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of fulfilled prophecy, then, we may expect, THE STUDY OF PROPHECY.

will have the important effect of establishing

us more securely in the faith ; and were those II.

who call in question the Bible as the revelation It was the object of a former essay to set of God to his creatures, and who in the pride forth the advantages of an acquaintance with of an unsubdued and unsanctified heart deny prophecy to those who lived under the old the Lord Jesus Christ, to study these prophedispensation: the object of the present will be, cies with greater care, and with humble prayer to prove that such an acquaintance with these for the Divine guidance, there is little doubt prophecies cannot fail to have a most bene- but that they would be speedily brought to ficial effect upon ourselves :

the acknowledgment of the truth. It will be I. In establishing more securely our own observed that I say the study of fulfilled faith. The evidence arising from prophecy may prophecy; for it is most important to keep be fairly regarded as among the very strongest; the distinction in mind between that which is and it will be recollected, that to these prophe- fulfilled, and that for the accomplishment of cies concerning the Messiah, and to their which we have yet to look. " I must express exact fulfilment in himself, our Lord referred, the conviction of my mind,” says one admiand more especially after his resurrection, rably well qualified to judge on this subject, when he terms the apostles "slow of heart to and one to whose patient investigation of the believe all that the prophets had spoken;" when Scripture testimonies to the divinity of the he affirms that “Christ ought to have suffered Messiah the Christian Church is under the these things, and enter into his glory," that is, deepest obligations, "I must express the that it was quite in accordance with the whole conviction of my mind, that it is not the imstrain of prophecy that he should have been mediate duty of all Christians to engage in crucified, dead and buried, and should, on the this branch of scriptural inquiry—the study third day, rise again ; and then, beginning at of unfulfilled prophecy; and this conclusion Moses, he expounded unto them in all the Scrip-rests upon the plain reason, that God has not tures the things that referred to himself. And made that the duty of any persons for which thus we find St. Peter, on the day of Pentecost, he has not furnished them with the necessary expostulating with the Jews, convincing them means. But the larger part of sincere and of their guilt, and proving, by reference to pro- devout believers cannot command the time phecy, that Jesus, whom they had crucified, which those long and laborious disquisitions was He of whom David spoke : while a similar require, in order to pursue them advantaeffect was produced by his appeal to the same geously; and, if they had sufficient leisure, evidence, when the people ran together unto without neglecting plainly incumbent duties, him and John, in the porch of the temple they are not possessed of that acquaintance called Solomon's, astonished and amazed at with philology and history, which is manithe miracle of healing wrought on the lame festly indispensable to investigations of this man who sat begging at the gate. The study nature. Let not such excellent persons regret VOL, VII, -NO, CXCIX.

(London : Robson, Levey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.]

FF

their disability: they have other and more | earliest times promised a Deliverer, - one profitable objects to engage their attention mighty to save, who should reverse the senand to fill their hearts; they need not occupy tence of condemnation, and restore man to themselves with a light shining in a dark that liberty, and light, and felicity, which he place, when they can walk under the bright- had forfeited by transgression. ness of the Sun of Righteousness,--the clearly III. But an acquaintance with fulfilled revealed doctrines and promises, the precepts, prophecy is calculated to excite us to active examples, devotional compositions, and his- diligence in the great works of the Christian torical illustrations of the divine word.” It calling, more especially those which refer to had been well, had these judicious remarks the advancement of the kingdom of the Rebeen adopted as the rule of conduct by many deemer. Such an acquaintance assures us that in our own day, who seek to be wise above God's word standeth for ever sure; that every that which is written, and to pry into the jot and tittle thereof will be accomplished; and secret things which belong to the Lord our that whatever impediments may appear to God, who have been led away from the sober stand in the way of the accomplishment of interpretation of divine truth, and too often his purposes, they must all be finally overto interpret the most mysterious prophecies come. Now God hath expressly assured us of the sacred volume according to their own that the time will ultimately arrive, though he crude fancies.

