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honour of his name, to advance the interests, follow his father's profession, and returned to Glasof his kingdom. If we rejoice to look back, as

gow to complete his studies at the University. Here, Abraham rejoiced to look forward to his day; Greek or Latin author was his constant companion.

it is said, le applied with so much ardour, that a if he is to us, as he was to the Psalmist, all By his father's persuasion, he embraced the profession our salvation and all our desire,-then, as- of the law, although his own feelings were in favour suredly, we shall be fired with a holy zeal to

of the Church. A Greek Testament was always to be

found at his bedside. hasten that time, when from the rising even to

Having served the usual term of apprenticeship, he the going down of the sun his name shall be became a writer to the siguet in 1790, but was subsegreat among the heathen ; the prelude of that quently admitted advocate in 1795. The kindred day when he shall appear in glorious majesty employment of the bar appeared to offer more leisure, to judge both the quick and the dead. Alas,

and a mode of life better corresponding with the

habits and pursuits of a man of letters. He accordour lukewarmness in this particular may ingly gave it the preference, and spent in it the greater easily be traced to the little value that we part of his succeeding life. Without being ever very affix to the knowledge which we possess of Lighly employed, he soon attained a respectable share God's

of practice, which allowed him at once leisure and purposes of mercy in his Son. It is be

competence. His poetical fancies were, meanwhile, cause we do not estimate aright the blessings not neglected, and several pleasing sketches of the of redemption, that we seek not to impart a months, afterwards collected in the “Rural Calendar," knowledge of them to others; it is because appeared under a fictitious signature in the Kelso

Mail. we are not constrained by the love of the Re

In the spring of 1802, Mr. Grahame married the deemer, that we feel so little interested for the daughter of Mr. Richard Grahame of Annan, in Dumwelfare of our fellow-men; and it becomes us friesshire. His first poctical production was a tragedy to consider upon what principle we can lay did not ontain, nor perhaps merit, any great share of

on the subject of Mary Queen of Scots; " but it claim to be regarded as Christians, if we are neither anxious that the glory of the Redeemer popularity.” Many parts of it were distinguished by

aftershould be advanced, or the blessings of his wards made his poems so much admired; but a merit salvation be made known; if, while the fields so little appropriate could not save a piece which are white unto the harvest, we send not forth

wanted the peculiar requisities of dramatic excellence.

It is always, with the right thinking, a matter of re. labourers into these fields ; if, while the cry gret when poetical talents are exercised in dramatic of the heathen is the entreaty of the man of compositions; and the non-success of the tragedy in Macedonia to St. Paul, we send not over question may have been of great importance to Dir. and help them ;-for, to use the words of Dr.

Grahame, Who that knows any thing of the true Johnson, "He that voluntarily continues ig- interested in the well-being of society, can fail to

character of theatrical representations, and is at all norant is guilty of all the crimes which igno- lament that talents should be wasted in the production rance produces; as to him that should ex- of that which may prove detrimental to the spiritual

welfare of thousands? tinguish the tapers of a light-house might

Mr. Grahame's most important work was The justly be imputed the calamities of ship- Sabbath,” which he undertook after a considerable wreck."

interval, and his occupation in it was studiously concealed, even from his wife. To avoid the observation

of his friends, his publisher and he met at different Biography.

taverns. The work appeared in 1804. He took a

copy home, and placing it on the parlour table, he TIIE REV. JAMES GRAIIAME,

soon found his wife reading it, and he continued to

walk up and down the room until Mrs. Grahame exAuthor of "The Sabbath."'+

claimed, “Ah, James, if you could but produce a Among those who have added to the stores of poesy

poem like this !") in Scotland, few names are more worthy of honourable The success of “The Sabbath" induced Mr. Grahame mention than that of the subject of the present memoir. to undertake another work; and in a year or two afterAn ardent admirer of the beauties of nature, and im- wards he published “ The Birds of Scotland,” with bued with a strong religious feeling, his poems can other poems; which, however, did not become equally scarcely fail to impress the heart; hile the peculiarly popular. It was composed

the retirement of Kirk. painful circumstances of his early removal, and the hill. “These poems,” says a reviewer, “bear nearly disappointments he met with, add a melancholy in- the same character with that of The Sabbath,' which terest to his biography.

