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her energies to supply their wants, by the aid of the causes be brought unto the board of guardians, but let voluntary offerings of real charity, instead of by the every small matter be provided for by private charity. compulsory tax of poor-rates, as heretofore.
Such a division would very greatly aid the adminisThe new poor-law and union-workhouse system has tration of the new poor-laws, and be a considerable been objected to as prejudicial to both the Church and benefit to the poor, as the distress of the deserving the poor, by destroying that endearing bond of respect would be relieved in a much more desirable way than and affection which has ever existed between the at present. pastor and the poor of his flock. The parochial clergyman has very properly been regarded as the leader, guide, and dispenser of that true Christian charity, which has an equal reference to the necessi
DRUNKENNESS.. ties of both the body and soul. And as the ministry There is no case so truly and awfully deplorable as of that pastor will be found very defective, which that of a confirmed and habitual drunkard. A prey neglects the temporal wants of his people, so will any to the worst passions of our fallen nature, lust and system established for the relief of the poor be objec- anger, he is hurried onward to the commission of the tionable which tends to lessen the obligation of the most dreadful crimes, at which humanity shudders; clergyman to attend to the temporal wants of his without the power of asking himself, "What am I people. It will be found that the gain of a public and doing ?” Nay, should a friendly hand be interposed legal provision for the poor will but ill compensate to snatch him as “ a brand out of the fire," and arrest for the loss of the private and voluntary offerings and his mad career, he resents it as the intrusion of an kindnesses of the truly charitable, dispensed under enemy; and is ready to vent his fury, like some inthe influence of a Gospel ministry.
jured savage of the forest, on this new assailant. The Such, however, is not the character of the new
voice of persuasion and remonstrance are alike lost legislative measure for the relief of the poor : so far upon him ; he is “ like the deaf adder, that stoppeth from checking the bounty of private charity, its very her ear, and will not hearken to the voice of charmers, success depends upon its increase ; all that it aims to charming never so wisely' (Ps. Iviii. 4, 5). The only decrease, is the burden of a compulsory provision. hope that remains for this miserable and degraded Hence private benefactors, and the benevolent who creature is, that when at length he comes to himself, are actively engaged in the promotion of works of and is able to reflect upon the folly and madness of charity, are the most valuable coadjutors to the ad- his conduct, he will be ashamed of such criminal exministrators of the new poor-law. And should pure Cesses, by which he is sunk below the level of the benevolence increase and abound as it should in this beast, and will no longer indulge his vicious propenChristian country, it will very shortly provide for all sity. But, alas! this hope, reasonable as it may apthe necessities of the deserving poor: then their pear, has too often proved deceitful. The very nature reasonable complaints will cease, and contentment of the poisonous draught produces a craving appetite and gratitude will take the place of murmurings and for more; and when once the habit of indulgence has discontent, and once more union and peace and good- been formed, the greatest uneasiness is felt in the will will be restored between the different classes of
want of it; so that the deluded sufferer by his own society.
misconduct will rather undergo the severest penalties, Many reasons unite to make our union-workhouses and risk all the dreadful consequences of intemperwholly unfit asylums for the deserving: the distance
ance, than be without that cordial so grateful to his at which they are placed from most of the parishes present feelings, and now become, in his mistaken with which they are connected, removes their inmates
idea, almost necessary to his existence. Not that it far from their homes and from all that ought to be is absolutely impossible to reclaim the drunkard ; dear in social life-friends and neighbours; and above many happy instances are on record of the contrary;
all, it removes them from the watchful eye of their but the great difficulty, and we may add the improba- pastor, whose happiest employment must always be to
bility, of its being accomplished, when once the habit has administer to the wants of the poor of his flock by in- been formed, and the moral character become thereby fluencing the best feelings of the rich in their favour. depraved, should impress on us the importance, in
In my intercourse with the inmates of the work- the first place, of removing and lessening the temptahouse, as their chaplain, I have always endeavoured tions to ihe commission of this vice; and, secondly, of to keep up the feelings of endearment for home, and
putting difficulties in the way of practising it; so that, especially of respect and attachment to the clergy of
if we cannot banish intemperance from the land, and their respective parishes; as it appears very desirable drive it out of the country entirely, the evil may be at that the poor should continue to regard in the office least so limited and circumscribed as to hide its head of their clergyman the person of their friend. It will in darkness and obscurity, instead of stalking through be pleasing for the clergy to know, that I have always the length and breadth of the land, as at present, with heard their visits to the workhouse spoken of with a bold and unblushing face, even at broad noon-day. gratitude by their poor parishioners; and I trust by Drunkenness is, indeed, the curse of this country, such occasional visits of kindness such a feeling may the pest of society, the peculiar disgrace and stain of long be preserved.
