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jacent structures, that upon the death either of a the power of secreting materials which conduce in branch or of an entire tree, when it becomes an object various ways to the object proposed. The leaves and with nature to hasten its decomposition, that its ele- green parts of the stem of many plants, particularly ments may be again turned to use, the removal or at such as grow along the sea-coast, are observed to be least the breaking up of the epidermis is one of the covered with a fine coating of a bluish-green colour first steps in the process. This is accomplished in a (on which account they are termed glaucous), and very singular and interesting way. Various fungi (or which is of a waxy or resinous nature, and therefore minute mushrooms) develop themselves under the neither soluble in water, by which it could be washed epidermis, and, by increasing in size, either perforate away by rain, nor easily penetrated by the moisture it by several small points, according to their form, or more or less present in the air surrounding the plant. cause it to give way extensively, and separate in large The same delicate coating forms the bloom seen on portions. Many plants have peculiar fungi attached many smooth-skinned fruits, such as plums, nectarines, to them, which only appear when the death of the and apples, and which, when once rubbed off, is never plant, or some part of it, is impending. These facili- renewed by the leaves, though it is so by the fruits tate the decay of the original structures, not only by before they are ripe. It constitutes an important proappropriating to themselves the nutritive juices, which tection against the injurious effects of the spray of the are immediately under the bark, but by permitting the ocean to some plants, such as the yellow-horned escape of the vital fluids (the blood, as it might be poppy (Glaucium flavum), and the cabbage (Brassica figuratively termed) of the plant, such as the gummy oleracea), which is originally native of the cliffs on the or saccharine liquids of trees. Thus the kind of gum coast, and which has retained the power of forming whicb exudes from the stems of plum and cherry this secretion even when growing in gardens far trees, makes its escape through openings effected in inland. Fruits are likewise protected against the abthe bark by a fungus which passes from within out- sorption of water from the atmosphere, not only when wards, after the fashion of a screw, and called New growing, the introduction of which into their tissues maspora crocea. So long, however, as the integrity would interfere with their ripening and diminish their of the bark is preserved, the juices essential to the flavour, but also aids greatly in the preservation of the growth of the tree are retained within it.
fruit when plucked, if it be intended to keep them. Further, the epidermis in many cases prevents the The bloom should therefore never be wiped off the frost injuring the bark and internal parts of the tree. surface of apples which are wished for winter-use, but, This is most manifest in trees which have numerous on the contrary, carefully retained, by the most cautious layers of epidermis. Not only is the carbon, which handling of them. has been stated to abound in the bark, a very bad con- The wax-palm of the Andes (Ceroxylon andicola), ductor of caloric, serving the double purpose of con- which inhabits the side of the mountain called Quinfining the internal heat in winter, and excluding the diu, in lat. 4° 35" north, occupying a zone from the external heat in summer, but likewise a layer of air height of 7538 to 9843 feet above the level of the sea, is retained captive between each layer of epidermis, and where the mean temperature varies from 52° to which thus form as it were so many coats, and pre- | 61°, according to its height, thus soaring sar above vent the establishment of an equilibrium of temperature the usual locality of its kindred, which rarely excced between the interior of the tree and the surrounding 3000 feet,-is exposed to a degree of cold unknown to atmosphere, which, if very low, would freeze the the others, and consequently to the deposition on its juices, or, if very high, would, by over-exciting the surface of a quantity of moisture, which would be exactions of the plant, induce exhaustion-states alike tremely pernicious, were it not protected by a natural prejudicial, and, wlien in extremes, fatal. A peculiar covering of a most efficient kind. The stems of this appropriateness will generally be discovered between palm, which are often 150 to 160 feet tall, are coated the number and texture of the epidermal layers, and with a varnish of wax and resin, so thick that it can be the place of growth of the plant. Thus the birch scraped off, and which effectually defends the inner (Betula alba), which, of all European trees, has the portion from wet. “ And if,” as observes Bonpland, greatest number of layers of the epidermis, is also the it be a phenomenon to find a palm growing at the one which approaches nearest to the snowy summits height mentioned, it is much more wonderful that of the Alps, and extends farthest towards the icy there should exude from it a mixture of wax and regions of the pole. Specimens of the Abies (pinus) resin. This substance, extremely inflammable, which Donglassii have been found with an epidermis nearly covers all the plant, is the produce of a vegetable two feet in thickness. This tree forms immense juice as insipid and as watery as that which is obtained forests in N. W. America, between 430 to 52o N. lat. from the trunk of the cocoa-palm." It cousists of In South America a very remarkable tree is men- two-thirds of resin and one-third of wax. Where the tioned by Don Ulloa, under the name of quinales, as leaves have fallen off, and where the internal tissues having about 300 epidermal layers; and several trees would be exposed, the coat of wax is often about a in New Holland have barks with layers scarcely less quarter of an inch in thickness; and as this part has
not the power of secreting the compound, it must Nor is it merely by these means that the bark is have flowed from the entire surface immediately enabled to impart security to the inner structures, above, and so formed a shield against the atmosphere since in several instances the superficial layers have over the wounded portion, which it completely seals.
