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ExPLANATION of PLATE 63. 101

PLATE 63." W. I. p. 377.

1. Recent Pandanus, of S. America, twenty feet high,
with its fruit attached. (Mirbel)
2. Fossil fruit of Podocarya, from the Inferior Oolite,
near Charmouth, Dorset. Great part of the surface
is covered with a stellated Epicarpium; the points
of many seeds project in those parts (e) where the
Epicarpium is wanting. (Original.)
3. Reverse of Fig. 2. showing the seeds placed in
single cells (b) around the circumference of the fruit.
These seeds stand on a congeries of foot-stalks (d)
composed of long fibres, which terminate in the re-
ceptacle.(r) The surface of the receptacle is studded
over with small disks, in which these foot-stalks
originate. (Original.)
4. Base of the same fruit, showing the transverse
section of the receptacle (r), and the summits of
many abortive cells on the left side of the receptacle.
(Original.) -
5. A single seed of Podocarya converted to carbo-
nate of lime. Nat size. (Original,)
6. The same magnified. (Original.)
7. Transverse section of a seed magnified. Two
lunate marks, of a darker colour than the other part.
appear near its centre, f'. See Fig. 8. and the mid-
dle of Fig. 10. (Original)

* Explanation of Letters of Reference.

a. Stellated tubercles, each one covering the apex of a single seed. b. Sections of the seed cells. c. Bases of cells of which seeds have fallen. d. Fibrous foot-stalks between the seeds and receptacle. e. Apices of seeds uncovered.

f. Transverse section of seeds.

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8. Magnified portion of Fig. 3: showing a withered
stigma in the centre of each hexagonal tubercle (a);
beneath these tubercles is a longitudinal Section of
the single cells (b), each containing one seed (f);
and in front of these cells are the hollow bases of .
other cells (c,c) from which seeds have been re-
moved. (Original.)
9. Another magnified portion, showing the apices
of many seeds (e) from which the Epicarpium has
been removed. (Original.)
10. Another magnified portion, showing at a, b, c,
more distinctly the same parts as at Fig, 8; and at
d, the upper portion of the fibrous foot-stalks beneath
the bases of the cells, c. (Original.)
11. Summit of one of the drupes or groups of cells
into which the fruit of the recent Pandanus is di-
vided ; showing an hexagonal disposition of the coro-
nary tubercles, each bearing at its centre the re-
mains of a stigma, as in the Podocarya. See Figs.
16. 17. (Original.)
12. Exterior of a single seed-cell of Pandanus odo-
ratissimus. (Jaquin. Frag. Bot. Pl. 14.)
13. Section of a Drupe of Pandanus odoratissimus.
The central cell containing a seed, is placed between
two abortive cells. At the apex of each cell in this
drupe (a) is a withered stigma. (Roxborough Coro-
mandel. Pl. 96.)

Figs. 14, 15. Sections of a Drupe of Pandanus odoratis

Fig.

simus, showing the seeds within the prolific cells
surrounded by a hard nut. Beneath this nut is a
mass of rigid fibres like those beneath the seeds of
Podocarya. (Jaquin.)
16. Summit at the hexagonal tubercle at the apex
of a cell of Pandanus humilis, with a withered stigma
in the centre. (Jaquin. Frag. Bot. Pl. 14.)

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ExPLANATION of PLATE 64. 65. 103

17. Side view of another tubercle of the same species. (Jaquin. Frag. Bot. Pl. 14.)

PLATE 64. V. I. p. 387.

. 1. Fossil leaf of a Flabelliform Palm from the Gyp

sum of Aix in Provence. (Brongniart.)

g. 2. Upper portion of the Fossil trunk of a tree allied

to palms (nearly four feet in diameter) from the Calcaire Grossier at Vaillet, near Soissons, preserved in the Museum d’Hist. Nat. at Paris. See p. 387. Note. (Brongniart.)

PLATE 65. V. I. p. 396.

