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The herds rejoice-the valley's pride

between the literal and figurative interpretation of And flocks that crop the mountain's side,

Christ's words, and reason exercised on Scripture Till autumn's joyous face appear,

already inclines us to reject the literal, shall we not

think it an additional inducement, when, by so doing, To crown with plenty all the year.

we facilitate the reception of Christianity to six hun( Thou, from whom all blessings flow,

dred millions of our fellow-creatures? Lastly, what

a stumbling-block is transubstantiation to the Jews! Lord, teach our hearts thy love to know ;

It seems almost impossible for the Romanists to conAnd may thy grace support us still,

vert the Jews; and so it has, in fact, been found to be. Thine hand defend from every ill !

The practice of worshipping God “under the species" of the wafer (the words of the council of Trent) appears

to them idolatry, and utterly irreconcilable with the Miscellaneous.

law, not merely in its ceremonial parts, but in its TRANSUBSTANTIATION : Effects of the Doctrine everlasting spirit. The idea also of drinking blood AMONG THE HEATHEN AND Jews. Even Romanists literally, is what they cannot endure. As long, therehave confessed that this doctrine is a disadvantage to

fore, as Christianity comes to them hampered with this their missionaries among the heathen. Let us sup

doctrine, it comes in vain-it can obtain no hearing. pose that a Romish priest visits the South Sea Islands. Till Protestants shall be fully awake to the duty of At present many of these have just heard of the reli- carrying their pure and reasonable form of Christigion of Jesus, aš taught from the Bible, and are hesi- anity to the Jews, there can be no hope that that most tating about it. What they have heard of it is so pure, interesting people will be converted. It will be the so simple, so reasonable, ihat they are on the point of glory of our reformed religion, when through its inembracing it. Nothing holds them back but a natural strumentality, under the Divine blessing, “the lost clinging to their ancient habits and superstitions. But sheep of the house of Israel" shall be gathered into now comes the priest, and tells them that when he has the fold of Christ, and shall display that devotion in uttered a few words over the wafer, a miracle is per

his cause which they have with unexampled, though formed. They see no miracle ; they behold all as it mistaken nobleness, displayed in adhering to their law; was before: and yet they are told they must believe it and so, through the combined efforts of Jews and as an essential part of Christianity. "What must they Christians," the fulness of the Gentiles shall be now think of Christianity ? In what a new light must brought in."- Rev. C. S. Bird. it appear! how changed from what it was when they

SUNDAY DRESS AND APPEARANCE.-As the Chris. heard it from the lips of Protestant missionaries! If

tian religion is cheerful, and peaceful, and pure, so they are brought to think that the Scriptures command them to believe what their eyes, touch, and taste

should every thing connected with it be of the same

character. I never can help fancying that I see command them to deny, what danger must there be of something of this character in the Sabbath of a country their changing their mind concerning Christianity?

village, where religion prevails. The peaceful cheerWhat better," they may say, " what more certain, is

fulness, however, which belongs to true religion, is it than our old religion ?” And when they are told to

widely different from the noisy mirth which belongs to worship before the wafer (whatever attempt there may be to teach them that this differs from worshipping which belongs to a Christian Sabbath, but it is a

the careless and the profligate. There is a stillness the wafer), will they not cry out, “ Why, this is as bad

happy stillness. You see, in the countenances of as our old idolatry ?" And so all hope of their conversion, or of one worth the name, at least, may be

those you meet, an appearance of rest, of calmness,

of peaceful cheerfulness. There is, also, in the cleanly lost! We have applied this reasoning to the South

Sabbath dress of English villagers, something like an Sea islanders, but how much more forcibly does it

emblem of the purity which belongs to that religion apply to the polished Hindoos, vast numbers of whom

which is to be their guide at all times, but on the are now throwing off their ancient superstition, and

Sabbath is their more peculiar business and enjoyare applying to European studies and philosophy! Of

It is of great consequence to keep up the true what immense importance is it that Christianity should come to them in a form that will bear the most rigor. suppose that the mere Sunday dress, or the Sunday

character of this sacred day. Let no man, however, ous examination of reason! Otherwise, will they not

rest, or even the Sunday ordinances, will of themreject it as one of the forms of imposture, of which

selves entitle him to be called a true Christian; but they will learn that there liave been so many in the world? When they see the wafer carried in proces

if they enable him, and if they invite others, to sion, and the Romanists falling down before it, will

make this day a day of holy rest and of Christian imthey not be apt to join Averroes, the Arabian phi- provement, how useful, how needful they may be! Is

not a man's mind drawn away from every purpose of losopher, who, when he saw the same thing, cried out,

sabbatical rest, wlien he sees the inhabitanis of a village I have travelled over the world, and have found

without their Sabbath dress, and when he hears their divers sects; but so sottish a sect or law I never found as is the sect of the Christians, because with their own

noisy mirth expressing a feeling so different from teeth they devour their God whom they worship." forcibly led to join in Sabbath employments, when he