hath not pleased to state the precise period, II. The study of fulfilled prophecy will for the times and seasons are in his own hand increase our admiration of the wisdom and when all men shall know him, from the least goodness of the Almighty. It has often been even to the greatest. He hath positively urged as an objection to the truths of Chris- declared that the dominion of the Messiah tianity, that it is utterly inconsistent with our shall be from sea to sea, and from the river unto notions of infinite benevolence to suppose that the end of the earth. We cannot, therefore, the Most High would have suffered so many doubt the exact fulfilment of his word. Every ages to pass before the advent of the Messiah ; obstacle must disappear, every impediment be and that had he intended to make a revelation removed, in the accomplishment of an end so of his will by a messenger especially qualified desirable, an object so glorious. He deigns for the work, that messenger would have ap- to employ the agency of man; he purposes peared at a much earlier period.

From an

that man shall be to his fellow-man the herald acquaintance with prophecy, however, we of peace--the messenger of salvation; that learn, that even before the Almighty passed the the kingdom of the Redeemer shall be enlarged sentence of condemnation against the guilty by hunian exertion, blessed and rendered pair, a Deliverer was promised. The light of efficacious by his good Spirit. Here, then, is revelation was not poured in upon man at once

a call to active diligence in seeking to promote and with full splendour : the obscurity of the the knowledge of the Saviour among men ; dawn went before the brightness of the noon

here is a motive which should lead us to be day. The will of God was at first made stedfast, immovable, always abounding in known by revelations dark and mysterious ; the work of the Lord. Many, indeed, are the to these succeeded others more clear and discouragements in the way of Christian experfect, in proportion as the situation of the ertion in this particular; but the encourageworld made it necessary. Throughout the ments infinitely surpass them. The spread of whole chain of prophecy, however, we behold Christianity may be slow, it may be gradual, the Divine mercy to man set forth. We have it may scarcely be perceptible, it may appear seen that these prophecies were the stay, and to some to be impossible ; yet ultimately we the comfort, and support of God's servants in are assured it will cover the earth, even as every age of the Church ; and the fulness of the waters cover the channel of the great the time did not arrive for many ages, when deep. And what, it may be asked, havo we it should please God to send forth his Son ; done towards the accomplishment of an event yet, the propitiatory sacrifice made by that so glorious ? If we trace with gratitude and Son on the cross was as effectual to the re- delight the gradual development of the plan moval of the transgressions of those who lived of mercy, from its first dawning in paradise before, as of those who lived after his advent. until it burst forth in splendour in that adorIt is their ignorance of the divine plan of mercy able Saviour who was the light of the world, which induces unbelievers to cavil at the word the Sun of Righteousness; if we meditate of God. Would they but patiently study its with thankfulness on His advent in the flesh, hallowed pages, --would they but derive its whose testimony was the spirit of prophecy,--sincere milk, that they might grow thereby,- we shall pray for the speedy accomplishment would they but come unprejudiced to the in- of those prophecies which declare his ulterior vestigation of the trutlı,--they would be soon triumphs in the world ; we shall, according led to adore that mercy, which even from the to our several abilities, seek to promote the

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follow his father's profession, and returned to Glasgow to complete his studies at the University. Here, it is said, he applied with so much ardour, that a Greek or Latin author was his constant companion. By his father's persuasion, he embraced the profession of the law, although his own feelings were in favour of the Church. A Greek Testament was always to be found at his bedside.

