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will happily find that this rejected doctrine

will, from its exact adaptation to their guilt fellow-mortals dying at home: one is gone, but after

come near us; we heard of them, but we saw them not; we still breathed a pure air. We heard of our

a long illness; another is gone, and gone suddenly, but it was an accident;-there is no pestilence in England.

and moral impotency, delightfully interpret and harmonise itself; will become the power of God to their salvation; and will unfold to their admiring gratitude and joy the glory, and wisdom, and goodness of Him who planned such a scheme of boundless mercy for saving the guilty and polluted, the helpless and the lost.


Should, however, the inquiring mind of the humble believer, who desires to be wise up to what is written, though not above it, and who daily searches the Scriptures with prayer, that he may "grow in the knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus," and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh him a reason of the hope that is in him;”should such an one ask, "Whence arose the necessity of a vicarious sufferer in our behalf?" the question admits of a very satisfactory answer, and is to be considered in a twofold point of view. This will form the subject of another essay.

"The cholera is in England !" and as one repeated

the tidings to another, many a cheek turned pale, and many a lip quivered; and then we listened to the account of its progress from place to place; and the lists of cases and the lists of deaths in the paper became interesting. "It is in such a place," one said to another," and a dear friend lives not many miles from thence." It is in London, and there is daily and hourly communication between that city and our own; and the infection may be speedily brought. Are we ready? Can we part one with another, knowing that

He remains who is more than father, and mother, and husband, or brother and sister can be to us? Then

there was time for thought: every friend, every near and dear relative of whom we might almost have said, Our lives are bound together; of whom we might almost have thought, as the brother of Benjamin said of him, "The lad cannot leave his father; for if he should leave his father, his father would die;"—every friend most dear shall pass in review before us;-we will think of every one individually, "Could we part with that one?" "As thy day is, so shall thy strength be." "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." O, claim the promises; rely upon them, and go on from day to day.

"We shall realise it more," we said one to another, "when we hear of any one we had ever seen or known having died in it;" and, after long warning, we were told that, in a distant place, such a one had died. Did we remember him? Yes, it was many years ago a friend brought him here: he was very young, and had just obtained a scholarship at Oxford; he was ordained a minister in the church: as for him, he was like a green olive-tree in the house of his God. We knew no more of him: he was taken ill, and his case pronounced a case of most malignant cholera; at five in the morning he died, and at four in the afternoon he was laid in his narrow bed. Now we can realise it. The same afternoon we had heard this account, came a man from one of the cottages on the steep leading down to the river. "H-s is dead, and must be buried to-morrow, for he has died of cholera." Now, then, it has reached our own parish: but we had warning and respite-a month passed away before another victim followed.


WHEN my reader walked with me in our churchyard, I said that we might meet again there, and that I could point to the grave of those who died in the cholera; and now I fulfil this promise. I often intended, while the cholera was prevailing, that if I should live to see it removed, I would recall who had been the victims, and make a little record of such circumstances as had come under my own observation.

It has been remarked that "all things are less dreadful than they seem." Those who have only read and heard of the cholera, can scarcely think they should kneel at the bed-side of the dying sufferer, and almost forget that the cholera is infectious. Oh, who that is a Christian will not bind to his heart that promise, "As thy day is, so shall thy strength be?"

There is a corner in our churchyard that till lately was seldom used: it had one grave, however, the grave of that poor deluded man, of whom I told you, whose poor sister came from a distant place, and having had the grave and the coffin opened, gazed in agony on her brother. That corner of the churchyarding was seldom used, because the ground was accounted damp, for it is very low: it is the south-west corner, and overhung by some willows planted in the adjoining field. In this spot are now many new-made graves, and I would walk down there with you, and tell you the histories of those who rest beneath. But we must look back a little. We remember when we knew but the name of the cholera; we heard of thousands in one distant nation, and tens of thousands in another, cut down by some sudden, fearful pestilence. Was it the plague, or a fever? No, it was a complaint varying in its symptoms, new and mysterious. We heard of these thousand and ten thousand deaths, something as we should hear of the falling of thousands on a field of battle; or of the sinking of a stately vessel, with its crew, and its captain, and its passengers, swept into eternity beneath the waves. It was awful it should make us think of death, judgment, and eternity; it should make us ask, Is our peace made with God, through Him "who being in the form of God, humbled himself?" But these events did not

From "Things New and Old." By a District Visitor.

I will not detain you with particulars of all the deaths; they amounted to about twenty. How mercifully indeed have we been dealt with! in the adjoin

city we have heard of no such ravages as in some other places; but we have heard enough to make the heart ache, and to fill the eye with tears. "There was not a Sunday," said a dear friend, "that we went to our school, but some were missing;" and to me it seemed, all that lovely weather, as we sat in our shady bower, or walked in our pleasant garden, the bells in Bristol were continually tolling. There was many a thought for the dead, and many a prayer for the dying there.