Englishmen, which has brought shame upon us as Because the poor-laws do not achieve all that might a nation, and made us the scorn and reproach of be expected or wished by many, let it not be supposed foreigners, who have beheld with surprise and abhorthat they are of little benefit; since by them the state rence the gross extent to which this vice has become has taken upon itself the charge of the most difficult
common and babitual amongst us,-from the crowded part of the work—to provide for the undeserving, the slothful, and the vicious. The work which the state • From “ The Claims of Christian Philanthropy," &c. &c. has left to be done by the voluntary exertions of the
By Robert Whytehead, B.A., late Incumbent of St. Peter's, charitable is comparatively light and easy; for so the
Ipswich. London: Simpkin. Marshall, and Co., 1839, pp. 258.
The Essay to which the first prize was awarded by the Philancharge and management of the deserving poor is, thropic Society, Dec. 20, 1838. — The Essay, in the terms of the when compared to the others. The division of labour prospectus, consists of four sections : National religious educawhich the new poor-laws ought to make, should also
iion the imperative duty of a Christian government--Inordinato be considered as lessening the burden to each; as
competition in trade and worldly pursuits productive of cruelty
to animals - The baneful effects of intemperance, &c. --- The "when Moses chose able men out of all Israel,” to design of Christianity impeded by these evils. The author's assist him in judging the people—"the hard causes
reasoning is forcible, and well illustrated by facts. Important they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they
notes are appended to each section. The profits of the work to
go to the funds of that valuable institution, the Philanthropic judged themselves.” In other words, let the hard Society.
streets of our great metropolis, the chief city in the world, to the most retired village of our island king
The Cabinet. dom; and with justice have they reprobated the in
KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE.--Much cause as we consistence of a nation which boasts of her science have to praise God for our knowledge, we have as and philosophy, the land of arts and commerce, the urgent reason to bless him for our ignorance ; for in country of Bacon, Locke, and Newton, being given to a world of suffering and sin, how seldom, how very so degrading and besotting a practice, which takes seldom, would prescience and misery be disunited! away the use of the rational faculties, and deprives a
How often would the mother's heart be filled with man of the honour and prerogative of his nature. It sorrow, and her eyes with tears, if while she pressed need scarcely be added, that intemperance is directly her little one to her bosom, she could read in its opposed to the formation of a moral and religious peaceful and innocent countenance the trials, the character, and to all that culture of the mental facul- sufferings, and the wretchedness of the future man! ties and inward principles of action which is the How often, while the parent watches with joy the first object and business of moral and religious education; tottering footsteps of the child, would his spirit sink and which (in a former section) we have endeavoured within him, as that dark day passed in sad and sorto recommend and enforce, as that which it is the rowful anticipation before his eyes, when the course of great and important duty of the government to pro- nature should be inverted, and he should follow to the vide. So far is drunkenness from being compatible sepulchre the remains of one whom he fondly hoped with morality, that it saps the foundations of all would be the comfort and solace of his own declining rational instruction, and makes it worse than useless ; years ; or even worse than this, when he should live since, if it can be employed at all in such a state, it to see him a profligate and a reprobate, every early will only be in a way to injure and annoy, not to im- lesson forgotten, every good example cast aside, the prove and benefit another. So deeply convinced was fairest prospects of his youth for ever blighted, and the great Spartan lawgiver, Lycurgus, of the evil in- his maturer age dishonoured by a course of reckless fluence of this sin upon the national character, that dissipation, and hastening the footsteps of those who he taught the Lacedæmonians to give their children a gave him being with sorrow to the grave! But why disgust of it in their youth, in