has obtained for Mr. Grahame so ample a share of Mr. Graham was born at Glasgow, April 22, 1765, celebrity. They display the same delicacy, intimate where his father was a respectable writer, or solicitor. acquaintance with nature, and the same feeling and Having been educated at the public grammar-school, amiable cast of mind; and they have also the same he was led by bis situation and connexions to the faults of languor and extreme minuteness.” pursuits of business ; and as several of his brothers Mr. Grahame's health had now considerably dehad followed the employment of the law, his friends clined; and he felt inadequate to undergo the labour turned their views for him to those manufacturing and fatigue of the bar. His passion for rural tranpursuits which had brought such an accession of wealth quillity and a life of contemplation, joined to his feelto that quarter of Scotland. He was accordingly ings of devotion, led him to regret that he had not placed with a manufacturer at Paisley. The occupa- originally devoted himself to clerical pursuits. Altions in which he was now necessarily engaged, were though he was now somewhat advanced in life, it litile suited to his taste. Ile resolved, therefore, to appeared not too late to make the change, as he posHaving fully resolved to enter the English Church,

sessed a small independence, which would enable bim • Letter to Mr. Drummond. + See " Lives of Sacred Poets," by R. A. Willmot, Esq.;

to support his family during the interval of expectBiog. Notice in Scots Mag. 1811, &c,


SKETCHES FROM A TRAVELLER'S he proceeded to Chester, and from thence to London,

PORTFOLIO. where he was ordained by Dr. Bathurst, bishop of Norwich, May 28, 1809; his lordship being induced,

No. XII.-The Brand Strasse. by the consideration of his merits and qualifications, to dispense with the attendance at one of the English

I was sojourning a short time, during the past sumuniversities. While residing on a curacy at Skipton

mer, in the ancient city of Strasbourg. Having sallied Mayne, in Gloucestershire, he became a candidate for out one bright morning for an early walk, I entered, at the ministry of St. George's Chapel, York-place, Edin- no great distance from the glorious cathedral, which burgh ; but was unsuccessful. He went to Durham,

was always the object of chief attraction to me, a windin the hope of obtaining a minor canonry; but here, also, he was disappointed ; and after officiating three

ing darkish street. Few persons were there-permonths as sub-curate in the chapelry of St. Margaret, haps it was not much of a thoroughfare, or perhaps it he was appointed curate of Sedgfield, by the rector, the was too soon in the day for many of the inhabitants to Rev. George (afterwards Lord Viscount) Barrington, be stirring. I passed the Hotel-de-Ville, which apnephew of ihe bishop of the diocese. The indisposi- peared quiet and still, and next a military station, by tion under which Mr. Grabame laboured baffled the power of medicine to remove : it increased with such

the entrance of which a small party of soldiers were rapidity, that he was induced to return to Edinburgh; | lounging, and then I came to the Prefecture. The where, at the house of his only surviving sister, Mrs. gates of the court-yard stood wide open, and so I went Archibald Grahame, he received all the affectionate in. But there was not a soul there to be seen. The attentions which the melancholy state of his health Prefecture itself is a large, almost semicircular buildrequired. He had constant oppression of the head, and swimming before his eyes. Hoping that the air of

ing, looking shabby and dull. But in front of it there his native town might be more salutary than that of

were a number of acacias in full flower, throwing their Edinburgh, he set out for Glasgow, accompanied by his

tall heads and graceful foliage into the clear morning wife.. " Though very ill when he departed,” writes sky, and affording shelter to the early songsters who his friend, " and aware of his danger, he did not ima- carolled their welcome to the returning day. Scarcely gine his dissolution so near; but was animated with

any other sounds met my ear; and it seemed as if, in the idea of visiting the scenes of his early days and happiest recollections. He even hoped to preach in

the midst of a crowded city, I had found the stillness his native town, and took two sermons for that pur

and solitude of a desert. I thought that this could not pose, the subjects of which bear a striking analogy to have always been so; for in the stirring times of war, not the situation of their author ; the text of thein being,

so long gone by, doubtless the tramp of horse and the O Death, where is thy sting ?' The victory, indeed,

tread of men had hurried over the spot where I was was soon to be his. He became worse by the way; and two days after, having arrived at White Hill, near

standing. Doubtless the bustle of authority, and the Glasgow, the residence of his eldest brother, he expired concourse of the people, had often filled that court-yard, on the 14th of September, 1811, in the forty-seventh when the great city had heaved, as it were, with the year of his age."

