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And, O, if such majestic works be given

and which aid us in lifting our thoughts to the Source To gaze of sinful mortals, what is heaven?

of our being himself.- Whewell's Bridgewater Treatise. If here below, the mind be lost in sight,

Swallows.—Many are disposed to think, from their How shall we view those realms of glorious light? disappearance in winter, they secure a retreat in some If here we marvel at man's curious frame,

place of concealment, where they sleep or sink into a Clad in the vesture of his parents' shame,

torpid state ; out of which they are awakened by the How shall we view the pure, angelic choir,

influence of spring. I apprehend, however, their

migration is annual and regular; and in this we may Array'd in robes of bright celestial fire,

perceive the wise and beneficent direction of ProviBy His great power, who bled our souls to save, dence. Of this I had the clearest proof in the imBurst the strong fetters of the darksome grave; mense bodies of these birds I perceived in my voyage Awakes our spirits from the sleep of sin,

to Alexandria, pushing their way in the direction of To bid them goar, a home on high to win; 5

Egypt from Europe, during the month of October, and

they may be compared to some of the vast caravans in And as he calls them, purified from hence,

the East. On the banks of the Thames, as well as in Displays in death as life omnipotence !

numerous other parts, they collect their forces, and M. A. BEALE. make arrangements for migration. From the more

hospitable regions they return to our climate in the

beautiful season of the year; a fact which is expressly Miscellaneous.

alluded to in the oracles of truth (Jerem. viii. 7). The ATMOSPHERE.—The atmosphere is a mere mass When they take a departure early, it is considered of Auid floating on the surface of the ball of the earth; as a prognostication of severe weather approaching. it is one of the inert and inorganic portions of the

This bird appears to be of a privileged kind, and was universe, and must be conceived to have been formed permitted to construct its nest in the cloisters of the by the same Power which formed the solid mass of the sanctuary of Jehovah (Ps. Ixxxiv. 3); and also ranked earth and all other parts of the solar system. But how

among those whose likeness, as an object of idolatry, far is the atmosphere from being inert in its effects on was reprobated under the Mosaic dispensation (Deut. organic beings, and unconnected with the world of iv, 15-17). These scouts appear as if, like Noah's life? By what wonderful adaptations of its mechani- dove, they were despatched from the main body to spy cal and chemical properties, and of the vital powers and report on the appearance of the earth, and ascerof plants to each other, are the development and well- tain the longitude and latitude of their flight, before being of plants and animals secured! 'The Creator of the general migration takes place. It is computed the atmosphere must have been also the Creator of they fly upwards of sixty, the crow twenty-five, and plants and animals : we cannot for an instant believe the hawk forty-two miles an hour. The flight of the the contrary. But the atmosphere is not only sub

English eagle is 6,000 feet in a minute. Rae Wilson's servient to the life of animals, and of man among the

Travels through Egypt. rest; it is also the vehicle of voice; it answers the

Music.-Luther is frequently and fervently thank purpose of intercourse ; and in the case of man, of

ful for being enriched with a love of music. He says, rational intercourse. We have seen how remarkably

“ It is one of the fairest and most glorious gifts of the air is fitted for this office; the construction of the

God, to which Satan is a bitter enemy; for it removes organs of articulation, by which they are enabled to

from the heart the weight of sorrow and the fascinaperform their part of the work, is, as is well known, a

tion of evil thoughts. Music is a kind and gentle most exquisite system of contrivances. But though discipline ; it refines the passions and improves the living in an atmosphere capable of transmitting arti

understanding. Those who love music are honest culate sound, and though provided with organs fitted

and gentle in their tempers. 1 always loved music, to articulate, man would never attain to the use of

and would not for a great matter be without the linde language, if he were not also endowed with another set

skill I possess in this art." The amiable and talented of faculties ;--the powers of abstraction and generalisa

