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was accomplished; reason and revelation were proved by the pasha's troops, which he has graphically deto agree; the Scriptures were displayed in their full scribed. light, and the bread of eternal life blessed and dis

The narrative, of which I can only give a brief outpensed to them: Christ's presence there was no longer who went to Cairo in 1828, and resided ten years in

line, was communicated to him by a French officer, needful; one glimpse of his individuality was graciously Egypt. vouchsafed, and " Jesus ceased to be seen of them.” M. there learnt that four expeditions, called

The injunction to Peter," when thou art converted, gaswahs, annually set out from Obeid, the capital of strengthen thy brethren," seems to have been the

Kordofan, towards the south, to the mountains inhagoverning motive of these two favoured friends, who,

bited by the Nubas negroes. The manner and object

of their departure are thus described :- “One day he unmindful of fatigue, of the gathering shades of even- heard a great noise; the whole village appeared in ing, and the length and dangers of the road, rose up confusion; the cavalry were mounted, and the infanthe same hour, bearing the glad tidings to the dis- try discharging their guns in the air, and increasing ciples at Jerusalem, and receiving from them the the uproar with their still more noisy hurras.

M. same joyful intelligence, " the Lord is risen indeed.”

- on inquiring the cause of the rejoicing, 'was Surely their labour of love was amply requited when

exultingly told, by a follower of the troop, "it is the

gaswah." "The gaswah! for what-gazelles ?" “ Yes, the presence of their beloved Saviour appeared again gazelles ; here are the nets, ropes, and chains; they amongst them, and bestowed the gentle salutation, are to be brought home alive.” On the return of the “ Peace be unto you."

expedition, all the people went out, singing and Why is this interesting narrative recorded? Is it dancing, to meet the hunters. M. went out also,

wishing to join in the rejoicing. He told Count not profitable both “ for doctrine and instruction in

Laborde he never could forget the scene presented to righteousness ?" It manifests the value of the Old

his eyes. What did he see? What gain did these Testament, and the watchful care with which at all intrepid hunters, after twenty days of toil

, drag after periods God never left himself without witness to his

them? Men in chains; old men carried on litters, justice, as well as to his love and mercy; exemplify

because unable to walk; the wounded dragging their

weakened limbs with pain, and a multitude of children ing, by typical sacrifices, that "the wages of sin is

following their mothers, who carried the younger ones death," and maintaining thereby a belief in the effi- in their arins. Fifteen hundred negroes, corded, cacy of a vicarious atonement; while the sure word naked, and wretched, escorted by four hundred soldiers of prophecy carried along its course the hope of a in full array. This was the gaswah— these the poor Saviour, who should be given to take away the sin of gazelles taken in the desert. He himself afterwards the world. The pride of intellect is humbled by find

accompanied one of these gaswahs. The expedition

consisted of four hundred Egyptian soldiers, one ing the inefficacy of reason, though assisted by hope, hundred Bedouin cavalry, and twelve village chiefs, until aided by the Spirit of God; how promises of with peasants carrying provisions. On arriving at mercy and peace may be read and studied, yet fail their destination, which they generally contrive to do tn warm the heart until enlightened by the Sun of

before dawn, the cavalry wheel round the mountain,

and by a skilful movement form themselves into a Rigliteousness. And the lesson is learned by the

semi-circle on one side, whilst the infantry enclose it conduct of the disciples at Emmaus, that when the on the other. The negroes, whose sleep is so proSaviour is known, not only by the hearing of the ear, found that they seldom have time to provide for their but by the eye of faith, our first duty is to endeavour safety, are thus completely entrapped. At sunrise to display him in his fulness to our companions along

the troops commence operations by opening a fire on

the mountain with musketry and cannon; immedithe way of life, our fellow-heirs to life eternal.