Sabbath devotion? And, on the contrary, is hie not This is similar to what the greatest of the Roman

sees others whose expression and appearance convey philosophers uttered hundreds of years before: when,

so much delight? Let there be a cleanliness of the speaking of the various shapes under which superstition and idolatry had existed in the world up to his

person on the Sabbath morning, and let it be a token

of that purity of mind which should belong to the time, Cicero says, " But was there ever any man so

Christian. A gaudy finery of dress and appearance mad as to believe that which he eats to be God ?'' Now, we wish it to be understood we are not defending and cleanliness do belong to it.—Bishop (Davys) of

belongs not to the Christian Sabbath ; but neatness the impressions we have described ; we are only de

Peterborough. scribing them. They will arise, whether we lament them, and condemn them, or not. Is it likely, we ask, that a doctrine can be true, which gives rise to such London : Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street, impressions, and hinders the propagation of that re.

Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave-Maria Lane, St.

Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town ligion which is sent to be a blessing to the whole earth

and Country, -out of the eight hundred millions of whose inhabitants, only two hundred millions have as yet ever heard of the name of Christ? When there is a choice





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ever, is by no means the only one to be asON THE ATONEMENT.

signed for the necessity of Christ dying for BY THE Rev. John SPENCE, M.A.

There is another reason, and a very Rector of East Keal, Lincolnshire.

conclusive one too, which many sincere beII.

lievers in the atonement either inadvertently Ar the conclusion of the former essay, the overlook, or very imperfectly understand. question was proposed--for building up the For, sincere Christian on his most holy faith- II. Without this propitiatory sacrifice, the whence arose the necessity of atonement for law “would not have been magnified and sin ? The answer to this question, it was made honourable," its claims would not have remarked, was to be considered in a twofold been upheld, its unchanging truth would point of view.

not have been vindicated; nor would the 1. Atonement was necessary, because fallen glory and the harmony of the Divine perfecman, having lost all moral power of self-re- tions have been inviolably secured, nor covery, could in no sense atone for himself; would their holy nature have been unfolded he could in no sense become his own saviour. to the admiration and lasting love of angels In point of guilt, he had reduced himself to and the whole redeemed and sanctified family the state of fallen angels," who kept not their of God. first estate." Like them, he had voluntarily By keeping this latter important truth in broken his Maker's righteous law, disbelieved view, we shall be enabled to form a right his truth, rejected his sovereignty, stained his conception of the sufferings of Jesus substiglory, and done dishonour to his holy name. tuted in the place of sufferings due to us for Sin had." fixed a great and impassable gulf” our sins : in other words, by taking the rebetween him and God; and beyond it vealed will of God for our guide, we shall see stretched forth a land of thick darkness and the necessity of Christ's atonement, if we duly eternal death. Nothing, therefore, could ul- consider what is meant by sin being called timately have prevented the execution of the in Scripture " the transgression of the law" law's threatened penalty, "dying thou shalt (1 John, iii, 4). Now, by the term law is die,” but the interposition of One who could clearly meant the moral law; for it is only by pay that penalty in the sinner's behalf, “ One this law " that every mouth can be stopped, mighty to save." Hence we see that “with- and all the world become guilty before God” out shedding of blood there could have been (Rom. iii. 19). But the moral law, we are no remission of sin;" no acquittal from guilt assured, is none other than a pure and bright incurred ; and no restoration to the forfeited transcript of the Divine mind, and is in itself, favour and enjoyment of God. Without this and in all its requirements, "holy, just, and wonderful provision of wisdom and mercy, good," and therefore calculated, in every sin must have terminated in the destruction respect, to promote the creature's greatest of the sinner ; God must have remained to good. It was enacted to be a rule of duty, him "a consuming fire." This reason, how- and a safeguard for securing the highest VOL. VII.NO, CLXXXIII.

