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on conviction in a court of law, Mall be for ever disqualified to hold any office of trust or profit in this State.

LV. That every person appointed to any office of profit or trust Mall, before he enters on the execution thereof, take the following oath, to wit, “ I A. B. do swear, That I do not hold myself bound in allegiance to the King of Great-Britain, and that I will be faithful, and bear true allegiance to the State of Maryland," and thall also subscribe a declaration of his belief in the Christian religion.

LVI. That there be a court of appeals, composed of persons of integrity and found judgment in the law, whose judgment shall be final and conclusive in all cases of appeal from the General Court, Court of Chancery, and Court of Admiralty: that one person of integrity and found judgment in the law be appointed chancellor : that three persons of integrity and sound judgment in the law be appointed judges of the court now called the Provincial Court; and that the same court be hereafter called and known by the name of The GENERAL COURT; which court fall sit on the western and eastern shores for transa&ting and determining the business of the respective Thores, at such times and places as the future legislature of this State shall direct and appoint.

LVII. That the stile of all laws runs thus, Be it enacted, by the General Assembly of Maryland: that all public commissions and grants run thus, The State of Maryland, &c. and shall be signed by the governor, and attested by the chancellor, with the seal of the State annexed, except military commissions, which shall not be attested by the chancellor, or have the seal of the State annexed: that all writs fall run in the same stile, and be tested, sealed and signed as usual : that alt indictments fhall conclude, Against the Peace, Government, and Dignity of the State.

LVIII. That all penalties and forfeitures, heretofore going to the King or proprietary, shall go to the State, save only such as the General Assembly may abolish or otherwise provide for.

LIX. That this Form of Government, and the Declaration of Rights, and no part thereof, shall be altered, changed or abolished, unless a bill so to alter, change or abolith the same, shall pass the General Assembly, and be published at least three months before a new election, and shall be confirmed by the General Assembly after a new election of delegates, in the first session after such new election : provided, that nothing in this Form of Government which re. lates to the eastern fore particularly, shall at any time hereafter be Vol. III.


altered, unless for the alteration and confirmation thereof at least twothirds of all the members of each branch of the General Assembly fhall concur.

LX. That every bill passed by the General Assembly, when en. grossed, shall be presented by the speaker of the House of Delegates, in the senate, to the governor for the time being, who shall sign the same, and thereto affix the great seal, in the presence of the members of both Houses. Every law shall be recorded in the General CourtOffice of the western shore, and in due time printed, published, and certified under the great seal, to the several county courts, in the same manner as hath been heretofore used in this State.

This Declaration of Rights and Frame of Government was assented to, and passed in Convention of the Delegates of the freemen of Maryland, begun and held at the city of Annapolis, the 14th of Augut, A. D. 1776.

EXPENSES OF GOVERNMENT AND TAXES. The annual expenses of government are estimated at about twenty thousand pounds currency. The revenue arises chiefly from taxes on real and personal property.


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I HE territory of Columbia was ceded to the United States by the States of Marylaiid and Virginia, for the purpose of establishing a fede. ral city, that might become the permanent seat of the Federal Govern, ment. This city, now building, is called after the name of that brave defender of American liberty and supporter of the rights of mankind, GEORGE WASHINGTON, who having vindicated the rights of his countrymen, and contributed to the establishment of his country's independence, has been called by the voice of gratitude and affection to fill the highest office a generous and brave people had to be. stow—this city will therefore stand as the most honourable monument of his worth and the people's gratitude that could possibly be erected ; and we trust that when it becomes the feat of government, which it is to be after 1800, that it will recall to the minds of future legislators his virtues, and the principles on which American liberty is founded, and its government established. This city stands at the junction of the rivers Potomack and the Eastern Branch, in latitude 380 $3' north, extending about four miles up each, including a tract of ter. ritory, exceeded in point of convenience, salubrity, and beauty, by. none in America, if any in the world : for although the land is apparently level, yet by gentle and gradual swellings, a variety of elegant prospects are produced, while there is a sufficient descent to convey off the water occasioned by rain.

