaic stratified rocks not produced by, i. 23. Depression, proofs of in 1. Portland, i. 372. Deshayes, his division of tertiary strata, i. 68. Desnoyers, M., on Faluns of Tourraine, i. 78. Desmarets, memoir on fossil crustaceans, i. 393. Detritus, origin of strata from, i. 42. Developement, theory of disproved by geological phenomena, i. 51 ; theory of opposed by Cuvier, i. 75; definition of, i. 435, 436. Dikes, intersect strata of every age, i. 46; gradations of from lava to granite, i. 47; various crystalline rocks composing, ii. 5; changes produced by, on adjacent rocks, ii. 9. Dillwyn, Mr., his paper on trachelipods, 226, 228. Diluvium, animals immediately preceding the farmation of, i. 81. Dinotherium, largest of terrestrial mammalia, i. 79, 109; found at JEpplesheim, in miocene strata, i. 110; description of by Kaup, i. 110 ; occurs in France, Bavaria and Austria, i. 110 ; molar teeth of like tapirs, i. 110 ; giganteum, eighteen feet long, i. 110 ; shoulder blade of, like that of a mole, i. 110 ; uses of tusks in the lower jaw of, i. 111, 112 ; molar teeth of resemble those of tapirs, i. 111 ; an aquatic herbivorous animal, i. 111, 112; adapted to a lacustrine condition of the earth, i. 112; localities and description


of, ii. 18; proboscis and claws of, ii. 19. Dirt bed, soil of subterraneous forest in Portland, i. 372. Disturbing forces, beneficial results of, i. 403, 404, 409. D’Orbigny, M. his classification of cephalopodous mollusks, i. 288 ; trilobites and shells found in the Andes by, i. 294. Draco volans, has no true wings, i. 174, 175. Dufrênoy, on iron mines in the Pyrenees, i. 410. Dujardin, new class of rhizopodes discovered by, ii. 64. Dumfries, fossil footsteps near, i. 259. Duncan, Dr., his discovery of fossil footsteps near Dumfries, i. 198. Durdham Down, remains of reptiles at, i. 95. Durham, salt springs in coal formation near, i. 63. Dynamics, geological, extent of, i. 38.

EARTH, distribution of the materials of, i. 16; theory of, much advanced, but not yet perfect, i.20; two distinct branches of its his. tory, i. 36; originally fluid from heat, i. 40; advantageous dispositions of its materials, i. 83. Earthquakes, beneficial agency of in the economy of the globe, i. 404. Echidna, has furcula and clavicles like ornithorhynchus, i. 143. Echinidans, geological extent of, i. 312, 313. Egerton, Sir Philip, his discoveries near Newcastle-under-Line, i. 210; on mechanism of atlas and cervical vertebrae of ichthyosaurus, ii. 24–26. Eggs, fossil, of aquatic birds, i. 74. Elements, identity and functions of, i. 38; proofs of design in, i. 426; ever regulated by same laws, i. 430; primordial adaptations of, i. 430; adaptation of to vegetables and animals, i. 431. Elevation, general history of, ii. 4;

dry lands formed by, i. 43; proofs
of in I. Portland, i. 371, 372.
Elevations, number observed by
Elie de Beaumont, ii. 6; various
periods of, ii. 6. -
Elis, Mr., his conclusions from the
study of corallines, i. 338.
Emys, fossil, localities of, i. 197.
Encrinites moniliformis, lily encri-
nite, i, 317,318; mechanical adap-
tations in, i. 317; number of com-
ponent ossicula, i. 318; vertebral
column, mechanical contrivances
in, i. 318–320; body and upper
extremities, i. 322; physiological
history of, i. 324, 325: -
Endogenites echinatus, fossil trunk
allied to palms, i. 386, 387,
Engi in Glaris, fishes of, i. 216.
England, effects of geological struc-
frture on inhabitants of, ii. 3.
Enjoyment, aggregate of increased
by existence of carnivora, i. 105,
Enstone, cetacea in oolite at, i. 96.
Entomolithus paradoxus, i. 295.
Entomostracans, fossil, i. 295.
Entrochi, or wheel stones, colum-
nar joints of encrinite, i. 320.
Eocene, division of tertiary strata,
i. 68.
Equisetaceo, extent of the family
of, i. 346; fossil genera of, i.
346; increased enlargement in
size of, i. 347; fossil species in
coal formation, i. 347.
Equivocal generation, disproved in
case of infusoria, i. 336, 337.
Ernouf, General, his account of hu-
man skeletons at Guadaloupe, i.
Estuaries, admixture of fresh water
and marine exuviae in, i. 99.
Eternal succession, theory of, dis-
proved by geology, i. 51, 54.
Eternity of the world, disproved by
geology, i. 20.
Eyes, fossil, resembling those of
existing animals, i. 34; fossil re-
mains of, i. 34, 136, 299, 303;
structure of, in recent crustaceans
allied to trilobites, i. 301; physio-
logical and physical inferences
from structure of, i. 302, 303.