(London : Robson, Levey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.)


interests and happiness of all God's intelli- sins, and no determination to exact the gent creatures in all parts of his universal penalty of disobedience, and vindicate the empire. I say universal empire ; for we are honour of his own righteousness and truth. not to suppose, as is by many unthinkingly Such a sight would have convulsed the supposed, that we are the only moral respon- thrones of angels and archangels, of cherubim sible agents in the universe of God. Scrip- and seraphim, and have sent a feeling of conture at once corrects the mistake. It assures sternation and dismay through all their shining us, that this world of ours, peopled with ranks and orders. On the contrary, having human beings, is intimately connected with witnessed the infliction of the penalty of the another world of bright and holy intelli- law on their rebellious brethren, they doubtgences, who have never sinned, but who are less must have expected to witness a similar still as much the subjects of moral govern- infliction on rebellious man; for it must not ment as ourselves. “To love the Lord our be overlooked, that the glorious scheme of God with all the heart, and soul, and mind, human redemption," the manifold wisdom and our neighbour as ourselves,” is an uni- of God, was not then made known by (or versal law, as binding in its obligations on through) the Church to these principalities the inhabitants of heaven and hell, as it is and powers in heavenly places" (Eph. iji. 10). binding on the inhabitants of earth ; for it Here, then, we see the moral necessity of atonewould be equally absurd and monstrous to ment for upholding the authority and mainsuppose, that the wilful rebellion of the taining the sanctions of moral government; we creature, be he fallen man or fallen angel, see how the holiness of God, which delights can ever annihilate or even weaken the unre- in contemplating the supreme good of all his linquished claims of the righteous Lawgiver, intelligent creatures, and his justice, which is though that rebellion has morally disabled bound to maintain that good, required the him, because he is voluntarily disinclined (the atonement-required it, as the indispensable very essence and measure of his guilt) from medium through which these Divine attriyielding the homage and obedience required. butes could be vindicated, and illustriously Now sin is emphatically the transgression of displayed to God's "whole family in heaven this universal law; and its inflexible language and earth ;” and so displayed as to be in perto every subject placed under its authority is, fect harmony with the free gift of grace and “this do, and thou shalt live ;” but in case of salvation to the proud rebels of a distant reone single failure, " the soul that sinneth, it volted province of his dominions. shall die :" " whosoever shall offend in one The atonement, then, under this scriptural point, he is guilty of all.” Had God, then, view of it, is not one God appeasing another in the character of the supreme Governor God, as its opponents are pleased either to of a whole moral universe, and the pledged misunderstand or misrepresent it; but it is guardian of the law which he himself had what the inspired volume records to be the made, and made too for securing the happy “manifested mystery of godliness," which, order and highest welfare of all his rational previous to the incarnation, “was hid in God and intelligent creation " in all places of from ages and from generations :" it is the his dominions ;" had he, I repeat, connived development, when "the fulness of time was at the transgression of it in the case of come," "of the eternal purpose, which the Adam, he would have substantially abro. Father purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord;" gated it; he would have looked on moral and which purpose, when developed, exhibits, evil with indifference; he would have im- as already stated, the peculiar mode adopted peached the rectitude of his own moral by him, as the supreme Ruler of the moral government, and would have subverted its universe, for upholding the rights of moral very foundations, by shewing, himself re- government; for maintaining the efficacy of gardless of maintaining the law's unchange- law; for establishing its unaltered and unalable sanctions and righteous authority. Such terable sanctions in the esteem and reverence a procedure would have appeared an appall- of all his obedient, intelligent creatures; and ing mystery to the adoring " sanctities” of for securing to them its beneficial provisions heaven, who had never transgressed the law and ends. . of their Creator in one single instance: they In its benignant aspect and influence on would have stood amazed, and questioned the the eternal interests of our guilty, ruined holiness, justice, and goodness of the law, had race, emphatically called “the ministry of they beheld rebellious sinners translated from reconciliation,” the atonement constitutes the earth into their unspotted mansions, bright- adequate basis -- the fundamental element, ened with their glory, admitted to bear a part as it were-of an administration by a Mediin their hallowed employments, and share in ator, which, in pardoning sin, secures from their blessedness, when the supreme Law- impeachment all the divine attributes; an giver had expressed no abhorrence of their administration wherein “mercy and truth,

uncompromised, can meet together, righte- and soul, and mind;" grace he cannot claim ; ousness and peace can kiss each other;" and hence, if sinners are saved, it is through wherein God the Father, as the supreme vin- God's sovereign, unmerited “ kindness and dicator of law and the guardian of holiness, love" (Tit. iii. 4), " to the praise of the glory " can be just," and yet, as “ the God of all of his grace" (Eph. i. 6). This grace pregrace," can be " the justifier of him which vents the sinner's “ boasting” (Rom. iii. 27), believeth in Jesus ;" in a word, can be “a that the pivot of his salvation is either “ the just God, and yet a Saviour.” It is this broad, will of the flesh or the will of man" (John, revealed fact, which gives the atonement all i. 13); but that the whole, in its commenceits transcendent excellence and its peculiar ment, in its progress, and in its completion, glory, and invests it with all its melting love is “ of God that sheweth mercy" (Rom. and attractive wonder.