news of some victory, or the dread of some approachIf Grahame had produced nothing but The Sabbath ing foe, or the tumult of intestine dissension. But my Walks,' his name," says Mr. Willmott, “would not have been written in water.' The sounds and colours

thoughts were soon carried farther back. For here, of the varying seasons seem blended with his verse. in this silent spot-here had once ascended the smoke

His Biblical Pictures' are less open to objection and spiry flames of a devouring fire-here had rethan almost any paraphrases of Scripture I happen to sounded the groan and the shriek of many victims remember. The simple grandeur of the original is

consumed in that blazing furnace - here had risen the generally preserved; and the illustrations occasionally introduced are appropriate to the subject."

wild execrations of an infuriate multitude, thrusting “An affecting record of his last hours," observes

men, and women, and children into the flames, and Mr. Willmott, " was contributed by a contemporary gloating over the spectacle of their torments. For journal. After his tongue,” concludes the writer, this was the Brand Strasse, or Fire Street; and here, “could no longer give utterance to his thoughts, his

where the Prefecture now stands, two thousand Jews looks of tenderness and benignity towards the friends who surrounded his sick-bed, unequivocally proved

had been murdered in one large fire. that his heart still glowed with its accustomed feel.

I pictured to my mind the scenes of that woful ings; that the amiable and gentle virtues which time. I could alınost imagine that I saw the sad prothrough life adorned his character, contributed to sup- cession, the dark and frowning brows of the men, and port and soothe him in his latest moments." There is

the frantic grief of the delicate females, and the reevery reason to believe, that the ground of Mr. Grahame's hope and confidence, his peace and composure

morseless rage of the savage executioners; and my at the last, was not his amiable and gentle virtues :

thoughts wandered over the various circumstances of these he possessed indeed; but they were not the sure the tragedy. The fanatic sect of the Flagellants had foundation in which he trusted. His writings prove first arisen in the thirteenth century in Italy, whence that he had a better confidence, and a more scriptural it diffused itself through most other parts of Europe. hope ; and that he felt supported by that Saviour, in whose service he was for a short time permitted to

Then-for it is the property of enthusiasm to exhibit minister.

M. irregular bursts of zeal, rather than a steady consistent

flame-then it had become well nigh extinct, till about the year 1319 the spirit of this delusion was again kiniiled. The companies assembled twice a day, and having stripped off their garments, they whipped themselves before the people with scourges loaded with nails and spurs. Multitudes of all ranks and ages, and of both sexes, joined in the horrid rites, filling the air with dreadful shrieks, and, looking towards hea

ven with a distracted countenance, they sadly and invoked Heaven's wrath upon the Jews. The father, dolefully offered up their prayers. Their worship re- who looked in silent anguish around his desolate sembled that of the priests of Baal, but their temper home, was nerving his resolution to exact justice, as was more bloody, and their acts more disastrous, even

en he called it, from the Jews. O, what an inconsistent than theirs. For they read aloud at their meetings a thing is the soul of man; and how near are the exletter, which they said an angel had brought to them, tremes often brought of pity and merciless cruelty, in which God commanded them to undergo their ma- of affection and unrelenting hatred! The Jews were cerations, that they might relieve the souls that were deemed guilty of poisoning the wells and fountains of in purgatory, and stop the miseries that then devas- water, and the torrent of popular rage burst vehemently tated Germany. The next step was, of course, to en- out against them. In some places, the wildest exdeavour, with such weapons as fury could put into cesses of punishment were inflicted on them ; and their hands, to rid the world of those whom they generally they submitted unresistingly to their fate. deemed to have polluted it. The people of Spires In Mayence, however, they rose against their perseand Strasbourg, and several other cities, had been cutors ; but the abortive effort only aggravated and drawn into this fraternity; and doubtless the unhappy extended their calamities. I can vividly conceive the Jews, long accustomed to pay the penalty of public confusion and fear that reigned in Strasbourg. I can calamity and public excitement, viewed with appre- imagine the working of men's minds before the storm hension the darkening cloud. Their wealth was, as actually broke forth, and the signs of hate which much as possible, concealed under the guise of po- scowled on the brow and glared from the eye, or verty, and collected into the smallest compass, dropped in smothered imprecations from the tongue order that, on the shortest notice, they might be able of the people, as they walked in misery through their to ffee. But, alas, where could they find refuge ? The half-depopulated streets, and passed the habitations of earth was armed against them, and the curse of God the detested race, or discovered a Jew stealthily and and the enmity of man seemed alike to press heavily fearfully gliding along a narrow alley to his insecure upon the branded race. Was outrage and torture a home. It was manifest that the thoughts of murder likely means to win them over to Christ? No; in the would on the first pretext be displayed in deeds. And form of Christianity displayed before their eyes, they it is likely the wail of grief for some specially afflicting could not recognise a religion proceeding from a just bereavement, pointed, perhaps, with frenzied reproaches and merciful God; and the dread of the tormentor, against some known or neighbouring Israelite, gave the though it might force some of them to play the hypo-signal of the tumult. I can almost see the dense crowds crite, and outwardly profess the name of Jesus, yet assembling, while the Jews bar hastily their doors, fostered more surely in their hearts their inextin- and strive to secure their most valuable effects. Now guishable hatred of the crucified man of Nazareth. they feel the accomplishment of that heavy prediction,