The arrangements for the protection of aquatic One species (of Leptospermum) was remarkable for its bark, plants are equally remarkable. However necessary a which was about an inch thick, and composed of a great number
certain quantity of water may be to the well-being and of flakex, lying one over another, very easily separable, and as
exercise of the functions of a plant, an excess of it is thin as the finest Chinese paper. This singular organisation of the bark occurs only in New Holland : it is nearly the same in destructive; and to prevent such a casualty, plants the Eucalyptus resinisera; and I had observed it also on the which grow under water, and which are devoid of south-west coast of this country, on two large trees, one be
cuticle (though all parts of such plants as rise above longing to the family of Proteacce, the other to the Myrtacea.LABILLARDIERS's Voyage in search of La Perouse, p. 284.
the surface are provided with that coat), are surLondon, 1800.
rounded with a glairy liquid, which not only faciliThe strata of the bark are in general finer, even in the same tates their movements in the water, and prevents the species of plant or tree, when growing in cold regions. Thus the layers of bark of the Tilia europea, or lime-tree, are softer and
stem or foliage from being broken by the agitation of of closer texture when produced in Russia and Sweden than in the waves, but actually hinders the water from coming Britain, and are therefore preferred by gardeners for matting; in immediate contact with the tissues of the plant. If just as the fur of animals inhabiting northern countries is softer and denser than those of warm regions, and consequently em
the flower or leaf-stalk of the water-lily, or any similar plused for winter clothing.
plant, be taken up, it can be drawn through the hand
LIFE OF REV. H. SCOUGAL.
with the greatest ease, being covered with this lubri- minds of his pupils was natural philosophy; for he cating material. All aquatic animals, even frogs, felt that it would give them enlarged notions of God, have an analogous secretion. The spawn of the frog
to consider his immensely grand works, and the marks is preserved against the dissolving power of the water by the like external envelope; and the feathers of
of design exhibited by the very smallest creatures. swans, ducks, and sea-fowl, have an oily coating over
He had another aim in directing them to this class of them, which not only keeps them from being satu- studies, besides the intrinsic worth of the studies themrated with moisture, but enables them to dive with selves: he wished to take them off from a disputatious, greater facility. In all these winged creatures the
wordy philosophy, and from the conceit of being able sebaceous glands near the surface are of unusually
to skirmish with the mere terms of an ambitious philarge size.
The stems of plants thus protected progressively losophy, while the principles of solid truth were unextend into the medium in which they are intended known. He used to employ the evenings of the Lord's to exist for a time; and there unfolding their leaves, day in pious conversation; and he would talk priwhich are annual thia expansions of the bark, they vately with the students, according to the case of each. exercise an influence on the atmosphere of a most
The ill-disposed he would warn; and where he saw in important kind, while they are in turn influenced by that fluid, their reciprocal actions producing the most
any the buddings of what was good, he would cherish beneficial results. The length to which the explana
the opening grace. tion of the mere structure of the stem has proceeded, When, after due deliberation, Mr. Scougal had renders it impossible to detail on the present occasion entered into holy orders, he was stationed, by God's even a few of the useful effects which flow from the harmonious interchange of their properties, the one
providence, at Auchterless, a small village about gaining in solidity, and the other in purity and fitness
twenty miles from Aberdeen. His stay here was desfor the respiration of animals. These I must reserve tined to be short; but duripg it, he gave abundant for the following paper; only observing at present, that proofs of bis fitness for, and his zeal in, that holy the exposition of them will lead every humble investi- function he had undertaken. He was extremely cir. gator to the conclusion, that they could only have been
cumspect in his personal conduct, that his “good contrived, as they are maintained in order and perfection, by Him of whom it has been said, “ He doeth
nright not be evil spoken of,” and that no hinderance all things well."