ately the heads of the wretched mountaineers may be We have the testimony of the new covenant to

seen in all directions, among the rocks and trees, as elucidate the prophecies and ordinances of the old, they gradually retreat, dragging after them the young and are promised the assistance of the Holy Spirit to and infirm. Four detachments armed with bayonets, convince of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: are then despatched up the mountain in pursuit of the while, therefore, we acknowledge with our lips, that fugitives, whilst a continual fire is kept up from the Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to sal

musketry and cannon below, which are loaded only

with powder, as their object is rather to dismay than vation, let us pray that our hearts may be endued with to murder the inhabitants. The more courageous a right judgment in all things, that we may neither natives, however, make a stand by the mouths of the wrest the sacred oracles to our own destruction, nor caves dug for security against their enemies. They remain ignorant of that blessed Saviour of whom they

throw their long poisoned javelins, covering them

selves with their shields, while their wives and childtestify.

ren stand by them and encourage them with their voices; but when the head of the family is killed,

they surrender without a murmur. When struck by MOHAMMEDAN SLAVERY.

a ball, the negro, ignorant of the nature of the wound, The pasha of Egypt professed not to know that his

may generally be seen rubbing it with earth till he

falls through loss of blood. The less courageous fly army had been employed in slave-hunts for the pur

with their families to the caves, whence the hunters pose of discharging arrears of pay; but he admitted he was aware that his officers had carried on the slave

expel them by firing pepper into the hole. The trade for their own account, "a conduct of which he

negroes, blind and suffocated, run into the snares by no means approved." The enterprise of a tra

previously prepared, and are put in irons. If after

the firing no one makes his appearance, the hunters veller, Count de Laborde, who has lately returned

conclude that the mothers have killed their children, from Nubia and Egypt, will enable me to introduce

and the husbands their wives and theniselves. When those of my readers who have not seen his work

the negroes are taken, their strong attachment to (Chasse aux Nègres, Leon De Laborde, Paris, 1838),

their families and lands is apparent. They refuse to to the scenes of cruelty and devastation perpetrated

stir, some clinging to the trees with all their strength, From "The African Slave-Trade," by T. F. Buxton, Esq. while others embrace their wives and children so closely, that it is necessary to separate them with the hand, whether in providence or grace, to be unable to sword; or they are bound to a horse, and are dragged trace his Father's footsteps. Even David was comover brambles and rocks until they reach the foot of pelled to say, “ Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the mountain, bruised, bloody, and disfigured. If the great waters; and thy footsteps are not known." they still continue obstinate, they are put to death. Yet

at the very time he said so, he devoutly and beauEach detachment having captured its share of the tifully adds, Thy way, O God, is in the sanctuary," spoil

, returns to the main body, and is gucceeded by Though it be a way of darkness, it is still a way of others, until the mountain, “de battue en battue," is holiness and truth. So, again, does the same Psalmist depopulated. If from the strength of the position, or declare of Israel of old, “They wandered in the wil. the obstinacy of the resistance, the first assault is derness in a solitary way; they found no city to dwell unsuccessful, the general adopts the inhuman expe- in.” For forty years was this trial continued to them, dient of reducing tbem by thirst. This is easily yet he adds, " God led them forth by the right way, effected by encamping above the springs at the foot that they might go to a city of habitation.” Though of the mountain, and thus cutting oti' their only supply the footsteps of the Lord be hidden, they are still of water. The miserable negroes often endure this within the sanctuary: though the way be long and siege for a week; and may be seen gnawing the bark wearisome, it is still the right way. Such, we scruple of trees to extract a little moisture, till at length they not to say, in every individual instance, shall we find are compelled to exchange their country, liberty, and it; and when we look down upon the road, as seen families for a drop of water. They every day approach from the habitations of the heavenly city, and trace it nearer, and retreat on seeing the soldiers, until the from the far-distant country from which we came, and temptation of the water shewn them becomes too observe all its trackless windings, and its now-unstrong to be resisted. At length they submit to have intelligible turnings, we shall clearly perceive that the manacles fastened on their hands, and a heavy none other could have carried us to the many mansions fork suspended to their necks, which they are obliged of our Father's house.—Elisha, by the Rev. Henry to lift at every step.