a manner sufficiently do we particularise ? Where is the festive scene barbarous, and in accordance with the tyrannical where is the social meeting — where even is the spirit of his age, and the character of the system which domestic and family circle, upon which a knowledge he adopted-namely, by making one of their Helot of the future (we speak only of the future which this bondsmen drink to intoxication, and exposing him, in world's horizon bounds and limits) would not cast a this state of brutal insensibility, to their scorn and deep and gloomy shadow ? Let, then, our praises abhorrence.. As Christians, we cannot approve of ascend to God, that all here below is to us unknown such an example, which is in direct contradiction to and uncertain that if afflictions and distresses, if the precepts of our holy religion, wbich teaches us to sorrows and disappointments, be gathering around "love our neighbour as ourselves ;" but we may learn our path, there is no darkening cloud to portend, from it, how truly disgraceful is the nature of this no ominous lowling of the elements to proclaim the offence; and it may lead us to warn our children coming tempest. But still louder and more heartfelt betimes to beware of its seductive influence, which should be our thanksgivings, that this uncertainty has creeps upon the mind before we are aware ; and when its boundary, this ignorance its limit, even though that once it has thrown its noose over the head of its un- boundary and that limit is the grave. The foreknowsuspecting victim, and entangled him in its fatal ledge which would be our bane and curse, as regards knare, usually leads him on from bad to worse, a the events of time, is our highest joy as respects those helpless and hopeless captive, to be given over to the of eternity. Of the better and nobler things which chains of ignominy and irretrievable ruin. From the God has prepared for all who love him, our heafirst recorded case of intemperance (Gen. ix. 21) to venly Father suffers no ignorance to dull our minds, the present time, this poisonous and deadly pest has no uncertainty to mar our prospect; and we, poor insinuated itself, like a viper hid in the grass, unseen children of the dust, whose eye can penetrate but little and unobserved, under a specious guise of social plea- deeper into the events of the day which passes over sure and innocent gratification; and thus has obtained us than the worm we tread upon, can see as angels an entrance into our bosoms, and fastening on its see, and know with a certainty that the highest archwretched victim with its envenomed fangs, has in- angel cannot emulate, events which shall befall us, flicted a deadly wound. We must therefore guard and blessings which await us, when time itself shall against the approaches of a sin, which, when frequently be no more. Yes, every true child of God is here a committed, may prove to be beyond the reach of a prophet, and has inherited the prescience of holy Job, remedy, and defy all our endeavours to effect a cure. and may say with the same assurance and the same
The greatest misconceptions have long prevailed humble confidence, I also "know that my Redeemer respecting the nature, necessity, and use of those liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon intoxicating liquors, which are the fertile sources of the earth ; and though after my skin worms destroy so much evil and misery to mankind. No doubt they this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God.”—Elisha, by have their proper service, which renders them, when the Rev. IIenry Blunt. judiciously applied, highly valuable ; even as the most
SPIRITUAL DEATH AND LIFE.- Now, touching our acrid and deadly poisons are found to constitute the
spiritual death and life, these sayings of the apostle materials of the most potent and successful medicines
should be thought upon: “We thus judge, that if which the skill of the apothecary has discovered.
one died for all, then were all dead ; and that Thus chemistry informs us, that all fermented and distilled liquors contain a portion, larger or smaller, of henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which
he died for all, that they which live should not pure spirit of alcohol, which is a pungent stimulant
died for them and rose again” (2 Cor. v. 14, 15). and slow poison, and of a nature utterly disqualified for nutriment, and calculated to produce the greatest
"God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love where
with he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, injury to the human frame.