might arise to the work of his Master from himself. Catechising was a branch of the minister's duty, of
which he both felt the necessity, and discharged it Biography.
with the utmost effect. He was very plain and affectionate in his catechetical teaching; and he found, as
many other pastors have done, that parents may be [Concluded from Number CXCI.]
obliquely reached through the instruction which is It is the mark of wisdom to know what are the duties expressly directed to their children. He took pains to which each particular relation in life calls us, and to to study the dispositions of the people, and adapted address ourselves to those duties. Mr. Scougal pos
himself to each as he found it; and wherever he saw a sessed this faculty, When he became a professor in spark of goodness, he was cheered and encouraged. the university of wbich he had been so lately a student, He endeavoured to bring his people into the habit of he shewed that "even in this station, 'to him to live attending public worship in good time, because he had was Christ."" Conscientious in all that he undertook, a sense in his own mind, not only of the decorum, but he strove so to behave himself, that he might not only of the privilege attaching to an early resort to the have the satisfaction of knowing that he had done right Church-service; " thinking it very unfit that the invoin each stage of his duties, but he was anxious also to cation of Almighty God, the reading of some portion of gain the esteem of the youths. This he accomplished the holy Scriptures, making a confession of our Christian by a union of freeness and authority in his intercourse faith, and rehearsing the ten commandments, should with them. He never had any separate interests of be looked upon only as a præludium for ushering in the his own ; nor did he foment any of those misunder- people to the Church, and the minister to the pulpit." standings which will spring up in every society of per- Scougal felt that God's house is a “house of prayer;" sons; but he always tried to allay and settle them; and though preaching, as a divine ordinance, is added and when he could not accomplish this, he stood aloof. to worship, it can never be regarded as the principal He was quite uncorrupt in respect of gain, as he object for “ assembling ourselves together.” It is neishewed when on one occasion some disorderly conduct ther expedient nor lawful to draw comparisons between had been committed by his pupils, for which they were prayer and preaching, to represent one as “more imsentenced to pay a fine, and give assurance of their portant" than another. Both are to be used, for both future good conduct. The proud spirits of those are of God's appointment: but since the service of the young men would not permit them to consent to the Church is constructed upon an orderly principle, that payment of the fine; but if Scougal had chosen to notion will be violated (if it ever has been learned,) have paid it in their name, the matter might have by those who make a habit of entering the Church ended. But, kind as he was, he would not be a party when the service has begun. Mr. Scougal's preaching to such a transaction, which would have been a con- has been thus particularly described by the friend who nivance at misdemeanour, and would bave offered a drew the picture of his character at his funeral :"A premium for the commission of offence. The youths wise man hath lately written an essay how to make a were expelled for holding out in their refusal, though good use of bad sermons: and it were to be wished we their departure was a serious loss to Mr. Scougal's were instructed in making good ones; such I mean as income, as but few were left behind.
might have an influence on men's hearts and lives. One of the principal studies to which he directed the And sure I think all that heard him will acknowledge
his practice to be no contemptible pattern. He thought
Sacred to the memory of that it should be a minister's care to choose seasonable
Son of the Right Reverend Father in Christ, and useful subjects, such as might instruct the people's
PATRICK, Bishop of Aberdeen : minds, and better their lives, not to entertain them Por four years Professor of Philosophy in this Royal University, with debates and strifes, of words ;-that he should And during an equal period Professor of Divinity: express himself in the most plain and affectionate man
For one year that intervened between his acceptance of the
above offices, ner; not in airy and fanciful words, nor in words too
Pastor of the Church in Auchterless. big with sense, which the people's understanding can
Much in the very brief space of his life not reach; nor in philosophical terms and expressions,
Did he learn, bestow, and teach: which are not familiar to vulgar understandings; nor
“ For heaven eager, and for heaven ripe."