FALUNs, of Tourraine, mammalia
found in, i. 78.
Faraday, Mr., notice on preparin
the human lungs for diving, i.
Faujas, M, observations on fossil
trees in lignite near Cologne,
Faults, on geometrical laws of, i.
404; utility of, in draining coal-
mines, i. 405–407; definition of,
by Mr. Conybeare, i. 405, 406;
utility of, in guarding coal-mines,
i. 408; utility of, in producing
springs, i. 407, 418, 425; utility
of, in primary rocks and metallic
veins, i. 407, 408.
Favularia, character of, i. 357.
Ferns, distribution and number of
existing species, i. 347, 348; pro-
portion of to living phaneroga-
miae, i. 348; temperature indi-
cated by fossil species, i. 348;
proportions of in the coal forma-
tion, i. 349; living and fossil
arborescent species of, i. 349,
350; proportions of, in secondary
and tertiary strata, i. 350.
Final causes, consideration of, ad-
missible in philosophical investi-
gations, i. 409.
Fire, its rank in geological dyna-
mics, i. 38.
Fisher, Mr., figures prepared by,
ii. 2.
Fishes, fossil, causes of sudden death
of, i. 100, 101; sudden destruc-
tion of in lias formation, 102;
fossil intestinal structure of, i.
154, 155; coprolites derived from,
i. 154, 155; petrified intestines
of, or cololites, i. 156; living
species observed by Cuvier, i.
203; fossil species, history of by
Agassiz, i. 202, 204; numbers of
fossil genera and species, i. 204;
classification founded on scales,
i. 204, 205; orders of established
by Agassiz, i. 205, 206; geologi-
cal results derived from fossil
fishes, i. 206; changes in fossil
enera and families abrupt, i. 207;
ossil, most important to geology,
i. 204, 208; sauroid, character
of, i. 208, 209; sauroid, higher
in the scale of organization than
ordinary bony fishes, i. 223;
number of genera in sauroid fa-
mily, 209; sauroid, character of
living species, i. 209; sauroid
geological extent of, i. 210, 211;
in strata of the carboniferous’
order, i. 212; peculiar form of
tail in early strata, i. 213; in
magnesian limestone, i. 213; in
muschelkalk, lias and oolite, i.
214; in the chalk formation, i.
216; in the tertiary formations,
i. 216; family of sharks, i. 218;
results from observations on, i.
222; functions of, in the economy
of nature, i. 223; form of their
crystalline lens, i. 300, 301.
Fissures, site of mineral veins in, i.
410, 411.
Fitton, Dr., on alterations in level
of sea and land, i. 43; his obser-
vations on Cypris Faba, in Weal-
den formation, i. 97, 98; his de-
scription of fossil cones, i. 365.
Fitzwilliam, Earl, cycas revoluta in
conservatory of, i. 375; trunks of
sigillaria in coal-mines of, at El-
secar, i. 353.
Fleming, Dr., on structure of in-


ternal shell of sepia, ii. 68; his .

observations on fishes in old red
sandstone, i. 211.
Flints, origin of, i. 78.
Flucan, beneficial effects of in min-
ing, i. 408.
Fluidity, original theory of, i. 40,

Footsteps, fossil, near Dumfries, i.
198; preservation of explained,
, i. 199; on red sandstone at Hess-
berg, i. 2013 value of their evi-
dence, i. 200; reflections on, i.
201; on oolite, near Bath, pro-
bably of crustaceans, i. 199; re-
cent, of testudo graeca, i. 199.
Foraminifers, species of found by
Count Munster, and Mr. Lons-
dale ii. 64.
Forest, subterranean, remains of in
Portland, i. 372.
Formations, geological, number and
thickness of, i. 39.
Forster, Mr., his section from New-


[blocks in formation]