In various places the passions of the people, urged “ The Lord shall scatter thee among all people; and by the madness of the Flagellants, had broken forth among these nations shalt thou find no ease, neither into murder. In Frankfort, and other cities, the shall the sole of thy foot have rest : but the Lord shall Jews were massacred ; and at Strasbourg, while yet give thee there a trembling heart, a failing of eyes, unmolested, their hearts were failing them for fear, and sorrow of mind; and thy life shall hang in doubt and for looking after those things that were coming before thee, and thou shalt fear day and night, and upon them. In that miserable year, too, a plague shalt have none assurance of thy life: in the morning wasted Europe. From city to city, and province thou shalt say, Would God it were even ! and at even to province, and kingdom to kingdom, the pesti- thou shalt say, Would God it were morning! for the lence stalked on. The grey hairs of the aged were fear of thine heart, wherewith thou shalt fear, and for brought down in sorrow to the grave, as the blooming the sight of thine eyes, which thou shalt see.” How youth and the beautiful maid fell like corn before must the daughters of Judah, when they heard the the reaper's sickle. There is nothing which more approaching shout of the destroyers, have mourned touchingly exhibits the power and judgment of God over the misfortunes of their race! how must their than the rapid march of plague. It is true that in desires have gone forth to their own lovely land, battle as many may fall in as short a space; but there where their fathers dwelt in peace and blessedness, the hand of man is seen at work, each destroying his each man beneath his vine and his fig-tree, none darfellow; whereas in plague the boasted power of man is ing to make them afraid ! And their recollections of helpless, and the hand is known to be that of God. the ancient glory of Zion must have embittered the fate And yet, so stubborn is the human heart, that even of the unhappy exiles. No deliverer interposed to when smitten, it will not humble itself, nor learn the protect them, no prodigy, as of old, deterred their plainest lessons which God's judgments are intended enemies from the full satiation of their vengeance. to teach. The fire may devastate, and the stormy Jehovah had given up his people, so that they drank wind may rend, and the eartlıquake may overthrow; the cup of trembling even to the dregs. but it is the still small voice alone of his Spirit which Every house was speedily plundered, and a huge reveals him to the soul.

pile was made of the materials. Troops of victims The Jews, it may be thought, died in less numbers were hurried through the streets towards the fatal than other persons by the plague. Perhaps, hunted spot; young and old, rich and poor, were thrust toas they were from society, they were less exposed to the gether. And then the pile was lighted. Fiercely did contagion. And then a diabolical spirit of vengeance the flames ascend, curling round the shrinking bodies was roused against them. The bereaved mother, it was made to devour; and loud were the shouts of who had wept over her children's agonies and death, 1 derision and hatred that, on every fresh arrival of captive Jews, drowned even the wail of those that the Terrumungalum Talook of Madura. On the east were enduring the agonies of death. Two thousand by Ramnad, on the south by the sea-coast, and on the Hebrews perished in that fire.

west by the great chain of mountains, covered with From the time of this terrible execution, no Jew

forest, which separates it from Travancore.