He died in the year of our Lord 1678, in making use of an unusual word where there could
Aged 28; be found one more plain and ordinary to express
And deposited here his mortal remains. the thought as fully. He looked upon it as a most His works aré, 1. The Life of God in the Soul of useful help to make the Sunday's sermon the subject Man. 2. Nine Discourses on important subjects. of our meditation and mental prayer for the foregoing 3. Occasional Reflections, and Moral Essays, written week, that it may thereby sink deep into our own
while he was a student at the university. 4. Three spirits, and affect our hearts, which would make us manuscripts in Latin, viz. A short System of Ethics, more capable of teaching others. He thought it a fit
or Moral Philosophy; A Preservative against the Arexpedient for composing us to a serious and affectionate
tifices of the Roman Missionaries; and, a Treatise of preaching, to propose to ourselves, in the meditation
the Pastoral Care- the last unfinished. of it, purely the glory of God and the good of men's souls, and to have this always in our eye. And how conformable was his practice to these rules! The SUPPORT AND PROTECTION IN THE DAY matter of his discourses was always so useful and sea
OF TRIAL: sonable; his words and expressions so plain and well chosen. I cannot here omit the deep sense he had of
a Sermon, true eloquence, professing he would give all the other
BY THE REv. EDWARD EDWARDS, human learning in exchange for it: and he judged Curate of Wrexham ; and formerly Perpetual Curate there were two essential defects in our best kind of
of Marsden. eloquence; the one was, that we did not enough re
Isaray, xlii. 2. flect upon the temper of the persons we were to speak “When thou passest through the waters, I will be to, and what kind of words and expressions would with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not make the best impression upon their minds, and
overflow thee: when thou walkest through the fire, therefore it was nothing strange that words let fly at
thou shalt not be burned, neither shall the flame
kindle upon thee." random touched them so little. The other, that our hearts were not thoroughly endued with those dis
In the holy Scriptures threatenings of depositions we would work on others by our words, and
served wrath, and promises of undeserved therefore it was no wonder all we said made so little blessings, are intermingled ;—the threatenimpression on them."
ings to excite in us salutary fears, the proThe history of Scougal is not filled with events; mises to inspire us with hope. Of this wise what has been recorded of him is rather a delineation intermixture, the text, viewed in connexion of his character, than a lengthened account of important with the close of the last chapter, is an inoccurrences. We are accordingly now introduced to stance. From the 22d verse to the end of the last period of his life. He had ministered at the 42d chapter, there is a prediction of Auchterless but one year, when he was called to Aber- punishment to be inflicted on the nation of deen, and promoted to the professorship of divinity in Israel for its repeated sins and provocations, King's College there, though not more than twenty- and especially that crowning sin, the rejecting four years old, obtaining that appointment, not by a of the Messiah. Of this sin that nation contested election, but with the unanimous voice of would at last be guilty, and this would fill up the clergy of the diocese, who choose the professor. the measure of Divine wrath to be poured out So modest was he, that he would not consent to accept
on God's ancient people. This sin — the the office as soon as he was elected, but took until the rejection of Christ is the most aggravating next meeting of the clergy to deliberate upon the
of all sins, and surely seals the final damnamatter. He entered upon its duties, feeling that “ all
tion of an individual or a people. For if you his sufficiency was of God,” and fulfilled them with an assiduity and an efficiency not to be surpassed. He reject Christ, whether by practice or profeswho had “ delighted to honour” this young man of sion, you reject the only remedy which the such rare excellence
, now thought fit to confer upon great God of heaven and earth hath prohim unfading distinction among the ranks of the
vided for a ruined world-a world lying in blessed saints in glory. In his twenty-seventh year iniquity; if you reject Christ as your Saviour, " he fell into a consumption, which wasted him by slow
“ there remaineth no more sacrifice for sin." degrees, and put an end to his valuable life on the The prediction of wrath against Israel, as 13th of June, 1678. He was buried in King's College contained in the latter part of the last chapter, church, Old Aberdeen; and a Latin inscription, in the is succeeded by very rich and consoling profollowing terms, was put upon his tomb:
mises in the text, which comes in here just like the breaking out of the bright and cheering forward, by faith, to Christ who was to come, sun from behind a dark and lowering cloud. and they were saved by him, as we look “ When thou passest through the waters, I back to Christ through the records given will be with thee; and through the rivers, of him; they believed the prophecies and they shall not overflow thee: when thou promises of Christ to come, we believe the walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be records of Christ having come; and thus burned, neither shall the flame kindle upon in Christ both believing Jews and believing thee." We shall notice
Gentiles meet, and both are made one in I. The people to whom these promises Christ." There is neither Jew nor Greek ; were addressed.