"Where shall we go," I heard some one inquire, "if the cholera comes to our city?" and I thought the there, we should be safe-could we breathe the air of only answer would be, "To heaven." Could we go heaven, we should breathe air that never was infected, and that never will be: but, my fellow-pilgrim, all the days of our appointed time will we wait, till our change "The angel of the Lord tarrieth round about them that fear him, and delivereth them." Shall we not be content to tarry too? to wait, and pray, and suffer, and rejoice, as long as God pleases? "Where shall we go?" Stay where the providence of God has fixed the bounds of our habitation; or go where the


pillar of cloud and fire leads us: go about our daily business; go to the sanctuary of God; go about doing good; go to the bed-side of the sick and dying, if our God has work for us to do there.

Twenty seemed indeed but a small number of victims in a parish the population of which is more than six thousand; and yet I could tell you victims of every age, and sex, and rank. One among the first was a strong and hardy woman, who had braved the toils of sixty summers and winters. I can see her now, with her flat country hat, and her cloth jacket, doing the hardest work in her garden, disregarding alike the wintry storm and the burning sun. Her grandchildren brought the infection from Bristol, and many of the family were ill; but they recovered, and the poor grandmother was the victim. Then there was poor M. Her name reminds me of a pleasant walk on a Sunday evening with my dear father; he had heard in the course of the day that a person of that name was ill, and wished to see him; and in the evening we set out to find her. But any one who may know the indistinct directions many of our poor neighbours give-how little they judge of distances; how numerous and intricate our lanes; and how frequent the same name among the inhabitants,-will not wonder that, after long wanderings and repeated inquiries, we could not find the person we had set out to see; but we went to one of the same name, and I sat and listened to the kind persuasive tones of my beloved companion. Mrs. M- was ill; but not

so ill as to have sent for him to visit her: she had had a liver-complaint for years, and was weak and low. "I did not know you were ill," said her minister; "and you did not send for me; but we will hope that God directed me here this evening." And then, in a few words, he told her lessons of wonder, that "angels desire to look into;" he spoke till one unaccustomed, alas, to hear, or read, or think of the cares of her soul, was humbled to a quiet and serious attention; till another thanked God for him more than he had ever done before; and till his own voice faltered with emotion. Thank God, she heard of the way to heaven; and though I have nothing further pleasing to tell of her, though, not long after, her husband and she engaged in an employment suited to lead them farther than ever from the way of holiness, that of keeping one of those numerous beer-houses which are a pest to our land-and though she neglected the public worship of God,-yet who knows but in the short time of her dying agonies there may have been a remembrance of that calm Sunday-evening visit; and a lifting up of the heart for mercy through the merits of that Saviour who was then evidently set forth crucified before her? She died; and the last offices were performed for her by Mrs. B-, one who was indeed valued and lamented. But I must not introduce her to you yet; there is another victim to be named first. "It is a melancholy account of poor Mrs. M," I remember saying to the sextoness, while the bell was tolling for her. "Yes, and there's another gone since," was the answer; and in every house I entered during my walk that morning, I heard fresh accounts of the dreadful sufferings poor H-s.


Such, we trust, was the case with Mrs. B—. I love to remember my visits to her; she was a pattern of a poor man's wife,-so industrious, so cleanly; and to her superiors (for I must use the word, though how inferior in many respects!) so humble, so thankful, so respectful: the little she could give to aid in sending to heathen lands the Gospel, which I trust she valued, how willingly was it given! There was a neat border of flowers before her door, and I admired them the last time I saw her, for the sun was shining most brightly on the marigold, and the red, transparent leaves of the love-lies-blecding. 1 remember she spoke with awe, and yet with calmness, on the judgments of God that were abroad in the earth; and told me she had provided remedies to be at hand, should either of her family be seized with the dreadful pestilence. But when the pestilence came, the earthly medicines failed; human physicians proved physicians of no value; and on a bright sunny morning, a few hours after her death, we watched her funeral procession-a few sad mourners. The next Sunday her family came to church for comfort, and came, I trust, not in vain.