ix. 16). Viewed in any other light, or in any other In order, then, to elucidate more fully this bearing, the atonement is not only unintel- delightful part of our subject, and chiefly Jigible, but it is also indefensible, because with a desire to assist the plain readers of wholly irreconcilable with Divine goodness this essay in getting a deep, melting, heartand love; for it must be ever kept in mind, affecting view of their heavenly Father's that it was made by the Son to the Father, love, and in banishing from their minds not in order to produce a change in his na- every chilling and hard thought of Him, as ture and eternal purpose, which are clearly if he were a stern, vindictive, unrelenting incapable of any change, but to produce a God, clothed in frowns of terror and venpenitential, softening, purifying change in geance, and reluctant to pity, to pardon, and the hearts of sinners; not to excite pity in to save them,-let it be further observed, his breast, which was previously devoid of that it is evident, from the recorded history pity ; not to render him merciful who was of the fact, that the first sin of Adam, viewed previously unmerciful; not to purchase for- exclusively as a personal offence committed giveness of him who was previously disin- against God the Father (personally considered clined to forgive. This, it is to be lamented, as the Father), was pardoned as soon as it is the too current popular notion of multi- was committed ; for it was He, the Father of tudes respecting the propitiatory death of grace and mercy, who gave our offending Christ; and the notion also of many of parents that first cheering, though mysterious God's regenerate children, who should have promise, that “the seed of the woman should their spiritual senses exercised to discern and one day bruise the serpent's head” (Gen. iii. know better. The notion, however, be it 15). In the New Testament (not to swell adopted by whom it may, not only furnishes this essay by adducing passages from the solid argument for the rejection of atone- Old), this gracious promise is thus explicitly ment altogether, but it has no ground of unfolded : " God so loved the world, that he support whatever in the inspired Scriptures, gave his only begotten Son (he could not give when rightly understood and interpreted; for more), that whosoever believeth in him should it is utterly inconsistent with, and highly not perish, but have everlasting life. For God derogatory to, the revealed character of God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the the Father, who is truly “a God of love," world; but that the world through him might and whose compassions are infinite. be saved" (John, iii. 16, 17). And the same delighteth in mercy" (Micah, vii. 13); "with inspired writer, in his first epistle (iv. 9, 10), him is plenteous redemption" (Ps. cxxx. repeats the same sweet, consolatory truth, by 7); "he will have all men to be saved declaring, " in this was manifested the love and come unto the knowledge of the truth;” of God toward us, because that God sent his and expressly declares, “ as I live, I have no only begotten Son into the world, that we pleasure in the death of him that dieth"might live through him." And in order to (Ezek. xviii. 32). If, therefore, sinners ulti-shew that the predisposing motive of this exumately perish, the cause of their ruin is en- berant grace originated solely in the bosom of tirely their own wilful impenitence and unbe- the Father, he further adds, “Herein is love, lief. They are not constrained by any ex- not that we loved him, but that he loved us, trinsic influence, or secret decree, to do evil, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for nor are they restrained from doing good. our sins." From this testimony of Scripture, They act in every instance freely and volun- which need not be strengthened by additional tarily, according to the prevailing convictions quotations, it is as clear and decisive as lanof their minds, and the preponderating incli-guage can express, that it was the Father's nation of their wills; and this is all that a own infinite wisdom which devised the plan of moral, responsible, free agent can in equity salvation by a propitiatory sacrifice, and that claim of his Maker, as constituting the ground it was his own infinite love which provided of his obligation to "love him with all his heart, the endeared victim. He gave, at a cost ex

" He


ceeding all computation, " his only begotten, to heal—is divided into three parts. The first contains his only beloved Son, and delivered him up Pelagius, in which the errors of his

views are entered

a full explanation and exposition of the doctrines of for us all.” That Son willingly co-operated upon, and his notions proved to be at once inconsistent with the Father in carrying the accomplish- with revealed truth and with actual experience. The ment of this eternal purpose of love into doctrine of divine grace is treated of in the second, in effect, and, " for the joy that was set before

which all that St. Augustin wrote on the subject is arhim, endured the cross ;" endured, on that ranged with great perspicuity. He maintains that all

are born in sin, and by nature children of wrath ; that agonising tree of ignominious torture, suf- all, as a natural consequence, are guilty before God, ferings substituted in the room of sufferings and remain under the power of sin, sitting in spiritual due to us ; paid the full debt of our penalty, them spiritual light, and till they are called by his and thus " redeemed us from the curse of the gracious word from a state of spiritual death. The law," as a law of condemnation and death ; arguments by which the doctrine of irresistible grace but did not, by that act of redemption, cancel is maintained, are also considered at length. In the one jot of our binding obligation to obey it

third part, the restoration of the soul to the favour and

image of God is fully discussed. This portion of the as the law of His moral empire over our

work is regarded as the most elaborate, and testifies hearts, and the rule of our duty and alle- the extent of the author's learning; every sentence giance to Him as our King. By this “obe- scattered throughout the works of Augustin, which dience unto death" " he opened a new and

at all bears upon the subject, being introduced.