Blunt, A.M. The march from the Nuha mountains to Obeid is

CHRIST, AND NOT Peter, The Rock.- After all, it short. From thence they are sent to Cairo. There the pasha distributes them as he thinks proper. The

would be difficult to comprehend on what principle aged, infirm, and wounded, are given to the Bedouins,

the primacy of the popes could be established, even

were it granted that they were successors of St. Peter, who are the most merciless of masters, and exact their

and his successors in any sense of the word which due of hard labour with a severity proportioned to the

they might choose to adopt. If bishops, who preside probable short duration of the lives of their unhappy

where a Church was founded by an apostle, have on victims.

that account a title to precedence, the bishops of At Obeid alone 6000 human beings are annually Corinth, Thessalonica, Ephesus, and of other Churches dragged into slavery, and that at the cost of 2000

founded by St. Paul, had as good a right to precedence more, who are killed in the capture. The king of Darfur also imports for sale yearly 8000 or 9000

as the Bishop of Rome. Ay, but St. Paul, they say,

was not equal in rank to St. Peter, who was the prince slaves, a fourth of whom usually die during the fatigues

of apostles. Now St. Paul has himself positively of a forced march; they are compelled, by the scarcity denied such precedence. He says (2 Cor. xi. 5), that of provisions, to hurry forward with all speed. In

he" was not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles.” vain the exhausted wretches supplicate for one day's It is further argued, that St. Peter was the rock on rest; they have no alternative but to push on, or be

which the Church was built. So, indeed, he was. left behind, a prey to the hungry jackals and hyænas. He was the rock on which the Church of Jerusalem "On one occasion," says the narrator, “when, a few was built; the Church which was the mother of all days after the march of a caravan, I rapidly crossed Churches, and which, if the arguments of the Rothe same desert, mounted on a fleet dromedary, I manists were valid, might claim to be the mistress of found my way by the newly-mangled human carcasses,

all Churches. At this very day there is a patriarch of and by them I was guided to the nightly halt."

Jerusalem, who, though he possesses no patrimony Dr. Holroyd, whom I have already mentioned, in a

from St. Peter, has an infinitely stronger claim to the letter to me, of date 14th January, 1839, says, in primacy among Christians than the pope of Rome.-reference to these “gazouas" of the Egyptian troops, Bp. Herbert Marsh's Comparative View of the Churches " I should think, if my information be correct, that, of England and Rome. in addition to 7000 or 8000 taken captive, at least 1500 were killed in defence or by suffocation at the time of being taken; for I learnt that, when the blacks

Poetry. saw the troops advancing, they took refuge in caves; the soldiers then fired into the caverns, and, if this

THE BONDAGE OF ISRAEL. did not induce them to quit their places of conceal

(JUDGES, vi.) ment, they made fires at the entrances, and either stifled the negroes, or compelled them to surrender. On! Israel, dark was the doom of thy nation, Where this latter method of taking them was adopted, When the spoilers of Midian prevailid o'er thy it was not an uncommon circumstance to see a female

pride; with a child at her breast, who had been wounded by a musket-ball, staggering from her hiding-place, and

When thy children were scatter'd in wide desolation, dying immediately after her exit.”

And forced in the dens of the mountains to hide. They cried to the Lord to retract his just sentence :

He heard them; and soon, at his bidding, arose The Cabinet.

A prophet, to melt their hard hearts to repentance REASON AND FAITH.-Brethren, it is well to learn A champion, to humble the might of their foes, early in the spiritual life this great truth, that there are inany points in our earthly pilgrimage where reason

No outward destroyers our land are oppressing; must be content to follow faith blindfold - that there But, alas, we have foes who assault from within are depths in religion where the strongest reason will | How many, perchance, whom I now am addressing, infallibly be drowned, unless supported in the arms

Have struggled for years in the bondage of sin ! of faith--that the dearest child in God's redeemed family must often be satisfied, when he feels his Father's

• From Poems by Mrs. Abdy.

won ;

Ye are driven by sin from your homes of calm quiet- those peculiarities which are afterwards to be more fully

Ye fly to the world, poor impoverish'd slaves ; developed, but which cannot be excluded from even its first Yet degraded ye sigh in its scenes of wild riot,

lesson. We have nothing in common with Romanists As desolate Israel mourn'd in her caves.

