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empties into the Tennessee at the lower end of the Muscle thoals, The mouth of this creek is the center of a piece of ground, the dian ineter of which is five miles, ceded by the southern Indians at the treaty of Hopwell, on Keowee, to the United States, for the estab, lishment of trading posts.
This country furnishes many valuable articles of export, such as fine waggon and saddle horses, beef, cattle, ginseng, deer skins and furs, cotton, hemp, and flax, which may be transported by land 3 alfo iron, lumber, pork, and flour, which might be exported in great quantities, if the navigation of the Misfillippi were opened ; but there are few of the inhabitants who understand commerce, or ·are pofseffed of proper capitals ; of course it is badly managed : Jand jobbing engrosses too much of the attention of the inhabitants. The degraded state of commerce has rendered neceffary a general attention to home manufactures ; and it is to be hoped that the eyes of the people will soon be opened to their true interest, and agriculture, commerce, and manufa&tures, each receive proper aftention,
LEARNING AND LITERATURE. • The inhabitants of this district have not been inattentive to the interests of science. An academy and several grammar schools have been established; and a society, who stile themselves, “ A Society for promoting Useful Kuowledge:" it is of modern date, but much good is expected from it. A taste for literature is increasing among them.
The government is similar to that established by Congress in the territory of the United States, north-west of the Ohio. The governor is the executive, and,' in his absence, the secretary, and the governor and three judges the legislative power in the district.
The public revenue amolints to about five or fix thousand pounds, raised chiefly by a tax on Naves, lands, and horses..
INDIAN S. The Indian tribes, within and in the vicinity of this diftri&, are the Cherokees and Chicasaws. The Cherokees have been a warlike aud nume) Jus nation ; but by continual wars, in which it has been their destiny to be engaged with the northern Indian tribes, they were reduced, at the commencement of the last war, to about two
thousand thousand fighting men; fince which they have been reduced more than one half, and have become weak and pufillanimous.
The Chicasaws, of all the Indian tribes within the limits of the United States, merit the most from the Americans, having at all times maintained a brotherly attachment to them: they glory in fay. ing, that they never feed the blood of an Anglo-American. There is so great an affinity between the Chicasaw and Choctaw languages, that the common people can converse together, each speaking in his own dialect. They are a personable people, and have an openness in their countenances and behaviour, uncommon among favages. These nations say, they are the remnant of a great nation that once lived far to the west, which was destroyed by the Spaniards, for whom they still retain an hereditary hatred. Would it not be the policy of Congress to treat with thefe nations? and might not a reciprocad friendship be mutually serviceable to the Union and the Indians ?
· SITUATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES.
I HIS State is situated between 32° and 35° north latitude, and 4* and go west longitude from Philadelphia. Its length is two hundred miles, and its breadth one hundred and twenty-five. It is bounded on the north by North-Carolina, on the east by the Atlantic ocean, on the south-west and south by Savannah river, and a branch of its head waters called Tugulo river, which said rivers divide it from the State of Georgia. *
CLI M A T E. The climate of this State is different in different parts: along the fea coast, bilious diseases, and fevers of various kinds, are prevalent
* The boundary line dividing the two States of South-Carolina and Goorgia was long the subject of controversy ; the former claiming the lands lying between the Northa, Carolina live, and a line to run due west from the mouth of Tugulo and Keowee river ; the latter contended that the source of Keawce river was to be considered as the head of Savannah river.
For the purpose of settling this controversy, commissioners were appointed in April 3787, by the contending States, vested with full powers to determine the controverted boundary, which they fixed as follows:
“ The most northern branch or stream of the river Savannah, from the sea or mouth of such stream, to the fork or confluence of the rivers now called Tugulo and Kcowee, and from thence the most northern branch or stream of the said river Tugulo, till it in. tersects the northern boundary line of South-Carolina, if the said branch of Tugulo extend so far north, reserving all the islands in the said rivers Savannah and Tugulo to Georgia ; but if the said branch or stream of Tugulo does not extend to the north boundary line of South-Carolina, then a west line to the Miffissippi to be drawn from the head spring or source of the said branch of Tugulo river, which extends to the highest Dorthern latitude, shall for ever hereafter form the separation, limit and boundary bea taken the States of South-Carolina and Georgia,"
between July and October. The probability of dying is much greater between the 20th of June and the 20th of October, than in the other eight months in the year.