honour of his name, to advance the interests of his kingdom. If we rejoice to look back, as Abraham rejoiced to look forward to his day; if he is to us, as he was to the Psalmist, all our salvation and all our desire,-then, assuredly, we shall be fired with a holy zeal to hasten that time, when from the rising even to the going down of the sun his name shall be great among the heathen; the prelude of that day when he shall appear in glorious majesty to judge both the quick and the dead. Alas, our lukewarmness in this particular may easily be traced to the little value that we affix to the knowledge which we possess of God's purposes of mercy in his Son. It is because we do not estimate aright the blessings of redemption, that we seek not to impart a knowledge of them to others; it is because we are not constrained by the love of the Redeemer, that we feel so little interested for the welfare of our fellow-men; and it becomes us to consider upon what principle we can lay claim to be regarded as Christians, if we are neither anxious that the glory of the Redeemer should be advanced, or the blessings of his salvation be made known; if, while the fields are white unto the harvest, we send not forth labourers into these fields; if, while the cry of the heathen is the entreaty of the man of Macedonia to St. Paul, we send not over and help them;-for, to use the words of Dr. Johnson, "He that voluntarily continues ignorant is guilty of all the crimes which ignorance produces; as to him that should extinguish the tapers of a light-house might justly be imputed the calamities of ship

wreck." "1 *

Biography.

THE REV. JAMES GRAHAME,
Author of "The Sabbath."+

AMONG those who have added to the stores of poesy in Scotland, few names are more worthy of honourable mention than that of the subject of the present memoir. An ardent admirer of the beauties of nature, and imbued with a strong religious feeling, his poems can scarcely fail to impress the heart; while the peculiarly painful circumstances of his early removal, and the disappointments he met with, add a melancholy interest to his biography.

Mr. Graham was born at Glasgow, April 22, 1765, where his father was a respectable writer, or solicitor. Having been educated at the public grammar-school, he was led by his situation and connexions to the pursuits of business; and as several of his brothers had followed the employment of the law, his friends turned their views for him to those manufacturing pursuits which had brought such an accession of wealth to that quarter of Scotland. He was accordingly placed with a manufacturer at Paisley. The occupations in which he was now necessarily engaged, were little suited to his taste. He resolved, therefore, to

Letter to Mr. Drummond.

t See "Lives of Sacred Poets," by R. A. Willmot, Esq.; Biog. Notice in Scots Mag. 1811, &c.

a mode of life better corresponding with the

Having served the usual term of apprenticeship, he became a writer to the signet in 1790, but was subseThe kindred quently admitted advocate in 1795. employment of the bar appeared to offer more leisure, habits and pursuits of a man of letters. He accordingly gave it the preference, and spent in it the greater part of his succeeding life. Without being ever very highly employed, he soon attained a respectable share of practice, which allowed him at once leisure and competence. His poetical fancies were, meanwhile, not neglected, and several pleasing sketches of the months, afterwards collected in the "Rural Calendar," appeared under a fictitious signature in the Kelso Mail.

In the spring of 1802, Mr. Grahame married the daughter of Mr. Richard Grahame of Annan, in Dumfriesshire. His first poetical production was a tragedy did not obtain, nor perhaps merit, any great share of on the subject of Mary Queen of Scots; "but it popularity." Many parts of it were distinguished by that pleasing and picturesque imagery which afterwards made his poems so much admired; but a merit so little appropriate could not save a piece which wanted the peculiar requisities of dramatic excellence. It is always, with the right thinking, a matter of regret when poetical talents are exercised in dramatie compositions; and the non-success of the tragedy in question may have been of great importance to Mr. Grahame, Who that knows any thing of the true character of theatrical representations, and is at all interested in the well-being of society, can fail to lament that talents should be wasted in the production of that which may prove detrimental to the spiritual welfare of thousands?

Mr. Grahame's most important work was "The Sabbath," which he undertook after a considerable

interval, and his occupation in it was studiously concealed, even from his wife. To avoid the observation of his friends, his publisher and he met at different taverns. The work appeared in 1804. He took a copy home, and placing it on the parlour table, he soon found his wife reading it, and he continued to walk up and down the room until Mrs. Grahame exclaimed, "Ah, James, if you could but produce a poem like this!"

The success of "The Sabbath" induced Mr. Grahame to undertake another work; and in a year or two afterwards he published "The Birds of Scotland," with other poems; which, however, did not become equally popular. It was composed in the retirement of Kirkhill. "These poems," says a reviewer, "bear nearly the same character with that of 'The Sabbath,' which has obtained for Mr. Grahame so ample a share of celebrity. They display the same delicacy, intimate acquaintance with nature, and the same feeling and amiable cast of mind; and they have also the same faults of languor and extreme minuteness."