GALLIBIs, skeletons of, at Guada-
loupe, i. 87.
Ganoidian, order of fishes, i. 206.
Genesis, ungrounded fear of incon-
sistence with, i.20; interpretation
of Chap. I. consistent with geolo-
gical discoveries, i. 26; text of,
reconcilable with geology, i. 36.
Geology, extent of province of, i.
16; why but lately established
on induction, i. 17, sciences aux-
iliary to it, i. 17; its discoveries
consistent with revelation, i. 18;
religious application of, i. 440;
subserviency of to natural theo-
logy, 441; proofs from, of the
existence and attributes of a
Deity, 441,442.
Georgensgemand, fossil mammalia
discovered at, i. 78.
Gerard, Dr., his discovery of am-
monites, &c. in the Himmalaya,
i. 254.
Glaris, turtle in slate of, i. 196;
fossil fishes at, i. 203, 208.
Gleig, Bishop, his interpretation of
Mosaic cosmogony, i. 32, 33.
Globe, successive changes in surface
of, i. 20; influence of animal re-
mains upon, i. 335; succession of
physical forces which have modi-
fied its surface, i. 433.
Golden Cap Hill, belemnites at base
of, i. 284.
Goldfuss, Professor, pterodactyles

described by, i. 173, 176, 177;
selections of the structure of en-
crimites from works of, 321; his
illustrations of echinidans and
stelleridans. i. 313.

Graham Island, rise and destruction
of, ii. 8

Grampus, size and character of, i.

Granite, recent elevation of, in Py-
renees and Chili, i. 410, 411; pro-
bable igneous origin of, ii. 3;
intersecting and overlying creta-
ceous formations, ii. 5; older
intersected by newer, ii. 4; ele-
vation of during tertiary period,
ii. 4; fragments of, inclosed in
lava, ii. 7.
Gravatt, Mr., his experiments in
diving, i. 142.
Graveneire, stream of lava issuing
from granite at, ii. 8.
Greenock, Lord, his discovery of
fishes near Leith, i. 212 ; his dis-
covery of petrified intestines of a
fish in coal, near Edinburgh, i.
Greenstone, veins and overlying
masses of, ii. 5.
Grenville, Lord, cycas in conserva-
tory of, i. 371.
Guadaloupe, human skeletons in
sandbank at, i. 87.
Gyrodus, palatal teeth of, i. 214.

HALL, Sir James, his experiments
on crystallization under pressure,
i. 42.
Halstadt, orthoceratite, found in
oolite at, i. 175.
Hamite, character and locality of,
i. 277.
Harlan, Dr., on fossil fucoids in
North America, i. 340.
Harwich, fossil emys at, i. 197.
Hauy, his theological inference
from the construction of simple
minerals, i. 429.
Hawkins, Mr., his memoirs of ich-
thyosauri and plesiosauri, i. 134;
plesiosaurus discovered by, i.
Heat, influence of, in causing eleva-
tions of land, i. 41, 42; not the
sole cause of the consolidation of
stratified rocks, i. 52. -

Henderson, on plants in Surtur-
brand of Iceland, i. 382.
Henslow, Professor, on buds of
cycas revoluta, i. 375.
Hericart de Thury, illustration of
Artesian wells by, i. 419, 421.
Herschel, Sir I. F. W., ranks geo-
logy next to astronomy, i. 19, 20;
on connexion between science
and religion, i. 439.
Hessberg, footsteps in sandstone at,
i. 201.
Hibbert, Dr. his discoveries near
Edinburgh, i. 210.
Hippopotamus, structure of tusks
of, i. 119.
Hitchcock, Professor, his discovery
of footsteps of birds in Connecti-
cut, i. 74 ; ditto, ii. 39, 40; on
geological evidences of a Creator,
i. 436; on consistency of geolo-
gical phenomena with Mosaic ac-
count of creation, i. 437.
Hoer in Scania, coal in secondary
strata of, i. 369.
Hoffmann, Professor, on source of
mineral waters at Pyrmont, i.
425. -
Home, Sir Everard, on spinal canal
of ichthyosaurus, i. 141.
Hook, Dr., his theory respecting
the motions of nautilus, i. 251.
Hopkins, Mr., on laws that have re-
gulated the disturbances of the
globe, i. 404; on production of
springs by faults, i. 418.
Human bones, found in no geologi-
cal formations preceding the ac-
tual era, i. 86, 87; often interred
in caves containing remains of
more ancient animals, i. 87, 88 ;
found in consolidated sand at
Gaudaloupe, i. 87; how mixed
with bones of ancient and modern
quadrupeds, i. 88 ; in caverns
near Liege, 89.
Hutton, Dr., his theory of the for.
mation of stratified rocks, i. 43;
of veins, i. 411, 412.
Hutton, Mr., his discoveries of ve.
getable structure in coal, i. 342,
Hybodonts, extent of, i. 219, 220.
Hybodus, i. 215.
Hybodus reticulatus, i. 220.
Hydraulic action, of siphuncle in

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