1. Section across the Wednesbury Coal basin from
Dudley to Walsall. (Jukes.)
The extensive Iron foundries which cover the sur-
face of this district, and the greater part of the
manufactures in the adjacent town of Birmingham,
originate in the Coal and Iron ore, with which the
strata of shale in this Coal basin are richly loaded.
The Dudley Limestone here found immediately
below the Coal formation, occurs usually at a much
greater depth in the series. The Mountain Lime-
stone, Old red Sandstone, and Ludlow rocks, are
here wanting. (See Pl. 66, Fig. 1.) -
2. Section, showing the basin-shaped disposition of
the Carboniferous strata in S. Wales. (Rev. W. D.
Conybeare.)
The richest beds of Coal and Iron ore are placed
almost immediately above the Mountain limestone.
(See pp. 59, 396.) It is to this district that our
Posterity must look for their future supplies of Coals,
and transfer the site of their Manufactures, when

the Coal fields of the northern and central parts of England shall be exhausted.* Fig. 3. Section of inclined Carboniferous strata, overlaid unconformably by horizontal strata of New Red Sandstone, Lias, and Oolite, in Somersetshire. This Section illustrates the manner in which Carboniferous strata have been elevated at their extremities around the circumference of a basin, and depressed towards its centre, and also intersected by fractures or Faults. See V. I. pp. 394, 405. In Section 1, 2, of this Plate, no notice is taken of the Faults which intersect the Coal basins.

Plate 66. W. I. p. 394, Note.

Fig. 1. Section of the strata composing the Silurian System, and the lower part of the Carboniferous System, on the frontiers of England and Wales. (Murchison.)

Fig. 2. Appearance of Faults intersecting the Coal formation near Newcastle-on-Tyne, copied from a portion of one of Mr. Buddle's important sections of the Newcastle Coal field, in the Transactions of the Nat. Hist. Society of Northumberland, V. I. Pt. 3, Pl. XXI. XXII. XXIII: The advantages

* The lower and richest beds of this Coal district are not only raised to the surface, and rendered easily accessible around the external margin of the basin, but are also brought within reach in consequence of another important elevation, along an anticlinal line, running nearly E. and W. through a considerable portion of the interior of the basin, in the direction of its longer diameter.

# I feel it a public duty to make known an act of Mr. Buddle, which will entitle him to the gratitude of posterity, and has set an example, which, if generally followed in all extensive collieries, will save the lives of thousands of unfortunate miners, that must otherwise perish for want of information which can, at this time, be easily recorded for their preservation. This eminent Engineer and Coal

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 67. 105

resulting from these Interruptions of the continuity of the strata are pointed out in pp. 406, 407.

A large portion of the surface of these strata near Newcastle is covered with a thick bed of diluvial Clay interspersed with Pebbles, in the manner represented at the top of this Section. The effect of this Clay must be to exclude much rain-water that would have percolated downwards into the Coal mines, had strata of porous Sandstone formed the actual surface.

PLATE 67. V. I. p. 417. Fig 1. represents the case of a valley of Denudation in

Viewer has presented to the Natural History Society of Newcastle, copies of his most important plans and sections, accompanied by written documents, of the under ground workings in the Collieries near that town, in which all those spaces are carefully noted, from whence the Coal has been extracted. Every practical Miner is too well acquainted with the danger of approaching ancient workings in consequence of the accumulation of water in those parts from which Coal has been removed. The sudden irruption of this water into a mine adjacent to such reservoirs is occasionally attended with most calamitous and fatal results. See History of Fossil Fuel, the Collieries and Coal Trade, 1835. P. 249 et seq.

The distates of humanity which prompt us to aid in the preservation of human life, no less than the economical view of rendering available at a future time the residuary portions of our beds of Coal, which will not now repay the cost of extracting them, should induce all proprietors and other persons connected with Coal Mines, and especially Engineers and Coal Viewers, to leave to their successors a legacy, which will to them be precious, by preserving minute and exact records of the state of the coal in their respective districts. It can, however, scarcely be expected, that such measures will be generally and systematically adopted throughout the many Coal fields of this country, unless the subject be legislatively taken up by those official persons, whom it behoves, as guardians of the future welfare of the nation, to institute due measures, whilst the opportunities exist, for preventing that loss of life and property, which a little attention bestowed in season, will preserve to posterity.

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