bath quickened us together with Christ" (Eph. ii. 4,5). • If Lycurgus did not directly teach this practice, it was in " And you being dead in your sins, and the uncircumaccordance with the rest of his instructions, and grew out of cision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with
him, having forgiven you all trespasses" (Col. ii. 13). “ I am crucified with Christ; nevertheless I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of
God, who loved me, and gave himself for me" (Gal. ii. 20). From all which we may easily gather, that if by the obedience and sufferings of a mere man, though ever so perfect, the most sovereign medicine that could be thought upon should have been prepared for the curing of our wounds, yet all would be to no purpose, we being found dead when the medicine did come to be applied. Our physician, therefore, must not only be able to restore us unto health, but unto life itself; which none can do but the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, one God, blessed for ever. To which purpose these passages of our Saviour aiso are to be considered: “As the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself” (John, v. 26). “As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father ; so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me" (John, vi. 57). “ I am the living bread, which came down from heaven; if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world" (John, vi. 51). The substance whereof is briefly comprehended in the saying of the apostle: “ The last Adam was made a quickening spirit" (1 Cor. xv. 45). An Adam, therefore, and perfect man, must he have been; that his flesh, given for us upon the cross, might be made the conduit to convey life unto the world; and a quickening spirit he could not have been unless he were God, able to make that flesh an effectual instrument of life by the operation of his blessed Spirit. For, as he himself hath declared, “ It is the Spirit that quickeneth" (John, vi. 63); without it the flesh would profit nothing. Immanuel, by Archbishop Usher, edited by the Rev. J. N. Pearson.
CASTING OUR CARE UPON God.-The children of God have the only sweet life. The world thinks not so, rather looks on them as poor, discontented, lowering creatures; but it sees not what an uncaring, truly secure life they are called to. While others are turmoiling and wrestling, each with his projects and burdens for himself, and are at length crushed and sinking under them-for that is the end of all that do for themselves,-the child of God goes free from the pressure of all that concerns him, it being laid over on his God. If he use his advantage, he is not racked with musings, Oh! what will become of this and that? but goes on in the strength of his God as he may, offers up poor but sincere endeavours to God, and is sure of one thing, that all shall be well. He lays his affairs and himself on God, and so hath no pressing care; no care but the care of love, how to please, how to honour his Lord. And in this too he depends on him both for skill and strength; and, touching the success of things, he leaves that as none of his to be burdened with, casts it on God, and since he careth for it, they need not both care, his care alone is suffi. cient. Hence springs peace, inconceivable peace. “ Be careful for nothing, but in every thing by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds, through Christ Jesus" (Phil. iv. 6, 7). - Abp. Leighton.
When the loud thunder's voice is heard,
Is not for hand so weak;
The stones would forthwith speak:
With feeling still’d and deep;
I cannot choose but weep:
Silent in England's dark’ning hour! O, for some hand, bold, firm, and free,
To sweep the living lyre
With force of ancient fire !
I strike its feeble strings; But faintly, though the sounds ascend,
One chord responsive rings,
Its weakness hath a power
My country's threatening hour : 'Tis when the thunder's voice is heard, We hear the cry of fluttering bird.
Is closed like thee.
Their life reveal.
A loftier hope?
A star-like ray ;-So, in life's dark decline, When the grave's shadows are around me cast, My spirit's hopes may, like thy blossoms, shine
Bright at the last; And as the grateful scent Of thy meek flower, the memory of my name : Oh! who could wish for prouder monument,
Or purer fame ?
Poetry. NATIONAL BALLADS.-No. VI.
BY M. A. STODART.
(For the Church of England Magazine.) Ye bid me stay my rapid hand,
And check the rising strain ; Such themes, ye say, high powers demand,
And mine are wild and vain ;
The darkness of the grave
admitted into covenant with God, by the rite of cirWould wear no gloom appalling to the sight,
cumcision, when they are eight days old, as our Might hope's fair blossom, like thy flow'ret, brave children are admitted into a better covenant with him, Death's wintry night;
when they are infants, by the sacrament of baptism.
When the minds of these Jewish children are matured Knowing the dawn drew nigh
to understand their duties and obligations, they are Of an eternal, though a sunless day,
brought before the congregation to promise, in their
own persons, obedience to the law of God. Whose glorious flowers must bloom immortally,
Jewish parents are reckoned to be accountable for the Nor fear decay.