The extreme length of this province from north to was allowed to live within the walls of Strasbourg. south is 110 miles, and its average breadth from east They might enter the city in the daytime; but every to west 40 miles, exclusive of the hills and forest. It evening, at a fixed hour, a horn was blown from the contains 4403 square miles. The country is diversicathedral-tower as a signal for their departure into

fied with paddy, cotton, and dry-grain fields, and is the suburb appropriated to them. Now, however, their

exceedingly fertile, especially the lands dependent on

the Taumbrapurney, Sittar, and other rivers; these condition is changed, and they live in wealth and

furnish two abundant harvests in the year. honour where their forefathers were massacred. I The great chain of hills denominated the Ghauts retired slowly from the Brand Strasse, musing on the traverses more than 100 miles, in dividing the profuture destinies of that remarkable people. For vinces of Tinnevelly from Travancore. Cape Como

rin, the southernmost point of this province, separates doubtless God will visit again his inheritance, and

the coast of Coromandel from the coast of Malabar: yet will ransom Israel. " Thou shalt arise and have

the eminences are covered with clouds for eight or mercy upon Zion; for the time to favour her, yea, nine months in the year. Tinnevelly is considered a the set time, is come. For thy servants take plea- hot country; but yet it has its advantages, as it partisure in her stones, and favour the dust thereof. So cipates of the monsoons of the Malabar coast partially, the heathen shall fear the name of the Lord, and all

so as to render the heat moderate, compared with that

In the kings of the earth thy glory."


other adjacent districts to the north and east. summer, the inequality of the soil makes these two provinces very unequal in their seasons : on the Tra

vancore side of the mountains the inhabitants are TINNEVELLY.

often reaping in the months of June and July; while (Concluded from No. CXCVIII.)

tliose in the Tinnevelly district then commence pre

paring the soil by ploughing and sowing, on account There are 1073 charitable edifices, distinguished by

of the advantage which the S.W. monsoon affords. different designations, such as Sanniassy-muddum,

The dews are very heavy from the latter end of DeTiru-mailigei inuddum, Pandara-muddum, Sandigei

cember to February, which promotes the growth of muddum, and Muntapum, besides which, there are 80

vegetation, such as horse-grain, pulses, and other Chuttrums, and 527 Choultries ; besides some few

small grain called paspalum ferment, pannicum italicum, shattered old muntapums, that are found on the high

and pannicum millaccum, which are usually obtained roads, which appear to have been originally dedicated

before the Peeshanam harvest of paddy. But during to some deity or other, there are scarcely any ancient

the latter part of this period, the season becomes unaccommodations for travellers in the Tinnevelly dis

favourable; fevers and agues prevail. As the lands trict. But the greater part of the charitable buildings

soon become parched, after the harvest the water in are in large towns, and in the suburbs of a city, and

the canals and tanks dries up, the heat increases prowhere there is a great pagoda for the accommodation

gressively till it becomes intense, particularly towards of Bramins, pilgrims, and devotees, that resort to per- the hills, where there is scarcely any breeze, except form their vows and offerings to the temple, especially

the disagreeable whirlwind which commences about on the anniversary festivals that occur. At these

the end of March. The sca-coast at this season often festivals the above classes are fed, to a limited number

attracts the collectors, residents, and other gentlemen in each, by private munificence in some, and supported

in Tinnevelly and Palamcottah, from the months of by voluntary contributions, or by corporate bodies of

February or March to the middle of May or June. tradesmen, weavers, &c., in others. In many places During these months, the weather about the hills is where other public accommodations are wanting, re

intolerable, as well as in the open tract of the black servoirs, wells, and resting-stones, on the high roads

cotton soil, where there is scarcely a vestige of vegeand by - paths, refresh the weary traveller of every

tation to afford a shelter, and the sensation caused by denomination.

a scorching glow which prevails is scarcely supportThere are about 703 Tamil dav-schools, beside a

able. Most of the cattle from the open country are few Hindu colleges for Bramins. The Rev. J. Hough, driven to the hills for pasturage (for two or more late Chaplain at Palamcottah, opened in the year 1817

months), where they find a sort of herbage that is very in Tinnevelly a few schools connected with the Church

nourishing for them; sheep and goats are said to grow Missionary Society. (We need not inform our readers

fat upon it. In the months of March and April, the that many more have been opened since the time of

casual rains (called Koddei marei) are looked for. It Mr. Hough. The Church Missionary Society has 112

is at this season that they often find hail after a heavy schools, and 3:397 scholars in the Tinnevelly district :

shower of rain, and the weather becomes more favourand the Society for Propagating the Gospel, 364

able. Any failure of rain in these months renders it scholars.)