there is neither bond nor free; there is neiII. The condition of that people, as sup- ther male nor female ; for ye are all one in posed in the text. And,
Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christ's, then are III. The promises themselves.
ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to I. The people to whom these promises were the promise" (Gal. iii. 28). addressed.
Israel of old were primarily the people to From the context we learn that Israel was whom the promises in the text were made. the people to whom the promises were made. But as all who believe in Christ are said to The name Israel was given to the patriarch be Abraham's seed, or children of Abraham, Jacob. It was given to him when, on wrest- so they are called Israel - “ the Israel of ling with the angel, he prevailed. The name God."*“ Know ye, therefore, that they who signifies a prince with God, or prevailing with are of faith, the same are the children of God." And he said, Thy name shall be Abraham.” Indeed, the Church of God under called no more Jacob, but Israel; for as a both the old and new dispensation is the same prince hast thou power with God and with Church, passing under different external momen, and hast prevailed” (Gen. xxxii. 28). difications. Hence, many of the promises, priJacob was at the time in deep distress, from marily made to ancient Israel, have an ultefear of his brother Esau ; and the angel of rior application to the Christian Church, and God appeared to him to comfort him. In to individual members of that Church. We that distress, Jacob had prayed to his God. conclude, therefore, that the promises conThe distress that drives us to the throne of tained in the text apply to God's people in grace is a blessed affliction. May we, when all periods of his Church - apply to each ever the name Israel occurs to us, remember one of his people -- apply to you and to the value and efficacy of prayer, and be led, me, if we are among the true Israelites especially in our troubles, and distresses, and if we are among those who worship God undertakings, to strive mightily with God in in spirit and in truth -- if we are among prayer, as Jacob wrestled with the angel and those who are not only received by baptism prevailed! “Call upon me in the day of thy into the visible Church of Christ, but are trouble,” is the instruction ; "and I will de- also lively members of the same — if we are liver thee,” is the gracious promise ; " and among those who have not only an outthou shalt glorify me" (Ps. 1. 15), is the ward form of godliness, but who also enjoy grateful return which we are to make. How the power of godliness - if we are among consoling to the perplexed and distressed those who not only call Christ "Lord, Lord," mind is it to know that there is a throne but who also do his holy will. For we may of grace, and that on that throne sits the have been admitted by baptism into the Father of mercies, dispensing his various and Church of Christ ; yet if the Spirit of Christ needed blessings to all such as, like good be not in us, we belong not to him. old Jacob, call upon him by prayer and sup- any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is plication! It was the recorded saying of that none of his.” And if the Spirit of Christ be great man of God, Elliott the missionary, in us, the fruit of that Spirit appears and
Prayers and pains, through faith in Christ abounds in our walk and conversation. What Jesus, can do any thing."
is that fruit? The apostle tells us (Gal. v. 22), The name “Israel," by way of distinc- “ the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, tion, was afterwards given to the descendants long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, of Jacob—the people of Israel : that people meekness, temperance." was elected and called to be the people of We proceed to notice, God. To that people “ were committed the II. The condition of the people as suporacles of God;" and the pious portion of posed in the text. Great dangers and afflicthat people looked by faith, through types, tions, represented as passing through waters promises, and prophecies, to the Messiah and fire : " when thou passest through the who was to come ; not only to be a light waters, through the rivers, through the fire.” to lighten the Gentiles, but also to be the The various and heavy oppressions which the glory of his people Israel.” They looked people of Israel endured at the hands of their
" If * We went
enemies, especially their captivity in Babylon, sink into eternal perdition and woe, beneath which the Jews would suffer for seventy years, the tremendous guilt of idolatry- for covetand the subsequent overthrow and scattering ousness is idolatry-the guilt of having neof the nation by the Roman power, were as glected, if not despised, the Gospel of the water-floods overwhelming the people, and grace of God. O, be wise, and seek that threatening their entire destruction.