BERNARD BARTON. sins of their sons till they are thirteen years old, but
no longer; and therefore when boys arrive at their
thirteenth year, they are for the first time called up Miscellaneous.
to the law, that is, they stand at the altar in their
synagogue on the Sabbath-day, and read a chapter or Conversation of English Women.-Besides the more in the law themselves, and become accountable cases already described, there are some darker pas- for obedience to it, and are called Bar Mitzwah, or sages in human life, when women are thrown upon the sons of the statutes.” This was the custom with the actual charm of their conversation, for rendering more Jews in old time; and it is not unreasonably supposed alluring the home that is not valued as it should be. that when our Lord went up with his parents to Perhaps a husband has learned before his marriage the Jerusalem at the time of the feast of the passover, he fatal habit of seeking recreation in scenes of excite- | accompanied them for the purpose of conforming to ment and convivial mirth. It is but natural that such the customs and institutions of religion, and fulfilling habits should with difficulty be broken off, and that he the righteousness of that covenant into which, in his should look with something like weariness upon the early infancy, he had been admitted by the ordinance quiet and monotony of a fireside. Music cannot al- of circumcision. From a letter which I have received ways please, and books to such a man are a tasteless from a Jew, who is now a member and ordained substitute for the evening party. He may possibly minister of our own Church, I find that this custom is admire his wife, consider her extremely good-look- still continued amongst the sons of Israel now in the ing, and, for a woman, think her very pleasant; | days of their dispersion. “A Jewish boy," he informs but the sobriety of matrimony palls upon his vitiated me, "at the age of thirteen years is received into full taste, and he longs to feel himself a free man communion in the Jewish synagogue.
His father again amongst his old associates. Nothing would then puts his hand upon the son's head, and says that disgust this man so much, or drive him away so he, the father, is no more responsible for the sins of effectually, as any assumption, on the part of his his son, but that he must be answerable for them wife, of a right to detain him. The next most inju- himself." As the Jews, then, admitted infants into dicious thing she could do, would be to exhibit symp- covenant with God by the rite of circumcision, so do toms of grief, of real sorrow and distress,, at his we admit them into covenant with him, through Jesus leaving her; for whatever may be said in novels on Christ, by the sacrament of baptism: and, as the Jews the subject of beauty in tears, it is sure to be rendered bring their children, in mature years, to promise null and void by the circumstance of marriage having obedience to the covenant in their own names, so also taken place between the parties. The rational woman, do we bring the youthful members of our Church to whose conversation on this occasion is to serve her confirmation, to promise for themselves obedience to purpose more effectually than tears, knows better than the “everlasting covenant.” As the apostles, by the to speak of what her husband would probably consider "laying on of hands,” confirmed those who had been a most unreasonable subject of complaint. She tries converted and baptised, “and prayed over them," that to recollect some incident, some trait of character, or they might receive the Holy Ghost, and as St. Paul some anecdote of what has lately occurred within her has enumerated the "laying on of hands" amongst knowledge, and relates it in her most lively and “the principles of the doctrine of Christ,"-so must piquant manner. If conscious of beauty, she tries a we, taking them for our example, the Scripture for our little raillery, and plays gently upon some of her hus- guide, "follow their godly motions" in all things, and band's not unpleasing peculiarities, looking all the seek for the gift of grace, as the first converts sought while as disengaged and unsuspecting as she can. If for it, in answer to many prayers, and by the “laying his attention becomes fixed, she gives her conversation on of hands."- Rev. J. Downall. a more serious turn, and plunges at once into some theme of deep and absorbing interest. If her com
AIR.--Atmospheric air is a compound body; its panion grows restless, she changes the subject, and
elements are azote, oxygen, and carbonic acid. The again recollects something laughable to relate to him.
two former are simple gascs, the last is a mixture of Yet all the while her own poor beart is aching with
oxygen and carbon.
