Imágenes de página

quantities of black walnut, mulberry, &c. This succession of different soils continues uniform and regular, though there are some large veins of all the different soils intermixed; and what is more remarkable, this fucceflion, in the order mentioned, stretches across this State nearly parallel with the sea coast, and extends through the several Statęs nearly in the same direction, to the banks of Hudson river. In this State are produced, by culture, rice, indigo, cotton, filk, (though not in large quantities) Indian corn, potatocs, oranges, figs, pomegranates, &c. Rice, at present, is the staple commodity; and as a finall proportion only of the rice ground is under cultivation, the quantity raised in future must be much greater than at present. But the rapid increase of the inhabitants, chiefly by emigrations, whose attention is turned to the railing of tobacco, and the

aft extent of land, with a richness of soil suited to the culture of that plant, renders it probable, that tobacco will shortly become the Itaple of this State. Cotton was formerly planted only by the poorer class of people, and that only for family use. They planted of two kinds, the annual and the West-Indian; the former is low and planted every year; the balls of which are very large, and the phlox long, strong, and perfectly white. The latter is a tall perennial plant, the stalk somewhat shrubby, several of which rise up from the root for feveral years succeslively, the stems of the former year being killed by the winter frosts. The balls of West-India coiton are not quite so large as the other, but the phlox or wool is long, extremely fine, silky and white. A plantation of this kind will last several years with moderate labour and care. The culture of cotton is now much more attended to ; several indigo planters have converted their plantations into cotton fields. The tobacco lands are equally well adapted to wheat, which may hereafter make an important article of commerce.

On the dry plains grow large crops of sweet potatoes, which are found to afford a wholesome nourishment, and from which is made, by distillation, a kind of whisky, tolerably good, but inferior to that made of rye. It is by properly macerating and washing this root that a sediment or starch is macle, which has obtained the name of fago, and answers all the purposes of the Indian fago.

Most of the tropical fruits would flourish in this State with proper attention. The rice plant has been transplanted, and also the tea plant, of which such immense quantities are consumed in the United States, was introduced into Georgia by Mr. Samuel Bowen, about


the year 1770, from India. The feed was diffeminated, and the plant now grows, without cultivation, in most of the fenced lots in Savannah.

From many confiderations we may, perhaps, venture to predia, that the south-western part of the State, and the parts of East and West-Florida, which lie adjoining, will, in some future time, becoine the vineyard of America.

REMARKABLE SPRING. In the county of Wilkes, within a mile and a half of the town of Walhington, is a medicinal spring, which rises from a hol. low tree, four or five feet in length. The inside of the tree is covered with a coat of matter, an inch thick, and the leaves around the spring are incrusted with a substance as white as snow. It is said to be a sovereign remedy for the scurvy, scrophulous disorders, confumptions, gouts, and every other diseafe arising from humours in the blood. A person, who had a severe rheumatism in his right arm, having, in the space of ten minutes, drank two quarts of the water, experienced a momentary chill, and was then thrown into a perspiration, which, in a few hours, left him entirely free from pain, and in perfect health. .

This fpring, situated in a fine healthy part of the State, in the neighbourhood of Washington, where are excellent accommodations, will no doubt prove a pleasant and salutary place of resort for invalids from the maritime and unhealthy parts of this and the neighbouring States.

CIVIL DIVISIONS. Before the revolution, Georgia, like the other southern States, was divided into parishes, but this mode of division is now abolithed, and that of counties has succeeded it.

That part of the State which is laid out, is divided into three dif. tricts, which are subdivided into eleven counties, as follows:

[blocks in formation]





[ocr errors]

CHIEF TOWNS. The chief towns are, St. Patrick's, Brunfuick, Sunbury, Savannah, Ebenezer, Augusta, Waynesborough, Louisville, Golphinton, Washington, Greensburgh..

AUGUSTA. The present seat of government in this State is Augusta. It is situated on the south-west bank of Savannah river, which is here about five hundred yards wide, about one hundred and forty-four miles from the sea, and one hundred and twenty-seven north-west of Savannah. The town, which in 1782 contained but three or four houses, in 1987 contained two hundred; it is on a fine large plain, at the foot of the first falls in the river, which in a dry seafon are four or five feet in height; and as it enjoys the best soil, and the advantage of a central situation between the upper and lower counties, is rising fast into importance. In the vicinity of this town is the remarkable large bank of oyster shells which we have had occasion before to notice.

SAVANNAH Savannah, the former capital of Georgia, stands on a high fandy bluff, on the south side of the river of the same name, and seventeen miles from its mouth. The town is regularly built in the form of a parallelogram, and, including its suburbs, contained, in 1787, two hundred and twenty-seven dwelling houses, one Episcopal church, a Presbyterian church, a Synagogue, and a court house. The number of its inhabitants, exclusive of the blacks, amounted at that time to about eight hundred and thirty, seventy of whom were Jews.

In Savannah, and within a circumference of about ten miles from it, there were, in the summer of 1987, about two, thousand three, hundred inhabitants. Of these one hundred and ninety-two were above fifty years of age, and all in good healih. The ages of a lady and her fix children, then living in the town, amounted to three hundred and eighty-five years. This computation, which was


actually made, serves to shew that Savannah is not really so unheal. thy as has been conimonly represented. '

; it is furets, about fired on the mai

SUNBURY. Sunbury is a sea port town, beautifully situated on the main be. tween Medway and Newport rivers, about fifteen miles south of Great Ogeechee river ; it is favoured with a safe, capacious, and very convenient harbour, defended from the fury of the seas by the north and south points of St. Helena, and South Catherine's islands, between which is the bar and entrance into the found. Several small islands intervene, and partly obstruct a distant view of the ocean; and, interlocking with each other, render the passage out to sea wind. ing, but not difficult. It is a very pleasant, healthy town, and is the resort of the planters from the adjacent places of Medway and Newport, during the fickly months. It was burnt by the British in the late war, but has since been rebuilt. An academy was established here in 1788, which, under an able instructor, has proved a very useful institution.

BRUNSWICK. Brunswick, in Glynn county, latitude 31° 10', is situated at the mouth of. Turtle river, at which place this river empties itself into St. Simon's sound. Brunswick has a safe and capacious harbour; and. the bar, at the entrance into it, has water deep enough for the largest vefsels that swim. The town is regularly laid out, but not yet built. Froin its advantageous situation, and from the fertility of the back country, it promises to be hereafter one of the first trading towns in Georgia.


FREDERICA. Frederica, on the island of St. Simon, is nearly in fatitude 31° 15'; it is one of the oldest towns in Georgia, and was founded by General Oglethorpe. The fortress was regular and beautiful, "constructed chiefly with brick, but is now in ruins. The town contains but few houses, which stand on an eminence; if considered with regard to the marsies before it, upon a branch of Alatamaha river, which washes the west side of this agreeable island, and forms a bay before the town, affording a fafe and secure harbour for veffels of the largest bürthens, which may lie along the wharf.


WASAINGTON. Wallington, the chief town in the county of Wilts, is situated in latitude 33° 22', about fifty miles north-weit of Augusta; it had, in 1988, a court house, gaol, thirty-four dwelling houses, and an academy, whose funds amounted to about eight hundred pounds sterling, and he number of students to between fixty and seventy.

LOUISVILLE. The town of Lonisville, which is designed as the future seat of government in this State, has been laid out on the bank of Ogeechee river, about seventy miles from its mouth, but is not yet built.

The population of this state in 1791 was as follows ;

[blocks in formation]
« AnteriorContinuar »