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United States of America.
THIS third, which is much the largest division of the United
MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, KENTUCKY,
SOUTH:CAROLINA, and GEORGIA. This extensive division is bounded on the north by Pennsylvania and the Ohio river; on the west by the Millißippi; on the soạth by East and West Florida ; and on the east by the Atlantic ocean and the Delaware State. It is intersected in a N. E. and S. W. direction by the range of Allegany mountains, which give rise to many noble rivers, which fall either into the Atlantic on the east, or the Misfifa fippi on the west. From the sea coast, fixty, eighty, and in some parts an hundred miles back towards the mountains, the country, generally speaking, is nearly a dead level, and a very large propora tion of it is covered, in its natural state, with pitch pines. In the neighbourhood of stagnant waters, which abound in this level country, the inhabitants are fickly, but in the back, hilly and mountainous country, they are as healthy as in any part of America.
This diftri&t of the Union contains about two millions of inhabis. tants, of whom about fix hundred and forty-eight thousand are flaves. The influence of lavery has produced a very distinguishing feature in the general character of the inhabitants, which, though now discernible to their disadvantage, has been softened and melio. rated by the benign effects of the revolution, and the progress of liberty and huinanity.
MARYL A N D. This State was granted by a patent of King Charles the First, June 30, 1632, to George Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, in Ireland, * who had been obliged, on account of the French government, to abandon the province of Avalon, in Newfoundland, after having expended twenty-five thousand pounds in its advancement. .
The government of this province was by charter vested in the proprietary; but it appears, that he either never exercised these powers alone, or but for a short time; for we find, in 1637, that the freemen rejected a body of laws drawn up in England, and transmitted by his lordship, in order to be passed for the government of the province. In the place of thefe they proposed forty-two bills to be enacted into laws, by the consent of the proprietary: these were, however, never enacted, at least they are not on record.
The first emigration to Maryland consisted of two hundred gentle. men of considerable fortune and rank, with their adherents, chiefly Roman Catholics, who hoped to enjoy liberty of conscience under a proprietary of their own profession. They failed from England in November, 1632, and landed in Maryland the beginning of 1633. The Honourable Leonard Calvert, brother to Lord Baltimore, who was the first governor, very wisely and justly purchased, by presents of various goods, the rights of the Indians, and with their free consent took poffeffion of their town, which he called St. Mary's. The country was settled with so much ease, and furnished with so many conveniencies,' that emigrants repaired thither in such numbers, that the colony foon became populous and flourishing.'
In 1638 a law was passed, conftituting the first regular House of Assembly, which was to consist of such representatives, called bur
* A Copy of this patent may be seen by referring to Hazard's Historical Collections, page 327.
gesses, gesses, as should be elected pursuant to writs issued by the governor. These burgesses possessed all the powers of the persons electing them ; BUT ANY OTHER FREEMEN, WHO DID NOT ASSENT TO THE ELECTION, MIGHT TAKE THEIR SEATS IN PERSON. Twelve burgesses or freemen, with the lieutenant-general and secretary, constituted the Assembly or Legislature. This Assembly fat at St. Mary's.
Slavery seems to have gained an early establishment in Maryland, for an act of this Assembly describes “ the people” to conlist of all Christian inhabitants, “ Naves only excepted.” The persecuting laws which were passed by the Virginians, soon after this period, against the Puritars, made the latter emigrate in considerable numbers to Maryland, that they might enjoy, under a Popilli pro, prietary, that liberty of conscience of which they were deprived by their fellow Protestants,
In 1642 it was enacted, that ten members of the Assembly, of whom the governor and fix burgesses were to be seven, should be a House ; and if sickness should prevent that number from attending, the members present Mould make a House.
In 1644 one Ingle excited a rebellion, forced the governor to fly to Virginia for aid and protection, and seized the records and the great seal; the last of which, with most of the records of the province, were lost or destroyed. From this period to the year 1647, when order was restored, the proceedings of the province are ina volved in almost impenetrable obscurity.
In July, 1646, the House of Assembly, or more properly the burgesses, requested that they might be separated into two branches the burgesses by themselves, with a negative upon bills. This was not granted by the lieutenant-general at that time ; but in 1650, an act was passed dividing the Assembly into two Houses; the governor, secretary, and any one or more of the council, formed the Upper House; the delegates from the several hundreds, who now reprefent the freemen, formed the Lower House. At this time there were in the province but two counties, St. Mary's and the Isle of Kent, but another (Ann Arundel) was added the same session. This was during the administration of Governor Stone.
In this year there was also passed “an act against raising money without the consent of the Assembly.” It enacted, “ That no taxes shall be aleled or levied on the freemen of the province without their own consent, or that of their deputies, first declared in a General Assembly."
The printed words and early date of this Maryland act are worthy of particular notice. The acts of the General Assembly and governor were of the fame force in their own province as acts of parliament in England, and could not be repealed without the concurring assent of the proprietary or his deputy, with the other two estates.
In 1654, during Cromwell's usurpation in England, an act was passed restraining the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion. This must have been procured by the mere terror of Cromwell's power, for the first and principal inhabitants were Catholics, Indeed the power of Cromwell was not established in Maryland without force and blood flied. His friends and focs came to an open rupture, an engagement ensued, Governor Stone was taken prisoner, and condemned to be shot; this sentence, however, was not executed, but he was kept a long time in confinement.'
In March, 1658, Josiah Fendall, Esq. was appointed lieutenantgeneral of Maryland by commission from Oliver Cromwell; he diffolved the Upper House, and surrendered the powers of govern ment into the hands of the delegates.
Upon the restoration in 1660, the Honourable Philip Calvert, Esq. was appointed governor ; the old form of government was revived ; Fendall, and one Gerrard, a counsellor, were indicted, found guilty and condemned to banishment, with the loss of their estates ; but, upon petition, they were pardoned.
In 1689, the government was taken out of the hands of Lord Bal. timore by the grand convention of England; and in 1692, Mr. Copley was appointed governor by commission from William and Mary,
In 1692, the Protestant religion was established by law.
In 1699, under the administration of Governor Blackiston, it was enacted, that Annapolis should be the seat of government.
In 1716, the government of this province was restored to the proprietary, and continued in his hands till the late revolution, when, though a minor, his property in the lands was confifcated, and the government assumed by the freemen of the province, who formed the constitution now existing. At the close of the war, Henry Har. ford, Esq. the natural son and heir of Lord Baltimore, petitioned the legislature of Maryland for his estate, but his petition was not granted. Mr, Harford estimated his loss of quit-rents, valued at twenty-five years purchase, and including arrears, at two hundred and fifty-nine thousand, four hundred and eighty-eight pounds, five