or Socinians--we have not even the same Scriptures;

we cannot go a step, therefore, hand in hand, with Thus sunk in the thraldom of shame and dejection,

them ; nor, if we did, could any superstructure of spe

cial instruction remedy the unsoundness that must be To whom can ye turn-to the Lord will ye plead ?

inherent in the general foundation. Let those that are Will he send you a prophet to give you direction ? not of us follow their own notions in their own Will he send you a Gideon to help in your need ? schools; we will not interfere in any intolerant spirit

with their plans; but we do ask, we do demand, not to Ye need not a prophet to tell of your errors ;

be compelled to lower our high standard, by concesThe fearless, firm preachers of God's holy word sion or compromise, so as to suit the feelings or the Have dwelt to you oft on his love and his terrors

fancies of less Scriptural bodies,--still less to join in

maintaining, under the same roof, the teaching of that But the message was slighted, the warning unheard.

religion in resistance to which our sainted fathers

poured out their life-blood at the stake. Neither do Nor need ye a Gideon to strike off your fetters;

we desire that any power should stand forth to perse Your foe has been vanquish'd, your cause has been cute error ; but yet, in addition to the full liberty of

following out our own principles, we have a right to To sin ye were slaves, to the Lord ye were debtors, protest against the public authorisation of error. It Till your freedom was bought by the blood of his

is true, nationally as well as individually, that he Son.

that bids the enemy of Christ, God speed, will be

held partaker of his evil deeds. And for national And though sin will still strive to become your op

sin, national judgments may be expected. This

subject is, from circumstances of which you are all, pressor,

I believe, aware, invested just now with a thrilling Though ye struggle awhile in the tempter's dark interest. And though it becomes me not, in this snare,

place, to mix with the preaching of the Gospel any of Ye may triumph through faith in your blest Inter- ihe leaven of worldly politics, yet I am justified, as cessor,

your pastor, and I have, I am sure, the sanction of And return to the Lord by repentance and prayer.

my ecclesiastical superiors, to tell you, that if you

value the doctrines of the cross for yourselves, if you Then fear not, for God your redemption has spoken,

thank God for the Church-privileges you have enjoyed,

you are bound to do your utmost that the same preIn his Gospel of pardon, of love, and of peace; cious blessings be communicated to our posterity; that Nor need ye, like Israel, crave for a token

our land inay be saved from the pollution of supportThe fire from the rock, or the dew on the fleece. ing, of authorising, of paying for the dissemination of

the deadly superstitions of Rome, the heartless insaniThe cross of your Saviour is ever before you,

ties of liberalised infidelity. Such will be the result, The cross where he suffer'd in sorrow and pain;

unless churchmen now come forward to maintain and Its light may illume your dark ways, and restore you

carry out religious education on the principles of our

reformed and scriptural Church. To dwell with your God and his people again.

SPEARS. - On proceeding to the Dead Sea from And oh! may those prophets be blest in their mission, Jericho with several equestrians powerfully armed, we Who faithfully lead you that refuge to win;

were preceded by person of great bodily power with At the foot of the cross may ye kneel in submission,

a long spear, exclaiming in a wild howl“ Ollah, Ollah!"

This was not only an instrument of war, or "slaughterAnd your souls shall be freed from the bondage of

weapon," but carried as a mark of honour, and he sin.

galloped to and fro flourishing it with great dexterity. It appears to have been adopted so far back as the

time of the first kings of Israel, (1 Sam. i. 6; Judg. xvii. Miscellancous.

17 ; xxii. 6; xxvi. 7, 8; 2 Sam. xxi. 8); and on one

occasion the men of valour who used these amounted NATIONAL EDUCATION. - The baptismal engage- to 300,000 (2 Chron. xiv. 8). Those labourers also ment must be followed out, and must give a tone to employed in building the walls of Jerusalem were furthe training of succeeding years. This was especially, nished with them, to repel any attack on them during you are aware, at the administration of this sacrament,

the operation. We also find that a similar instrument impressed upon those to whom, as sponsors, the Church

was stretched out by Joshua against Jericho; and 200 delegated the care of her infant members. The chil