Mr. Grahame's health had now considerably declined; and he felt inadequate to undergo the labour and fatigue of the bar. His passion for rural tranquillity and a life of contemplation, joined to his feelings of devotion, led him to regret that he had not originally devoted himself to clerical pursuits. Although he was now somewhat advanced in life, it appeared not too late to make the change, as he possessed a small independence, which would enable him to support his family during the interval of expectancy.

Having fully resolved to enter the English Church,

SKETCHES FROM A TRAVELLER'S he proceeded to Chester, and from thence to London,

PORTFOLIO. where he was ordained by Dr. Bathurst, bishop of Norwich, May 28, 1809; his lordship being induced,

No. XII.-The Brand Strasse. by the consideration of his merits and qualifications, to dispense with the attendance at one of the English

I was sojourning a short time, during the past sumuniversities. While residing on a curacy at Skipton

mer, in the ancient city of Strasbourg. Having sallied Mayne, in Gloucestershire, he became a candidate for out one bright morning for an early walk, I entered, at the ministry of St. George's Chapel, York-place, Edin- no great distance from the glorious cathedral, which burgh ; but was unsuccessful. He went to Durham,

was always the object of chief attraction to me, a windin the hope of obtaining a minor canonry; but here, also, he was disappointed ; and after officiating three

ing darkish street. Few persons were there-permonths as sub-curate in the chapelry of St. Margaret, haps it was not much of a thoroughfare, or perhaps it he was appointed curate of Sedgfield, by the rector, the was too soon in the day for many of the inhabitants to Rev. George (afterwards Lord Viscount) Barrington, be stirring. I passed the Hotel-de-Ville, which apnephew of ihe bishop of the diocese. The indisposi- peared quiet and still, and next a military station, by tion under which Mr. Grabame laboured baffled the power of medicine to remove : it increased with such

the entrance of which a small party of soldiers were rapidity, that he was induced to return to Edinburgh; | lounging, and then I came to the Prefecture. The where, at the house of his only surviving sister, Mrs. gates of the court-yard stood wide open, and so I went Archibald Grahame, he received all the affectionate in. But there was not a soul there to be seen. The attentions which the melancholy state of his health Prefecture itself is a large, almost semicircular buildrequired. He had constant oppression of the head, and swimming before his eyes. Hoping that the air of

ing, looking shabby and dull. But in front of it there his native town might be more salutary than that of

were a number of acacias in full flower, throwing their Edinburgh, he set out for Glasgow, accompanied by his

tall heads and graceful foliage into the clear morning wife.. " Though very ill when he departed,” writes sky, and affording shelter to the early songsters who his friend, " and aware of his danger, he did not ima- carolled their welcome to the returning day. Scarcely gine his dissolution so near; but was animated with

any other sounds met my ear; and it seemed as if, in the idea of visiting the scenes of his early days and happiest recollections. He even hoped to preach in

the midst of a crowded city, I had found the stillness his native town, and took two sermons for that pur

and solitude of a desert. I thought that this could not pose, the subjects of which bear a striking analogy to have always been so; for in the stirring times of war, not the situation of their author ; the text of thein being,

so long gone by, doubtless the tramp of horse and the O Death, where is thy sting ?' The victory, indeed,

tread of men had hurried over the spot where I was was soon to be his. He became worse by the way; and two days after, having arrived at White Hill, near

standing. Doubtless the bustle of authority, and the Glasgow, the residence of his eldest brother, he expired concourse of the people, had often filled that court-yard, on the 14th of September, 1811, in the forty-seventh when the great city had heaved, as it were, with the year of his age."