Hooker, in the fifth book of his "Ecclesiastical Poliig," tion, memory and reason, the tendencies which occa

speaking of music, says, " Touching musical harmony, sion the inflections and combinations of words, are all

whether by instrument or voice, such is the force necessary to the formation and use of language. Are

thereof, and so pleasing effects it hath in that very not these parts of the same scheme, of which the bodily part of man which is most divine, that some have faculties, by which we are able to speak, are another

been thereby induced to think that the soul itself, by part? Has man his mental powers independently of the Creator of his bodily frame? To what purpose

nature, is, or hath in it, harmony."Hampshire Adver

tiser. then, or by what cause, was the curious and complex machinery of the tongue, the glottis, the larynx pro- VERNACULAR DIALECTS.- In the Roman Church, duced ? These are useful for speech, and full of con- the Latin language ; in the Greek, the ancient Greek trivances, which suggest such a use as the end for instead of the Romaic or modern Greek; in the which those organs were constructed. But speech Syrian, the Syriac instead of the Malabar; in the appears to have been no less contemplated in the Abyssinian, the Ethiopic instead of the Amharic and intellectual structure of man. The processes of which other vernacular dialects,mare distinguished by the we have spoken, generalisation, abstraction, reasoning, name of ecclesiastical ; being the languages in which have a close dependence on the use of speech. These the Scriptures are preserved, in opposition to those in faculties are presupposed in the formation of a lan- which the great body of the people talk and underguage, but they are developed and perfected by the stand one another. In other Churches also the same use of language. The mind of man then, with all its evil prevails.- Professor Scholefield. intellectual endowments, is the work of the same Artist by whose hands his bodily frame was fashioned ; as his bodily faculties again are evidently constructed London: Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street, by the Maker of those elements on which their action Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave-Maria Lane, St. depends. The Creator of the atmosphere and of the Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Torn material universe is the Creator of the human mind,

and Country and the Author of those wonderful powers of thinking, judging, inferring, discovering, by which we are able to reason concerning the world in which we are placed,



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ON THE ORIGIN, NATURE, AND PROGRESS | sidering the sacrifice offered by the one, and

the oblation made by the other, we shall OF DIVINE WORSHIP.

perhaps arrive at the real cause of the difference BY TIE Rev. W. G. Moore,

made between them by a just and jealous Rector of West Barkwith, Lincolnshire.

God. The one, Abel, drew near with a sacriII.

fice at once expressive of his guilt, and of The first account we have of any par- his dependence upon the sufficiency of that ticular act of homage rendered to God, is one great sacrifice for sin, which, in the latter given us in the words: “ And in process of day, should be offered up by the Son of God, time it came to pass, that Cain brought of and be effective to the release of all who the fruit of the ground an offering unto the looked to it in faith for the cleansing of their Lord. And Abel, he also brought of the natural pollution, and the gift of perfect rightfirstlings of his flock, and of the fat thereof. eousness; the other, Cain, drew near with And the Lord had respect unto Abel and to the first-fruits of the earth, which, however his offering ; but unto Cain and to his offer-worthy of acceptance when preceded or acing he had not respect." May we not sup- companied by a confession of guilt, a deprecapose from hence that the acceptance of Abel's tion of vengeance, and an acknowledgment offering, and the rejection of that of Cain, was of Divine goodness, would, when offered prior attributable to the nature of the gift presented to any such confession or acknowledgment, by each, and to the state of mind exhibited prove only the pride of his heart. A sense by the worshippers in the nature of the sacri- of sin is the very first requisite in an aposfice made? If, as there is every reason to tate creature previous to his re-attaining the suppose, the skins where with our first parents Divine favour; and it would surely, therefore, were clothed were those stripped from ani- be the intention of the divine Being, in his mals slain in sacrifice, the only mode of ap- constitution of a form of worship adjusted to proaching their Creator acceptably after their the necessities of fallen creatures, to point apostacy was by blood.