Within the limits of the city are twenty-five springs of excellent water; and by digging wells, water of the best quality is readily had ; besides these, the streams that now run through that territory, are alfa to be collected for the use of the city. The waters of Reedy branch and of Tiber creek may also be conveyed



to the President's house; for the source of Tiber creek is elevated about two hundred and thirty-fix feet above the level of the tide in the faid creek, and the perpendicular height of the ground on which the capital is to stand, is seventy-eight feet above the level of the tide in the fame: the water of Tiber creek may, therefore, be conveyed to the capital, and after watering that part of the city, may be destined to other useful purposes.

The Eastern Branch is one of the safest and most commodious harbours in America, being sufficiently deep for the largest ships for about four miles above its mouth; while the channel lies close along the edge of the city, and affords a large and capacious harbour.

The Potomack, although only navigable for small craft, for a considerable distance from its banks next to the city, excepting about half a mile above the jun&tion of the rivers, will nevertheleis afford a capacious summer harbour ; as an immense number of thips may ride in the great channel, opposite to and below the city

The city, being situated up in the great post road, exactly equidistant from the northern and south in extremities of the Union, and nearly to from the Atlantic ocean to the Ohio river, upon the best navigation, in the midit of the richest commercial territory in Ainerica, and commanding the nost extensive internal reluurces, is by far the most eligible fituation for the residence of Congress; and as it is now preiling forward, by the public spirited enterprite of the people of the United Statcs, and by foreigners, it will grow up with a degree of rapidity, hitherto unparalleled in the annals of cities, and will probably foon become the admiration of the world, and one of the principal emporiuir.s of American commerce.

The inland navigation of thie Potumack is so far advanced, that crast loaded with produce now come down that river and its several branches, from upwards of one hundred and eighty miles to the great falls, which are within fourteen miles of the new city. The canals at the great and little falls are nearly completed, and the locks in such forwardness, that in the courie of the prelent year, the naviga. tion will be entirely opened between tide water and the head branches of the Potomack, which will produce a communication by water between the city of Washington, and the interior parts of Virginia and Maryland, by means of the Potomack, the Shannandoah, the South Branch, Opecan, cape Capon, Patterson's creek, Conoocheague, and Monocaly, for upwards of two hundred miles, through one of the n.ost healthy, pleasant, and fertile regions in America, pro


ducing, in vast abundance, tobacco of superior quality, hemp, Indian corn, wheat and other small grain, with fruit and vegetables peculiar to America, in vaft abundance, and equal in quality to any in the United States.

The lands upon the Potomack above the city of Washington, all around it, and for sixty miles below, are high and dry, abounding with innumerable springs of excellent water, and are well covered with large timber of various kinds. A few miles below the city, upon the banks of the Potomack, are inexhaustible mountains of excellent free-stone, of the white and red Portland kinds, of which the public edifices in the city are now building. Above the city, also upon the banks of the river, are immense quantities of excellent coal, limestone, and marble, with blue late of the best quality.

The founding of this city in such an eligible fituation, and upon such a liberal and elegant plan, will by future generations be considered as a high proof of the judgment and wisdom of the present government of the United States, and whilst its name will keep fresh in mind to the end of time, the many virtues and amiable qualities of the President, the city itself will be a standing monument of their public spirit.

The plan of this city, agreeably to the directions of the President of the United States, was designed and drawn by the celebrated Major L'Enfant, and is an inconceivable improvement upon all others, combining not only convenience, regularity, elegance of prospect, and a free circulation of air, but every thing grand and beautiful that can possibly be introduced into a city.

The city is divided into squares or grand divisions, by the streets running due north, fouth, east and west, which form the ground-work of the plan. However, from the capitol, the President's house, and some of the important areas in the city, run transverse avenues or diagonal streets, from one material object to another, which not only produce a variety of charming prospects, but remove that insipid sameness that renders fome other great cities unpleasing. These great leading ftreets are all one hundred and fixty feet wide, including a pavement of ten feet, and a gravel walk of thirty feet planted with trees on each side, which will leave eighty feet of paved street for carriages. The rest of the itreets are in general one hundred and ten feet wide, with a few only ninety feet, except North, South, and East Capitol streets, which are one hundred and sixty feet. The diagonal streets are named after the respective States compoting the Union, while those running north and south are, from the capitol


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