news of some victory, or the dread of some approachIf Grahame had produced nothing but The Sabbath ing foe, or the tumult of intestine dissension. But my Walks,' his name," says Mr. Willmott, “would not have been written in water.' The sounds and colours

thoughts were soon carried farther back. For here, of the varying seasons seem blended with his verse. in this silent spot-here had once ascended the smoke

His Biblical Pictures' are less open to objection and spiry flames of a devouring fire-here had rethan almost any paraphrases of Scripture I happen to sounded the groan and the shriek of many victims remember. The simple grandeur of the original is

consumed in that blazing furnace - here had risen the generally preserved; and the illustrations occasionally introduced are appropriate to the subject."

wild execrations of an infuriate multitude, thrusting “An affecting record of his last hours," observes

men, and women, and children into the flames, and Mr. Willmott, " was contributed by a contemporary gloating over the spectacle of their torments. For journal. After his tongue,” concludes the writer, this was the Brand Strasse, or Fire Street; and here, “could no longer give utterance to his thoughts, his

where the Prefecture now stands, two thousand Jews looks of tenderness and benignity towards the friends who surrounded his sick-bed, unequivocally proved

had been murdered in one large fire. that his heart still glowed with its accustomed feel.

I pictured to my mind the scenes of that woful ings; that the amiable and gentle virtues which time. I could alınost imagine that I saw the sad prothrough life adorned his character, contributed to sup- cession, the dark and frowning brows of the men, and port and soothe him in his latest moments." There is

the frantic grief of the delicate females, and the reevery reason to believe, that the ground of Mr. Grahame's hope and confidence, his peace and composure

morseless rage of the savage executioners; and my at the last, was not his amiable and gentle virtues :

thoughts wandered over the various circumstances of these he possessed indeed; but they were not the sure the tragedy. The fanatic sect of the Flagellants had foundation in which he trusted. His writings prove first arisen in the thirteenth century in Italy, whence that he had a better confidence, and a more scriptural it diffused itself through most other parts of Europe. hope ; and that he felt supported by that Saviour, in whose service he was for a short time permitted to

Then-for it is the property of enthusiasm to exhibit minister.

M. irregular bursts of zeal, rather than a steady consistent

flame-then it had become well nigh extinct, till about the year 1319 the spirit of this delusion was again kiniiled. The companies assembled twice a day, and having stripped off their garments, they whipped themselves before the people with scourges loaded with nails and spurs. Multitudes of all ranks and ages, and of both sexes, joined in the horrid rites, filling the air with dreadful shrieks, and, looking towards hea

ven with a distracted countenance, they sadly and invoked Heaven's wrath upon the Jews. The father, dolefully offered up their prayers. Their worship re- who looked in silent anguish around his desolate sembled that of the priests of Baal, but their temper home, was nerving his resolution to exact justice, as was more bloody, and their acts more disastrous, even he called it, from the Jews. O, what an inconsistent than theirs. For they read aloud at their meetings a thing is the soul of man; and how near are the exletter, which they said an angel had brought to them, tremes often brought of pity and merciless cruelty, in which God commanded them to undergo their ma- of affection and unrelenting hatred! The Jews were cerations, that they might relieve the souls that were deemed guilty of poisoning the wells and fountains of in purgatory, and stop the miseries that then devas- water, and the torrent of popular rage burst vehemently tated Germany. The next step was, of course, to en- out against them. In some places, the wildest exdeavour, with such weapons as fury could put into cesses of punishment were inflicted on them; and their hands, to rid the world of those whom they generally they submitted unresistingly to their fate. deemed to have polluted it. The people of Spires In Mayence, however, they rose against their perseand Strasbourg, and several other cities, had been cutors ; but the abortive effort only aggravated and drawn into this fraternity; and doubtless the unhappy extended their calamities. I can vividly conceive the Jews, long accustomed to pay the penalty of public confusion and fear that reigned in Strasbourg. I can calamity and public excitement, viewed with appre- imagine the working of men's minds before the storm hension the darkening cloud. Their wealth was, actually broke forth, and the signs of hate which much as possible, concealed under the guise of po- scowled on the brow and glared from the eye, or verty, and collected into the smallest compass, in dropped in smothered imprecations from the tongue order that, on the shortest notice, they might be able of the people, as they walked in misery through their to ftee. But, alas, where could they find refuge ? The half-depopulated streets, and passed the habitations of earth was armed against them, and the curse of God the detested race, or discovered a Jew stealthily and and the enmity of man seemed alike to press heavily fearfully gliding along a narrow alley to his insecure upon the branded race. Was outrage and torture a home. It was manifest that the thoughts of murder likely means to win them over to Christ? No; in the would on the first pretext be displayed in deeds. And form of Christianity displayed before their eyes, they it is likely the wail of grief for some specially afflicting could not recognise a religion proceeding from a just bereavement, pointed, perhaps, with frenzied reproaches and merciful God; and the dread of the tormentor, against some known or neighbouring Israelite, gave the though it might force some of them to play the hypo- signal of the tumult. I can almost see the dense crowds crite, and outwardly profess the name of Jesus, yet assembling, while the Jews bar hastily their doors, fostered more surely in their hearts their inextin- and strive to secure their most valuable effects. Now guishable hatred of the crucified man of Nazareth. they feel the accomplishment of that heavy prediction,