out, first, how or in what way such sense of Sacrifices were, indeed, of two kinds; first, sin should be properly expressed, before he those strictly so called, wherein the offering pointed out the means, or would dictate the made was totally destroyed by fire (and these manner, in which the concomitant feeling of again differed, as being, in some instances, gratitude or praise for daily mercies should peace-offerings, in others sin-offerings); and be displayed. And as obedience was then secondly, those which were simply oblations, the simple rule of life, the summary of the or in acknowledgment of the Divine good law given for human direction, the transness for the continuance of life, and for the gression of Cain seems to have been a gift of those numberless mercies which made reiterated and gratuitous rebellion against that life a blessing. In discriminating, there- his Maker. This view of the subject is fore, between the nature of the tribute paid strengthened by comparing the passages to the Almighty by Cain and Abel ; in con- wherein the form of worship is mentioned VOL, VII, NO, CXCIV.

(London: Robson, Levey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.]



as used by Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and the ing public worship unnecessary, nor were patriarchs, with that expressly ordained at a they considered as in any way interfering later period, and concerning which there can with or prejudicial to it, but in order that be no doubt. **

each one of their disciples might have some In the early ages of man's existence fre- petitions suited to his own particular wants quent mention is made of building an altar, and circumstances, perhaps also to his peculiar and sacrificing to the Lord, though we have tenets. That prescribed forms of prayer no recorded petition for a very considerable were also in use in the Israelitish Church, period. At the same time, we are naturally may be learned from the Pentateuch ; for led to believe that as sacrifices were but the the offering of first-fruits and tenths was outward act, they could only be acceptable to be accompanied by a confession of Divine or otherwise as they were declaratory of the bounty and goodness, and a declaration that mind of the worshipper, and his desire to the person presenting it had performed what renew the dedication of himself, and all his the law required.* Among the psalms and substance (the just forfeit of transgression), hymns of David, many are (EUKTIKO) prayers to the service of the Almighty.t Sacrifices, for common use, solemn addresses to God, indeed, were only offered at some set time, adapted to the wants of his people.+ Thus upon some singular event in the lives of Hezekiah, it is said, “commanded the Levites patriarchs, upon some signal mark of Divine to sing praises to the Lord with the words of interference, or upon some striking commu- David and Asaph the seer; and they sang nication being made to them from on high;praises with gladness, and they bowed their while prayer would be a daily duty, without heads and worshipped" (2 Chron. xxix. 30). which they could maintain no spiritual com- It must not, however, be supposed, that munion with the Fountain of light and hap- because our Lord, in compliance with the piness. The commendation pronounced upon custom of the Jewish rabbins, taught his disEnoch for walking with God can only be ciples a form of prayer well deserving the clearly understood by supposing that he wor- title ascribed to it by one of the Fathers, shipped and served God in the prescribed" the God-taught prayer,” he ever intended methods, of which sacrifice was one ; and in that its use should supersede that of every the habitual exercise of prayer and praise, other; or that it should necessarily form a which was the other.

part of every other prayer. It was a brief In short, the head of the patriarchal family compendium, intended to point out the leadwas the priest, to discharge every religious ing subjects of human petitions; and as it service, according to those directions, which comprises within few words all that God dewere as binding upon all, as, we can have no mands and men stand in need of, it cannot be doubt, they were inculcated upon all. Thus too closely adhered to, whenever and with it is said of Abraham, “I know him, that he whatever form we draw near the footstool of will command his children and his household our Maker, after him, and they shall keep the way of Tertullian says, with reference to the Lord, to do justice and judgment" (Gen. Lord's prayer, "God alone can teach us how xviii. 19).