It is a striking circumstance, that the mind of Janliving way for us unto the throne of

senius seemed fully impressed that the publication of removed out of our approach to it every ob- this work might lead to much bitter controversy, or structing barrier and legal impediment, so even expose his friends to persecution. With his that we, and every guilty sinner "of every

dying hand, therefore, he wrote to the pope (Urban kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation,

VIII.), submitting the manuscript for his inspection ;

.and authorising his holiness to alter or expunge any may come boldly unto it, and may obtain

part of it. He thus writes with reference to the mercy and find grace to help in time of need" work :-“The expressions of St. Augustin are pecu(Heb. iv. 16).

liarly profound. The various modes in which his Thus, by the united act of the Father and

writings have been interpreted prove at once the diffi

culty of the exposition, and the incompetence of the the Son, united in counsel, in will, and in

expositors. Whether I have been more fortunate, operation, we are redeemed, not from God, whether I speak according to truth, or whether I am but to God, by the blood of “the Lamb ;" deluded by my own conjectures, can only be known by and our moral restoration to the Divine image infallible light, before which the illusive glare of false

submitting my whole work to the test to that true and and favour, through the new-creating power splendour disappears-to that divine touch-stone, at of the Holy Spirit, is at once the purchase whose touch every thing is ground to powder which and the gift, and the brightest display of the possesses not the solidity of truth. I therefore now lay Father's “ abounding grace towards us."

my work at the feet of your holiness ; I submit its contents

implicitly to your decision, approving, condemning, adHere our finite minds are lost, but de

vancing, or retracting, whatever shall be prescribed by the lightfully lost, in contemplating "the breadth, thunder of the apostolic see.” and length, and depth, and height” of this Whatever may be men's opinions relative to the love ; for it is indeed a love " which passeth | mitting, which even his most determined opponents

doctrines so firmly maintained by Jansenius; and adknowledge." It is the joyous song of the must admit, that he was an individual of the greatest believer in his homeward journey to God- assiduity and spirituality of mind, --- it is sad to think “ his everlasting light and glory ;" it is the that he should thus prostrate himself at the papal foot

stool. His conduct indeed argues a great diffidence of rapturous theme of angels, and of saints made perfect in holiness; it is the one great, ab

his own powers, and an implicit reliance on the papal

infallibility. Only half an hour before his death, he sorbing wonder of an adoring universe, and unreservedly abandoned himself and his work to the it will be such for ever.

authority of the pontiff

. His will was to the following effect :-" I feel” (with reference to the work), "that

it would be difficult to alter any thing; yet if the JANSENISM.-No. II.

Romish see should wish any thing to be altered, I am Doctrines, fic.

her obedient son: and to that Church in which I have

always lived, even to this bed of death I will prove On the very day on which it pleased God to remove obedient. This is my last will. Done 6th of May, him from this scene of activity and usefulness, Jan- 1638." senius finished that great work which had been traced

Immediately on the death of Jansenius, the Jesuits out by himself and his friend M. de St. Cyran, and endeavoured, by every method, to suppress the work, which had occupied him in its composition and arrange- to the doctrinal statements of which they were in many ment for the long space of twenty years, during which instances vehemently opposed. The old disputes period he had devoted the most unremitting attention between them and the Dominicans, respecting the to the study of the Fathers, and especially to the writ- doctrines of grace, seemed to be revived with fresh ings of St. Augustin. It is stated, he had ten times

ardour ; and they called all their subtlety into exercise read through the whole of the writings of that Father,

to prevent the writings of Jansenius getting abroad. and thirty times carefully compared those parts of them “No incident,” says Mosheim, “could be more unrelative to the Pelagian controversy. The work of Jan- favourable to the cause of the Jesuits, and the progress senius - which, to use the language of Mosheim, gave

of their religious system, than the publication of this such a wound to the Romish Church, as neither the

book; for as the doctrine of Augustin differed very wisdom nor the power of its pontiffs will ever be able little from that of the Dominicans; as it was held

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