otherwise. From the middle of May or June to OctoThe collectorate of Tirunelveli at present comprises ber, the atmosphere becomes clouded, owing to the 11 Talooks and 25 Zemindaries; and 3 Mittahs--from

proximity to the S.W. monsoons in Travancore and the original number of Peshcush Pollums, six have

Malabar. Westerly winds prevail at this season, been annexed to the Zemindaries of those chiefs who

which not only abate the heat in a great measure in served with fidelity in quelling the rebellions of the

the open country, but render it very temperate and refractory Poligars in the year 1801.

salubrious in the vicinity of the Hills; particularly at This province is bounded on the north partly by the

Courtallum, Pappanassuin, Shevagherri; and beyond Shuddragherry mountains, between the portion of the

the hills of Tallamallay in the Dindigul valley, where Dindigul valley over Wursanaad, and partly by the

nothing can be more delightful, particularly to Euroridge of hills dividing Dociapanaick's Zemindary and peans, than the summer months. The climate resem• In the year 1323 it was in contemplation to have bungalow

bles that of the Neilgherries, and is almost equal, it is Arcommodations for travellers built on the regular stayes on the said, to that of the Cape of Good Hope. In the times high road from Madura to Palamcottah and Travancore; these of the reign of the ancient princes, that resided then edifices were to be erecied under the superintendence of the civil engincer of estimates and taok repairs. [These have all

at the seat of government in Madura, it appears that been built.)

they were in the habit of resorting to the Hills, to enjoy the summer season at Pappanassam, where there statement prepared by J. Cotton, Esq., then collector, are pavilions built on the verge of the Taumbrapurney the population amounted to 629,350. But, by a better river, contiguous to the water-fall called the Kallian- and more diligent inquiry, instituted by recommendniteerium. There are also evident remains of a ation of Colonel Mackenzie, with the sanction of gopalace at Pappanassam. This country, towards the vernment in the year 1821, the result from the tables, hills, is subject to almost incessant rains, called drawn up according to the division of people into Shonay. But the land-winds prevail, and are very castes and professions, gives the whole population of violent in the months of July and August. The period | Tinnevelly, including the Zemindaries, as 788,7-10 inof summer in Courtallum is generally considered habitants; exclusive of the garrison, consisting of one beneficial to health, on account of the refreshing battalion of native infantry, and its dependents. showers which abound on this range of the mountains The town of Tinnevelly is of considerable antiquity. and its neighbourbood for 10 or 15 miles. Bathing It is situated upwards of a mile from the west bank of under the falls of the cataracts of the Taumbrapurney the Taumbrapurney river, at the distance of 35 miles and Sittar rivers, is supposed to be beneficial. The from the sea (where that river disembogues), and the principal times observed by the Hindus for bathing in town consists of six principal villages, viz. 1st, Nelleithe Courtallum water-fall are on the days of the Ar- yambalam ; 2d, Ettucunnarie: 3d, Tenputtee; 4th, pisse vissuvu, Chettri vissuvu, and Chettri púrrunúm, Pautaputtu ; 5th, Candiapary, and Palliaputtadapetor the days of the full moon in April. The latter tah: these, with their subordinates, are so united originates from a tradition they have of its being the as to form one chief town, which bears the come anniversary of the saffron rain. The people who re- mon name of Tinnevelly, and contains 6857 houses, sort here for bathing on that day ascend to the first of which there are 142 upper-roomed and terraced, fall of the stream, called Tháne arrivú, or the Honey- 323 low-terraced, and 741 tiled buildings, and the refall. Besides the above-mentioned days of bathing, mainder thatched, giving 3.35 to each family, and the Addi and Tie ammavassies, solar and lunar 23,02+ inhabitants. It is on a low site, surrounded eclipses, are in general days for their ablutions. But by paddy-fields: the streets are under water during the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages resort to the rains. The town is advantageously situated on it twice a-week, that is, on Mondays and Fridays: the the Shutá Mallay, and Arnapuram canals, which form last Friday in the month, especially, is considered a two fine branches of irrigation. There are 12 princivery auspicious day for it.