he wishes to be addressed. The divine use As we descend the stream of time, we find of prayer, therefore, being ordained by God that, independent of sacrifices, of the public himself, and the dictate of his Holy Spirit, acts of obedience and subjection paid by heads it ascends to heaven by his favour, commendof families generally, and by individuals on ing to the Father what the Son has taught." some special occasions in particular, there Cyprian says, " Christ, among other salutary were not only stated hours of prayer, but admonitions and divine precepts, in which he stated prayers for those hours. These were seeks the salvation of his people, himself also supposed to have been appointed by Ezra, to gave us a form of prayer, and taught and adthe number of twenty-two, which number vised us what to pray for. He who breathed was reduced by Gamaliel, the instructor of into us the breath of life, taught us also how St. Paul, to eighteen. It was also a custom to pray-one mark of kindness leading to the among the Jewish doctors to teach their dis- expression of others; so that while we address ciples short forms or summaries, which were the Father by prayer and supplication taught not put forward with the intention of render- by the Son, our prayers may the more readily

enter into his ears." And again, " What can be • Vide Gen. viii. 20; xii. 7; xxii. 9; xxxv. 13; where we may observe that building an altar is synonymous with offering by Christ, by whom also the Holy Spirit has


more spiritual than the prayer delivered to us + That this was the case, we have proof in Gen. iv. 26: "Then began men to call upon the name of the Lord;" as also in Gen. • Vide Deut. xxvi. 5.13. Where the address put into the xiii. 1, " Then Abraham called upon the name of the Lord.' mouth of the worshipper is, we may observe, in the singular Compare also Ex. xx. 21; xxiv. 4; xxix. 11-22; xl. 29; Lev. number, that the prayer might be regarded as that of every

individual, as well as applicable to the comnunity. | Such was Noah's sacrifice, Gen. viii. 20; Abraham's, Gen. + Vide Psalms, passim ; compare Jer. xxix. 13.

1 Cyril : Osodidaxtos sum.


i. 2-31.

XV, 9.

been sent down to us? What supplication

What supplication in the Psalms of David and in the prophets of can carry along with it more the air of truth old, are certainly suitable to us, and the more than that which proceeded from the mouth of so as we live in days during which some of Him who is truth? So that to pray otherwise those grand events of which they spoke and than he hath taught, is not only a mark of sung, and for the advent of which they conignorance, but of folly." “ We are not tinually prayed, have glided from the uncerthose," says a learned divine, * “who seek to tainty of the future to the certainty of the restrain, by a form of words, the spirit of past. prayer, or those praying with the Spirit; but With one observation I will close the subbecause we do not hold ourselves bound to ject. We have no authority whatever desuch a form, do we consider it improper or rived from Scripture to sanction the use in inconvenient to use it? If we may be per- public worship of extemporaneous prayer, mitted to address the divine Being in our And, indeed, is it not consistent with sound words, shall we, therefore, be precluded from reason to believe, that prayers read and known addressing him in his own? Can we imagine of all men; untainted by peculiar, or narrow, that our babbling will be more grateful to him or false views of divine truth; distrusting the than the words of Him who is truth, and momentary impressions of the enthusiast, or the which contain wisdom that cannot err? Vain cold display of the phlegmatic and formalist; repetitions of the same prayer, are, however, resting upon the practice of the primitive by no means countenanced, either by the Church ; tested by the experience of the recommand of Christ, or the usage of the an- motest times,--should be better adapted to the cient Church." The practice is condemned edification, sound instruction, and consistent by our Saviour: “Use not vain repetitions, piety of all, who, whatever the varieties of as the heathen do; for they think that they their outward circumstances, have need of shall be heard from their much speaking" the same spiritual nourishment, than the (Matt. vi. 7). In fact, a momentary consider- prayers which must of necessity take their ation of what the true nature of prayer is, tone, be vapid or energetic, be precise or difwill refute the practice which has obtained in fuse, be scriptural or unwarranted by Scripone section of the Christian Church. It is ture, according to the feelings and fancies not the time consumed in the attitude of sup- and failings of a being like ourselves ? Such plication, not the mechanical and continuous

prayers may be well suited to individuals, in repetition of words, which constitutes prayer; the privacy of the chamber, but they are not but it is the aspiring cry of a broken and con- calculated for the sober and solemn and stated trite, or the overflowings of a grateful heart; worship of God in his holy sanctuary. Our it is the outpouring of a troubled mind, or the Church is wise and judicious, in being content lowly prostration of the humble and sincere.