One cause of these diseases is, a low' marshy country, which is overflowed for the sake of cultivating rice. The exhalations from these ftagnated waters, from the rivers and from the neighbouring ocean, and the profuse perfpiration of vegetables of all kinds, which cover the ground, fill the air with moisture : this moisture falls in frequent rains and copious dews. From actual observation it has been found that the average annual fall of rain for ten years was fortytwo inches, without regarding the moisture that fell in fogs and dews. The great heat of the day relaxes the body, and the agreeable coolness of the evening invites to an exposure to these heavy dews. . The disagreeable effects of this climate, experience has proved, might in a great measure be avoided by those inhabitants, whose circumstances will adınit of their removal from the neighbourhood of the rice swamps to healthier situations, during the months of July, August, September, and O&tober ; and in the worst situations, by temperance and care. Violent exercise on horseback, but chiefly, expo. sure to the meridian rays of the sun, sudden showers of rain, and the night air, are too frequently the causes of fevers and other disorders. Would the sportsmen deny themselves, during the fall months, their favourite amusements of hunting and fishing, or confine themselves to a very few hours, in the morning or evening ; would the industrie ous planter visit his fields only at the same hours; or would the poorer class of people pay due attention to their manner of living, and ob. serve the precautions recommended to them by men of knowledge and experience, much fickness and many distressing events might be prevented. The upper country, situated in the medium between extreme heat and cold, is as healthful as any part of the United Statcs.
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SEA COAST, &c. The whole State, to the distance of eighty miles from the fea, is level, and almost without a stone. In this distance, by a gradual ascent from the sea coast, the land rises about one hundred and ninety feet. Here, if you proceed in a W. N. W. course from Char
leston, commences a curioully uneven country, presenting a prof· pect something like that of a high swelling sea, formed by a prodigious number of small fand hills. Some little herbage, and a few small pines grow, even on this foil. The inhabitants are but few, and have but a scanty subsistence on corn and sweet potatoes, which grow here tolerably well. This curiờus country continues for fixty miles, till you arrive at a place called the Ridge, one hundred and forty miles from Charleston. This ridge is a remarkable tract of high ground, as you approach it from the sea, but level as you advance north-west from its fummit. It is a fine high, healthy belt of land, well watered, and of a good foil, and extends from the Savannah to Broad river, in about 6° 30' west longitude from Philadelphia. Beyond this ridge commences a country exactly resembling the northern States. Here hills and dales, with all their verdure and variegated beauty, present themselves to the eye. Wheat fields, which are rare in the low country, begin to be common. Here Hea. ven has bestowed its blessing with a most bounteous hand. The air is much more temperate and healthful than ncarer the sea. The hills are covered with valuable woods ; the vallies watered with beautiful rivers, and the fertility of the soil is equal to every vegetable production. This, by way of distinction, is called the Upper Country, where are different modes and different articles of cultivation; where the manners of the people, and even their language, have a different tone. The land still rises by a gradual ascent ; each succeeding hill overlooks that which immediately precedes it, till, having advanced two hundred and twenty miles in a north-west direction from Charleston, the elevation of the land above the sea coast is found to be eight hundred feet. Here a mountainous country coinmences with the Tryon and Hogback mountains; the elevation of which, above their base, is three thousand eight hundred and forty feet, and above the sea coast four thousand fix hundred and forty. From the top of these mountains there is an extensive view of this State, North-Carolina, and Georgia : and as no object intervenes to obstruct the view, , a man with telescopic eyes might discern vessels at sea. The mountains west and north-west rise much higher than these, and form a ridge which divides the waters of Tennessee and Santee rivers,
* This State is watered by four large navigable rivers, besides a great number of smaller ones, which are passable in boats. The river Savannah washes it in its whole length from south-cast to north-west. The Edisto rises in two branches from a remarkable ridge in the inte. rior part of the State. These branches unite below Orangeburgh, which fands on the North Fork, and form Edifto river, which, having