faith which is more precious than tried gold; Waters are frequently mentioned to repre- that faith which in the day of adversity will sent troubles, afflictions, distresses; and fire cheer you ; which in the hour of death, when to represent severe trials or temptations. To heart and Aesh must fail you, will support pass through waters, rivers, fire, represents you, and bear you triumphantly through in the text the enduring of heavy afflictions death's dark and dreary valley, into the and trials. Thus, the Psalmist speaks of realms of light and life everlasting. the sorrows which heavily pressed on him ; a cursory notice of the condition supposed “ Save me, O God, for the waters are come in the text, we proceed, in unto my soul. I sink in deep mire, where III. To the promises made to God's people there is no standing. I am come into deep in that condition. waters, where the foods overflow me" (Ps God's presence is promised : "I will be lxix. 1, 2). “ All thy waves and billows are with thee.” Support, protection, and delivergone over me” (Ps. xlii. 7). Again, in writ
ance, are also promised" the rivers shall ing to the Christians, forewarning them of not overflow thee;" the fire shall not burn approaching trials, St. Peter represented thee-" the flames shall not kindle upon those trials as fiery: “ Beloved, think it not thee." strange concerning the fiery trial which is
By God's presence with his people, we do to try you, as though some strange thing not mean any visible presence or visible divine happened unto you” (1 Pet. iv. 12). So agent, though sometimes the divine presence again : "Thou, O God, hast proved us ; thou with his people in ancient times was visible. hast tried us, as silver is tried ;
Instances of this are recorded in the Old and through fire and water” (Ps. Ixvi. 10, 12). New Testament. By the presence of God, the
The Christian's afflictions and temptations text seems to mean his superintending care, from without and from within are aptly re- his controlling power, and comforting influpresented by water-floods and fire. Fire and
ence,- that invisible power of the divine water, which have destructive qualities, have Being which not only sways the vast and also cleansing and purifying qualities. Hence numberless bodies that compose the planetary the Christian's trials, which tend to improve system, and which directs the affairs of the his graces, as well as to prove the sincerity most mighty empires among men, but which of his professions and the value of his prin- also governs the affairs of individual men, even ciples, are spoken of as the fire which refines to the numbering of the hairs of their heads; the gold and silver, but does not destroy and which also directs, controls, and measures them : “ Though now, for a season, ye are the trials, dangers, sorrows, and consolations in heaviness, through manifold temptations ; of his beloved and redeemed children. that the trial of your faith, being much Protection and deliverance were experimore precious than of gold that perisheth, enced by God's ancient people when literally though it be tried with fire,” - the gold, passing through fire and water. In their exthough tried and purified with fire, and odus from the land of their bondage, with though the fire does not destroy the gold, Pharaoh and his host behind them, and the yet the gold itself is among the perishable Red Sea before them, destruction seemed inthings of this world, and is not to be put in evitable. The divine command was, competition with the grace of true faith. forward.” But, whither? To be drowned in And yet, strange as it seems, men pursue, the depth of the sea ? No; but to see " the grasp, and idolise the gold that perisheth, salvation of your God." In obedience to the while they neither value nor seek that faith Divine will, the people marched forward, and, without which they must perish everlastingly, through the interposition of the Divine power, Ah! what if you could amass and retain to they passed through the waters" as on dry death's dark hour all the gold and the silver land : when, having sojourned full forty years which the most greedy heart can covet ; what in the wilderness, they came to Jordan, the if you could command all the wealth of this
same power was there exercised on their world, -all could not avert the hour of death; behalf. it could not prolong your lives one day; it Were the people to pass through a great could not open for you the gate of heaven; wilderness and through hostile lands to take it could not close against you the gate of possession of the promised land of Canaan? hell; and it would leave you to sink into the what was the promise ? " Behold, I send an grave under the pressure of disease, and to angel before thee to keep thee in the way, and