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country of the Carolinas and Georgia ; but New-Jersey and New. England have hitherto paid most attention to this drink. An exqui. site brandy is distilled from the extensive peach orchards, which grow upon the numerous rivers of the Chesapeak, and in parts of Pennsyl. vania, and may be made in the greater part of the country.
Silk has been attempted with success in the southernmost States, fa far as due attention was paid to it; but is not well suited to the nature of their labourers, who, being blacks, are not careful or skilful; and there are many other objects of more importance and profit in the agriculture of those fertile States. In Connecticut, where there is a sensible and careful white population, and where land is compa ratively scarce and dear, it is found to be practicable and beneficial. A projeết to extend the white Italian mulberry tree over all the States has been formed, by some persevering individuals acquainted with the propagation of them. A great part of Connecticut is already supplied. An extensive nursery has been established near Philadelphia ; another at Princeton in New Jersey; and two more are at this tiine commonced on New-York and Long-Islands.
Rye is produced generally through all the States north of the Ca· rolinas, and in the western parts of the three southern States. But
the detail of American productions, and the parts in which they most abound, would be very long. It will therefore be sufficient to say, that in addition to the above capital articles, the United States produce or contain, flax-feed, spelts, lime-stone, alum, faltpetre, lead, copper, coal, free-stone, marble, stone for wares, potters' clay, brick clay, a variety of thip-timber, shingles, holly, beech, poplar, curled maple, black walnut, wild cherry, and other woods suitable for ca. binet-makers, shingles of cedar and cypress, myrtle-wax, bees-wax, butter, tallow, hides, leather, tanners' bark, maple sugar, hops, mustard seed, potatoes, and all the other principal vegetables ; apples, and all the other principal fruits ; clover, and all the other principal graffes. On the subject of their productions it is only necessary to add, that they must be numerous, diverfified, and extremely valuable, as the various parts of their country lie in the same latitude as Spain, Portugal, the middle and southern provinces of France, the fertile island of Sicily, and the greater part of Italy, European and Afiatic Turkey, and the kingdom of China, which maintains by its own agriculture more people than any coutry in the world beside.
From these few observations we may form fome idea of the advan. tages which the United States poffefs over moft European countries in these respects; it may be truly said, that there is not a luxury of nature but their soil is capable of yielding, and which the climate in one part or other of their territory would not bring to perfection. They can cultivate with ease every raw material for different manufactures which the furface of the earth yields, and its bowels yield them every necessary metal and fossil.
Connected with this, we may mention another advantage which the States possess ; this is the ease with which the produce of one State may be conveyed, by water, to another, with a very trivial addi. tion of expense. There is in this respect a striking difference between the navigable waters of the United States and those of any country in the old world. The Elbe is the only river in Europe which will permit a sea vesiel to fail up it for so great a length as seventy miles. The Hudson's, or North river, between the States of New-York and New Jersey, is navigated by fea vessels one hundred and eighty miles from the ocean ; the Delaware, between Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the Delaware State, one hundred and fixty miles ; the Polomack, between Virginia and Maryland, three hundred miles ; and there are several other rivers, bays, and sounds, of extensive navigation, far exceeding the great river Elbe. The inland boatable waters and lakes are equally numerous and great.
When we consider these, and extend our ideas to the different eanals already formed, and still forming, by which the most important rivers are, or will be united, we may venture to assert, that no' country in Europe does, or possibly can possess so completely the ade vantages of inland navigation ; by this the extremes of the confederacy will become intimately united and acquainted with each other, and each State will reap from the produce of the whole nearly the lame advantage as though it possessed every resource within itself; indeed, no doubt can by a refceting mind be entertained, but that the time is near when a communication by water will be opened with every part of the Union..
In a country thus circumstanced, producing the great raw materials for manufactures, and postelling unlimited powers, by water and resoarces of fuel, subject also to heavy charges upon the importation of foreign fabrics, to neglect manufactures would have been almost criminal. These important ideas have taken full possession of the American mind. The theory is now every where approved; and in
New-England, Pennsylvania, and several other States, the practice has been taken up with considerable spirit and very extensively pursued.
These are but a few of the advantages America poffeffes over the different nations in Europe, but they are such as have laid the foun. dation of her present, and which insure her future prosperity.
We shall now proceed to state as briefly as possible the prospects and advantages which the European settler has almost the certainty of realizing.
OF THE ·
PROSPECTS AND ADVANTAGES
IN THE UNITED STATES.
BEFORE we enter on this part of the work, we wish to premise to the reader that we shall proceed with caution. The numbers that have emigrated to America from this country have already awakened the fears of some, and the envy of others; and some who appear conscious of the consequences that must follow from a spirit of emigration, have thought it their duty to step forward, and by magnifying trifling difficulties into insurmountable obstacles, attempt to put a ftop to a system, which, though its effects are Now, are not the less sure in weakening the strength and resources of the European counties. Hence flight skirmishes with the Indians have been magnified to the most tremendous battles. The resistance of a small portion of per
sons to the levying of a tax in one or two States has been worked up · to a universal rebellion throughout the Union. A fever raging at
Philadelphia for a short period, and which is now admitted to have originated in the exposure of damaged coffee, has been held forth as a proof of an unhealthy climate throughout the States ; and the intemperate zeal of a few individuals has been considered a sufficient proof that the whole body of Americans are averse to the prudent and temperate conduct of their government. The impressions made on the public mind by these means have received additional strength from a few individuals, who, like the spies sent to view the land of Canaan, have, through idleness, or attachment to European diilipation, cast away the clusters of grapes, and returned with an evil re
port port of the land. If we credit those, the United States are ruined--trade is bad---every thing is dear---all is confusion---the people Naves ---and the United States unable to furnith employment or support to those who wish there to take up their residence. These, and almost ten thousand other evils are conveyed to us through the medium of letters inserted in the daily papers dated from different parts of America, but which carry with them internal evidence of being the production of hireling scribblers, employed for the purpose of mis. leading the unthinking mind.
In order therefore to follow this subject through all its connec. tions, and to set the prospects of an European settier in a clear point. of view, it will be necessary to proceed in the inquiry under fome kind of system, that its different parts may stand clear and distinct, and yet form one connected whole. As an introductory part it may therefore be neceffary to rectify fome mistaken notions of Europeans respecting the Ainerican States.
MISTAKEN NOTIONS OF EUROPEANS. Many persons in Europe appear to have formed mistaken ideas and expectations of what is to be obtained in America; it may therefore be useful, and prevent inconvenient, expensive, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, to give some clear and truer notions of that part of the world than appear to have hitherto prevailed.
It is imagined by numbers, that the inhabitants of North-America are rich, capable of rewarding, and disposed to reward all forts of ingenuity ; that they are at the same time in a great degree ignorant of all the sciences; and consequently that strangers possessing talents in the belles lettres, fine arts, &c. must be highly efteemed, and so well paid as to become eatily rich themselves ; that there are also abundance of profitable offices to be disposed of, which the natives are, not qualified to fill; and that having few persons of family among them, strangers of birth must be greatly respected, and of course eality obtain the best of those offices, which will make all their fortunes ; that the governments too, to encourage emigrations from Europe, not only often pay the expense of personal transportation, but give lands gratis to strangers, with negroes to work for them, utensils of husbandry, and stocks of cattle. These are, in the general, wild ima. ginations; and those who go to America with expectations founded upon them, will surely find themselves disappointed.