In various places the passions of the people, urged “ The Lord shall scatter thee among all people; and by the madness of the Flagellants, had broken forth among these nations shalt thou find no ease, neither into murder. In Frankfort, and other cities, the shall the sole of thy foot have rest : but the Lord shall Jews were massacred ; and at Strasbourg, while yet give thee there a trembling heart, a failing of eyes, unmolested, their hearts were failing them for fear, and sorrow of mind; and tlıy life shall hang in doubt and for looking after those things that were coming before thee, and thou shalt fear day and night, and upon them. In that miserable year, tos, a plague shalt have none assurance of thy life: in the morning wasted Europe. From city to city, and province thou shalt say, Would God it were even ! and at even to province, and kingdom to kingdom, the pesti- thou shalt say, Would God it were morning! for the lence stalked on. The grey hairs of the aged were fear of thine heart, wherewith thou shalt fear, and for brought down in sorrow to the grave, as the blooming the sight of thine eyes, which thou shalt see.” How youth and the beautiful maid fell like corn before must the daughters of Judah, when they heard the the reaper's sickle. There is nothing which more approaching shout of the destroyers, have mourned touchingly exhibits the power and judgment of God over the misfortunes of their race ! how must their than the rapid march of plague. It is true that in desires have gone forth to their own lovely land, battle as many may fall in as short a space; but there where their fathers dwelt in peace and blessedness, the hand of man is seen at work, each destroying his each man beneath his vine and his fig-tree, none darfellow; whereas in plague the boasted power of man is ing to make them afraid ! And their recollections of helpless, and the hand is known to be that of God. the ancient glory of Zion must have embittered the fate And yet, so stubborn is the human heart, that even of the unhappy exiles. No deliverer interposed to when smitten, it will not humble itself, nor learn the protect them, no prodigy, as of old, deterred their plainest lessons which God's judgments are intended enemies from the full satiation of their vengeance. to teach. The fire may devastate, and the stormy Jehovah had given up his people, so that they drank wind may rend, and the earthquake may overthrow; the cup of trembling even to the dregs. but it is the still small voice alone of his Spirit which Every house was speedily plundered, and a huge reveals him to the soul.

pile was made of the materials. Troops of victims The Jews, it may be thought, died in less numbers were hurried through the streets towards the fatal than other persons by the plague. Perhaps, hunted spot; young and old, rich and poor, were thrust toas they were from society, they were less exposed to the gether. And then the pile was lighted. Fiercely did contagion. And then a diabolical spirit of vengeance the flames ascend, curling round the shrinking bodies was roused against them. The bereaved mother, it was made to devour; and loud were the shouts of who had wept over her children's agonies and death, derision and hatred that, on every fresh arrival of

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