to express the great wants of mankind, to It is a combination of hope and fear, of peni- pray to God, and to praise him, in language tential sorrow and lively gratitude; it is the that the most fastidious must admire, the utterance of heartfelt desire, the impression of greatest sinner may with truth adopt, and weakness, the deprecation of wrath, and the to which the greatest saint may say, Amen. assurance of help in every time of need. If, then, in all ages of the Church some established rule and order for public worship

ON THE COMMUNION. has been laid down--and no one, as far as we can learn from Scripture, ever presumed to

HUMAN nature is ever in extremes; we avoid one enter into the Divine presence without con

error too often only to fall into its opposite. Thus it forming himself to it—we are more than jus is in the holy communion to an extent most easily tified in following, we are surely required to

traced by its paralysing effects. We have abjured the follow, the practice of all antiquity, and to

Romish doctrine of transubstantiation; and we have take advantage of such forms of prayer as

done well, for, in the language of the 28th article of have been handed down to us, more espe

our Church, it “is repugnant to the plain words of cially from the times immediately subsequent

Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a sacrament, and to those of the apostles ; for, looking upon

hath given occasion to many superstitions :" but it is

to be feared that Protestantisin tends to an error the great promises and leading truths of Scripture as belonging to the whole family of equally dangerous, because equally repugnant to man, those beautiful petitions which we find Scripture, and equally overthrowing the nature of a

sacrament. In our anxiety to avoid superstition, we

are bringing ourselves into contact with scepticism; Witsius in Symb. et Orat. Dom. Witsius and Whitby are at issue on this point. I should incline to the opinion of the

in our abhorrence of the blasphemy and absurdity fonner, borne out by what is recorded of the prayers of the apos- involved in the elementary change, for which the tolic age, that our Lord's prayer was not deemed a necessary part of our address to God, but was intended as an epitome, if I papist contends, we have simplified and explained may so call it, of what prayer in general ought to be. In the

away, and well nigh reduced, this most sacred and Lord's prayer we have the outline; the body of the picture must be filled up according to individual wants and feelings.

mysterious rite of our religion to a mere commemora

tion of the sufferings of Christ : in denying the bodily port our natural bodies, has appointed this sacrament

to of us virtually deny the reality of his spiritual presence loathing its wholesome food is a sure sign that there is also ? O, no wonder that the sacred table is so little some disease in the body, so not desiring this spiritual tlıronged; no wonder that the generality even of those sustenance is an equally sure sign that there is some who do attend come so seldom, when the very essence disorder in the soul. A growing appetite for its of the sacrament is disregarded, and our souls incapa- proper nutriment is in the latter, as in the former, citated for its reception by the numbing influence of a the best proof of returning health, with this only difcold and proud unbelief. I have spoken of these ference, that being for healing as well as for support, two errors as in direct opposition to cach other; like we must begin even while still indisposed for it, certain most extremes, they may be traced to precisely the that perseverance will work a cure, and create the same cause-to that carnal mind, which, however wished-for relish. O, that men would but give the same developed, is, and ever must be, at enmity with God. credence to those who are most intimate with the ordiTo a carnal and literal interpretation of this divine nances of religion, that is so generally accorded to mystery is owing the Romish doctrine of transub- those most familiar with any mere earthly subject. stantiation ; and to the very same carnal interpretation, An invalid from his birth will listen with interest to -that which led the Jews to strive among themselves, one who can tell him that he was for years in the same saying, “How can this man give us his flesh to eat ?” state, and by what means he was restored; he will (John, vi. 52); and which induced even Christ's own easily believe the advantages of health, for he feels the disciples to exclaim, “This is a hard saying; who weakness and pain of his own condition, and sighs for can hear it?" (ver. 60.) It is the very same carnal in- relief. But with the diseased soul it is not so ;-it terpretation which now beguiles Protestants into their feels its misery, yet instead of seeking release, it perbesetting sin of rejecting too much. In both cases man versely argues, that misery is its portion. In vain errs, because his faculties are so under the dominion those who have made trial set forth the efficacy of the of sense, that he cannot receive the ideas of real and prescribed remedy; in vain they assert, "we were spiritual as existing together. On the one hand, the equally wretched and dissatisfied; we were worn by reality is debased into corporeal presence; on the contending passions, and wasted by corroding cares; other, so attenuated to meet our imperfect comprehen- but by the grace of God we have been renewed, and we sion of spirit, as to do away with the reality of the are happy.” It cannot deny its own disease and pain; Divine presence altogether.