men also were armed with it, who accompanied horsedren were, they were told, to be virtuously brought men to bring the great apostle to Felix the governor up, " to lead a godly and a Christian life." I ask, (Acts, xxiii. 23). I own I never beheld this particular then, whether any general instruction would satisfy

instrument at any time in the holy land, without being this requirement? whether either the letter or the strongly reminded of the application of it by the spirit of that solemn charge would be fulfilled by com- Roman soldier to the side of our Lord when he was municating a few vague principles, held in common stretched out on the cross (John, xix. 34). -- Rae with the followers of a thousand sects, and leaving it Wilson's Travels through the Holy Land. to their choice, or a fortuitous classification, whether any more particular instruction should be additionally imparted? No, no; the baptismal covenant takes a

London : Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street, wider range ; it prescribes a uniform plan, to be con

Portman Square ; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave-Maria Lane, St. sistently followed, comprehending in its very germ all Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town

and Country. • From "Baptism into the name of the Trinity, an argument for early Religious Instruction : a Sermon, preached May 20, in aid of the Hampstead National Schools, by the Rev. John Ayre, M.A., Minister of St. John's Chapel, and Domestic Chaplain to the Earl of Roden. Published by request. Shaw, Hampstead."



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notions of God, however imperfect or corON THE OMISSION OF THE DUTY OF

rupted, would, after their manner, join with PRAYER IN THE MOSAIC LAW.

the Psalmist, in addressing him, "O thou By tue Rev. Edward HAWKINS, D.D.

that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, and Prebendary of come” (Ps. Ixv. 2) Rochester.

But if these are our sentiments concernI.

ing the duty of prayer to the Almighty, we We can scarcely conceive the thought of a should be exceedingly surprised if we found religion without prayer; for we are accus- a religion certainly proceeding from God tomed to prayer from our very infancy; we himself

, and yet not enjoining prayer as a regard prayer to the Almighty as the first religious duty, nor promising a blessing upon and the last, and the most frequent and con- its observance. To say that this is precisely stant of all our religious duties. We have true of the law of Moses, as Moses gave it the highest example to guide us to this duty; to the Israelites, would be asserting too and the most express, as well as the highest much; but it is true of the Mosaic law to a authority for its observance. And, in fine, very remarkable degree: and it may not be the duty of prayer appears to us, no doubt, useless to consider the apparent omission of most natural, and reasonable, and exactly the duty of prayer in the Mosaic law, and to suited to the condition of a dependent crea- observe the state of the fact itself, and the ture, much more of fallen, weak, and sinful reasons for the omission. creatures. Nay, the duty of prayer appears

As to the state of the fact, it is not true 80 reasonable not only to us, who have been that the books of the law contain no inblest in the acknowledgment of Christianity, junctions to offer prayer to God; but yet but, it might be almost said, to all men, that there are not, I believe, more than three the very heathen addressed prayers to their

cases in which prayer is expressly enjoined, gods, observing, upon the subject, that to

The first is a command to offer up prayers to sacrifice victims without prayer seemed im- God at the end of the tithing in every third proper and irreverent towards the gods; and year (Deut. xxvi. 13, 14, 15); where, after hence accordingly they had various forms of a profession of obedience, the form of prayer supplication, deprecation, and commendation; is appointed : “ Look down from thy holy and some unbelievers in Christian countries, habitation, from heaven, and bless thy people who have not persuaded themselves that the Israel, and the land which thou hast given Almighty would be moved by our prayers,

us, as thou swarest unto our fathers; a land have nevertheless thought prayer a useful that floweth with milk and honey." And and reasonable service, from its very in- perhaps this is the only instance in the whole fluence on the heart of him who offered it. law in which prayer is implicitly enjoined as In a word, almost all who have had any

a duty of general or extensive obligation.

For the two other instances relate to par• Bampton Lecturer for 1840,

ticular cases and persons; one is the comVOL. VII.-NO. CLXXVII.