pal streets and 142 lanes, several of which have names The gardens at Courtalluma bound with all sorts of descriptive of the various professions, castes, and emexotic vegetables and fruits, such as cabbages, turnips, ployments of the inhabitants: the eastern and southern carrots, lettuce, &c., &c.; as well as oranges, limes, parts of the town are occupied chiefly by Bramins, and lemons, pumpelnoses, which are reared in abundance those to the north and west of the temple are lined in the gardens of gentlemen. But the inhabitants of with bazaars, and the houses of the Sudra part of the the country are rarely known to cultivate them. The population. Except a few of the principal streets, that N.E. inonsoon commences here about the middle of are wide and airy, they are intricate, and thickly October; previous to which time the European visi- crowded with houses: the greatest part have thatchcu tors abandon the place, and the wild animals of the roofs and mud walls; amongst these, however, are hills often resort to shelter round their deserted build- several edifices, as above enumerated, with attic floors, ings. In the months of December and January, fever, flat-terraced with sloping verandahs; and a few very fluxes, and agues, prevail among the inhabitants; and handsome buildings. A commodious and extensive the ravages by small-pox in February and March are upper-roomed house, near the S. E. angle of the great often very alarming.

car street, is the dwelling of a respectable and opulent The mountains of Courtallum are the highest on Goozerat Bramin, of the name of Tocki. His resithat range of the Ghauts, but the summits are well.dence is adorned with splendid furniture of British cultivated in some parts, and abound with spice and manufacture. Scarcely a year is said to pass without coffee plantations. The persevering efforts of Mr. fire making some ravages among the thatched buildCasamajor on the part of government in the year ings. But the most dreadful calamity that ever hap1800, have spread fertility over a small part of the pened to Tinnevelly was in the year 1779, when the mountains, which nature seemed to have consigned to tire reduced two-thirds of the town to ashes. Besides everlasting barrenness. Besides the indigenous pro- the bazaars, which are well furnished with commodiductions of cardamums, the nutmeg-tree, and the coffee. ties, there are several granaries, where paddy, dry shrub, grow exuberantly in these gardens; and the grain, and other kinds of pulse, are sold. A market annual expense to government in the year 1821, is held every Thursday in the western suburb, called amounted to rupees 1,224, for the establishment of Pallia Pettay, which was established in the reign of gardeners; but the production (of late), both in coffee Mungamaul (the Queen of Madura), where several and nutmeg, bas abundantly repaid the expense, and articles of consumption, such as grain, onions, yams, is said to add considerably to the revenue of that vegetables, cotton, yarn-cloths, nuts, salt fish, and salt collectorate.

(the two latter being brought from the coast), are exThe census of Tinnevelly was obtained from the re- hibited for sale. spective village Kurnums, as they stood in the years The great Shiven temple, which is dedicated to the 1821-22 and 23, during the collectorship of the late goddess Candimadeammin, and her consort NelliapJ. B. Hudleston, Esq., for the greater part, and con- pen, bears marks of great antiquity and former grancluded in the time of J. Munro, Esq., who issued strict deur. It is said to have enjoyed many privileges, injunctions to the several Tassildars, Zemindars, and which are found recorded in the numerous inscriptions Mittahdars, &c., enjoining them to advance the object on the walls and the inner apartments of the pagoda. of such inquiries by every means that lay in their The pagoda is composed of three square enclosures, power; in the hope of producing an accurate account one within the other; the outward wall is 770 feet by of the population.

550, 27 feet high and 4 feet thick. It has five spires It appears, that an inquiry was instituted in the or gobrums, that is, two on the east, facing the sunnayear 1811, requiring collectors of different districts to dee; and the remaining three front the other cardinal give their opinions on the population of their respec- points : six poojahs are daily performed, commencing tive collectorates, in consequence of the prevalence of from the dawn of day till midnight. Besides whichi, an epidemic fever which raged in the southern pro- there are numerous other acts of private devotion vinces, and caused a great mortality. The collector, performed. J. Hepburn, Esq., furnished an estimate which con- The expense of the above ceremonies, conferred by tained 600,696; and in October 1817, according to a government, amounts to 404 rupees per diem. There

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