but it chooses rather to believe that there is no other But let us remember it is not the doctrine of the state, than to give credit to those who can affirm from Church of England I am thus contrasting with that experience that health is attainable. That this should of Rome : her doctrines may be overlooked, as well as be the case with the openly careless and indifferent, is too many of her ordinances set aside ; but, blessed be matter of less surprise; spiritual blessings sound to God, they are untouched by the varying atmosphere them like a description of the pleasures of industry in around. The Church herself-in accordance with the the ears of the indolent, in direct opposition to all Saviour's own words at its institution, with the apos- their notions of enjoyment: but our own brethrentolical comment, and with the writings of the early those who have taken some steps in seeking renovafathers, to whom, as nearer the fount, we naturally look tion, who are constant at the house of God, and Sunfor greater purity — maintains the real presence of day after Sunday unite in the same prayers--surely it Christ in the communion as administered at her might be expected that they would listen to fellowaltars. She asserts that “if with a true penitent heart travellers who have gone a little further on the same and lively faith we receive that holy sacrament, then road, and would fain persuade them forward to a banwe spiritually eat the flesh of Christ and drink his quet the most delightful and the most invigorating of blood ;" and, in the name of the communicants, she any set before us during our pilgrimage. It is not by has appointed the officiating priest to pray that they an occasional attendance at the Lord's table that we

may so eat the flesh of Jesus Christ, and drink his can hope to participate in the full benefit of that holy blood, that their sinful bodies may be made clean by sacrament; the very being contented with such casual his body, and their souls washed through his most observance is of itself a proof that we have not yet precious blood."

learned its value. Do any wish to learn ? let them “I thank thee, O Father," says our blessed Lord, come, with a lowly and implicit belief that in some “ I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, way, far, far beyond the utmost stretch of our grovel. because thou hast hid these things from the wise and ling apprehensions, Christ does really and truly comprudent, and hast revealed them unto babes." Truly municate himself to us in this sacred ordinance ; let of the doctrine of Christ's presence in the communion them draw near-not once or twice-not now and it may be said, that it is revealed unto babes. To un- then, but constantly. They will perhaps for awhile derstand it requires the exercise rather of the moral find no alteration; their dispositions will be equally than the intellectual faculties. It wants no peculiar perverse, their wills equally unruly, the communion acuteness of discrimination, no deep powers of reasori- equally unsatisfactory; but let them persevere in faith, ing; but it does require that inward disposition, with- and gradually they will feel the real presence of Christ out which no Gospel-truth can be received into the in his appointed sacrament, by the gradual growth of soul,-a confiding humility, a child-like trust in the their own souls in conformity to him. They will perrevelations of our heavenly Father, even although we ceive, with an assurance tenfold stronger than mere may not comprehend how these things can be. The words can give, that on every fresh participation their same God who has appointed the food which shall sup- souls are more closely united to him, and receive new

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