The proportion which these the feverish anxiety that vacillates between the ex
elements bear to one another in pure air is that which
is most conducive to health. tremes of hope and fear. She gains courage, however,
If the quantity of as time steals on, for her husband is by her side; and
oxygen is increased, the circulation is quickened, and with her increasing courage, her spirits become exli
symptoms of fever appear; if, on the other hand, the larated, and she is indeed the happy woman she has
proportion of carbonic acid is great, it diminishes the hitherto but appeared; for at last her husband looks
vital energy, produces headaches, languor, and even
death. at his watch, is astonished to find it is too late to join
When air is respired, its composition is his friends; and, while the evening closes in, he won
altered; the quantity of azote remains almost the ders whether any other inan has a wife so delightful
same, but a large portion of the oxygen disappears, and entertaining as liis own.*
and is replaced by carbonic acid.-Curtis on lealth. CONFIRMATION.---Let me draw your attention to a custom, similar to our rite of confirmation, existing
London: Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street, amongst the Jews. Their children, you are aware, are Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave-Maria Lane, St.
Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town * From “ The Women of England, their social Duties and 10
and Country. mestic Habits." By Mrs. Ellis, author of " The Poetry of Life,"
Fisher, Son, and Co., London; Quai de l'Ecole, Paris.-A sensible work, and meriting the attentive perusal of those for whose instruction it was more particularly written,
ROBSON, LEVEY, AND FRANKLYN, 46 ST. MARTIN'S LANE.
ON THE OMISSION OF THE DUTY OF
prayer to correspond with the morning sacriPRAYER IN THE MOSAIC LAW.
fice, evening prayer with the evening sacri
fice, and the additional prayer with the By the Rev. EDWARD HAWKINS, D.D.
additional sacrifice. And we find the sacred Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, and Prebendary of
writers themselves, both of the Old and New Rochester.
Testaments, alluding to the connexion beII.
tween sacrifice and prayer. Thus Hosea The actions and outward ceremonies of the calls upon Israel to render unto God the Mosaic worship might, in some measure, “ calves of the lips” (xiv. 2). Thus Saul is teach the duty of prayer, even without any spoken of as making supplication and sacriexpress commands to this effect in the writ- fice almost the same :* I had not made ten law. The offering of sacrifices and in- supplication unto the Lord; I forced myself cense, in particular, would answer this pur- therefore and offered a burnt-offering" pose very easily, and does in fact appear to (1 Sam. xiii. 12). And Solomon unites both have answered it to a considerable extent. in a passage already cited : “ The sacrifice Hence the Psalmist says, Let my prayer of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord; be set forth before thee as incense, and the but the prayer of the upright is his delight" lifting up of my hands (meaning, of course, (Prov. xv. 8; 2 Mac. i. 28, 29). And in the the listing up of the bands in prayer) as the New Testament St. Paul calls upon us“ by evening sacrifice.” For sacrifices, in fact, Christ to offer the sacrifice of praise to God corresponded with almost all the occasions continually” (Heb. xiii. 15); and St. Peter and offices of prayer and worship,--such as, describes all Christians as
describes all Christians as "an holy priestthe adoration of God's majesty, the invoca- hood to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable tion of his aid and blessing, confession of to God by Jesus Christ” (1 Pet. ii. 5). sins, petitions for pardon, assistance, or bless. But it is probable that the offering of inings, pleading his promises, dedicating our- cense was yet more particularly considered selves or our substance to his service, bless- as a figure or symbol of the offering of prayer. ing and praising his mercy and bounty. Accordingly we find, that it was the custom And whether the Israelites did or did not of the Jews, at the time of our Saviour, to from the first accompany the sacrifices with offer up their prayers in the courts of the actual prayers, the use of prayers in worship temple, when the priest was burning incense would thus in some measure be answered by within the temple itself. So David in the their sacrifices. And after a time, we are text likens his prayer to incense : and St. informed that they did accompany their John in the Revelation connects incense and sacrifices with express prayers; and further, prayer in a very remarkable manner ; "The when they could no longer offer sacrifices four and twenty elders,” he says, “ fell down because their temple was destroyed, they before the Lamb, having every one of them appointed public stated prayers to correspond harps and golden vials full of odours, which with the public stated sacrifices—morning are the prayers of saints" (v. 8). Again ; VOL. VII, -NO, CLXXVIII.
[London: Robson, Levey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.)