(London: Robson, Lerey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.]


mand (Deut. xxi. 7, 8) enjoining the elders the publican shews that the Jews were acof the city, next to the place in which a customed to pray separately: and before the murder had been committed by some un- time of the Baptist the people were accusknown hand, to make an expiation with this tomed to pray in a body at the temple ; for prayer : « Our hands have not shed this whilst Zacharias was in the temple burning blood, neither have our eyes seen it. Be incense, " the whole multitude of the people merciful, O Lord, unto thy people Israel, were praying without at the time of incense" whom thou hast redeemed, and lay not inno- (Luke, i. 10). And we can carry this praccent blood unto thy people of Israel's charge." tice of prayer among them much farther And the remaining instance, if it can be pro- back, without looking to any other authority perly called an instance of prayer, is the pre- than that of the Scriptures themselves. Thus scribed form of words in which Aaron and we have many recorded instances of prayer his sons were commanded to bless the people: among the children of Israel, as in the in“ The Lord bless thee, and keep thee; the stance of Daniel, whose constant practice it Lord make his face to shine upon thee, and was to pray in his chamber towards Jerusabe gracious unto thee; the Lord lift up his lem three times a-day; of Elijah, the efficacy countenance upon thee, and give thee peace” of whose prayers is held forth in the New (Numb. vi.).

Testament for our encouragement; of HezeIn this case the Lord promises that he kiah, Solomon, David, Samuel, and other “ will put his name upon the children of eminent persons, whose devotion is someIsrael, and bless them;" and, after the ex- times a model for ours-sometimes, as in the piation of the uncertain murder, ending with book of Psalms, forms the very substance of the prayer above mentioned, he promises that

our prayers. “ it shall be forgiven them.” And this may We know further that this practice was not be called, in some measure, promising a bless- confined to prophets or eminent men; witness ing upon these prescribed prayers. But be- Hannah's prayer (1 Sam. i.). Isaiah speaks sides this, no blessing is promised to prayer in of the practice of all the people of Judah : the law; and, after all, the injunctions to pray “When ye spread forth your hands, I will are not general commands, not suited at least bide mine eyes from you ; yea, when ye make to all persons at all times. For of the three many prayers, I will not hear ; your hands instances which have been mentioned, one are full of blood” (i. 15). And before that applies only to the priests; another belongs time Solomon had not only told the people to an occasion which might never happen to expressly that “the prayer of the upright was many an individual throughout his whole the delight of the Lord" (Prov. xv. 8), but he life; and the third, which is the most general, evidently supposes, in his remarkable prayer is only applicable every third year. And at the dedication of the temple, that it would even the command does not extend to all the be the practice of all faithful Israelites, and people ; for the whole tribe of Levi had no even of the stranger who should join himself tithes to present, and only the males in other to Israel for the Lord's sake, to lift up their tribes had occasion to present them.

prayers to the Almighty, praying towards Now, if this is the state of the fact, this that house which he had built; and he entreats approaches very nearly to an entire omission the Lord of heaven to "hear their prayer and of the duty of prayer, or of a blessing upon it, their supplication" (1 Kings, viii.; 2 Chron. vi.) among the injunctions and promises of the I do not recollect that the Scriptures give Mosaic law, as Moses himself delivered the us any account much earlier than this of the law. And we at once perceive the immense practice of prayer, as observed by the people difference between the law and the Gospel in of Israel. But we learn from uninspired this remarkable respect.

writers that they were accustomed to acBut before we look to what the Gospel company their sacrifices and offerings with enjoins and promises respecting the duty and prayers; and the forms of these prayers, privilege of prayer, let us notice two or three confessions, deprecations, and consecrations, circumstances which may tend to lessen our have come down to us; but how early they surprise at the omission of the law, so far as were employed, is not, I believe, exactly it existed; and some of which have not known. But in all probability these prayers, always been sufficiently regarded by writers or others similar to them, were offered up at on the subject. In the first place, we know, a very early period of their history. Samuel, from Scripture, that the Jews, in the time of we know, accompanied a sacrifice with prayer, our Saviour, were not ignorant of the obliga- and that at the express desire of the people

On the contrary, some of of Israel; and even in the books of Moses the disciples of Jesus entreated him “ to themselves, though the practice of prayer is teach them to pray, as John also taught his not commanded (except in the three instances disciples." The parable of the pharisee and already mentioned), yet the propriety of

tion to prayer.

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