The story of poor His a sad one. She had lived but a week in the place where she died; and I never heard her name, till I was told how ill she was in the cholera. I entered the large but desolatelooking kitchen, and paused at the foot of the stairs, for a female voice was reading. I listened to many verses of the Psalms: I think the beautiful prayers that followed were selected from the Visitation of the Sick; and I listened till I heard the words, "The Lord bless thee, and keep thee; the Lord make his face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee; the Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace." Am I wanted?" I thought, surprised and pleased to find any one whose voice I should not have known well, engaged in this labour of love. But hoping to administer some help for the temporal, if not for the spiritual wants of the poor patient, I now intruded on her and her kind attendant: this I found to be her sister, come from a place of service at a distance, to mourn with her and comfort her. The poor woman lay in extreme agony, but seemed attentive to all that was said to her, and thankful for instruction. But I saw her no more while she was able to hear, or speak, or notice any one: each day I saw her, but each day only to mark the progress of incurable disease. This was one of the cases in which, either through the strength of constitution, or the power of medicines, or, it may be, the healthfulness of the air in this place, the sufferer lingered day after day. I continued to go, not knowing but that she might again be able to hear and understand; but it was in vain : and the last visit surely never can be forgotten-never shall I forget that poor woman's dying agonies, for she was even then dying; half an hour afterwards she was gone.

In some cases that I have known since, the suffering appeared less than I had expected; and it was difficult to think the patient, while able to lie quietly and listen and reply to all that was said, really so extremely ill, and so very near death, as in some cases it proved. And oh if there was variety in the measure of bodily suffering, how great variety was there in the character of those who sufferedsome, alas, taken away from means of grace they had despised, and opportunities of mercy they had neglected; and others taken from the evil to come, gathered, at whatever age, as corn fully ripe, and stored where blighting and tempest never come.

How merciful is our heavenly Father in imparting strength equal to the day; and yet how often are those who really trust in him tempted to look forward, and heard to say, "I could not bear such a trial; I could not witness such a scene!" Oh, when I hear such assertions, I sometimes remember what I have known them witness, and I can scarcely avoid asking them, "Have ye suffered so many things in vain?" The strength suited to some particular emergency is not imparted before the emergency comes; and day after day the mind, without being hardened, seems better accustomed to what it has to suffer. We felt this when we watched the funerals from our windows at first there were some anxious thoughts about him who had to commit the bodies to the grave; and earnest, perhaps trembling prayers for a blessing on the preventive he had been induced to take before he went to this solemn and perilous duty: he came back again well, calm, and even cheerful; and

1 Our

were not

so were we. How is joy given in the time of sorrow! (p. 267): it is plain on every side but one, and on Surely we do not feel the less for those who are be- this is carved the figure of a horseman pursuing a reaved, because there is a counteracting feeling of

dragon. This dragon is said to have preyed upon the delight when looking on our own unbroken circle.

human race, and to have devoured, among other victims, the nine daughters of the hero represented on

the obelisk. The track through which the dragon fled THE WORSHIP OF THE SERPENT.

till slain, where the obelisk now stands, is still called No. IV.

"the Den of Bal Dragon ;” and it must be borne in

mind, that a den in Scotch does not so much mean a By Tue Rev. HENRY CIRISTMAS, F.S.A.

cave, as a valley or passage between two hills : the Serpent- Worship in England.

Dutch call it a kloof. Long after the fall of ophioArter having traced the worship paid to the serpent- latreia, the reverence paid to the dragon was continued, tempter through Europe, Asia, Africa, and even Ame- though in another way than that of worship. It berica, we return to the first named, in order to contem

came the standard of England; and Matthew of Westplate its prevalence among our own ancestors.

minster has a curious legend as to the time when it was British ancestors,” says Mr. Deane, p. 253,

first adopted. “The brother of the British king, Auonly worshippers of the solar deity, symbolised by the relius,” says he, “beheld a vision : a fiery meteor, in serpent, but held the serpent, dependently of his

the form of a great dragon, illumined the heavens with relation to the sun, in peculiar veneration. Cut off

a portentous glare. The astrologers unanimously exfrom all intimate intercourse with the civilised world, pounded the omen to signify that the seer would one partly by their remoteness, and partly by their national day sit on the throne of Britain. Aurelius died, and character, the Britains retained their primitive idola- his brother became king. His first royal act was, to try long after it had yielded in the neighbouring coun- cause the fabrication of two dragons in gold, like the tries to the polytheistic corruptions of Greece and meteor assumed: one of these he placed in WinchesEgypt." Their chief deity was the god Hu, called the ter Cathedral; the other he reserved to be carried bedragon-ruler of the world; his car was drawn by ser- fore him in his military expeditions. And hence the pents; and his priests, by a singular analogy, delighted custom, which the kings of England have ever since to be called adders. Davies, in his "Mythology of the observed, of having the dragon-standard borne before British Druids," observes, that their religious cere- them in battle.” So far Matthew of Westminster ; but monies were chiefly performed at a public festival, and the account refers to the ages of fable. It is, however, that the assembly of priests invoke the dragon-king. recorded, that the displaying of this standard intiThe place of consecration is on the “sacred mound, mated that no quarter would be given. Thus it was within the stone circle and mount which represent the unfurled by Henry III. and Edward I. against the world, and near the consecrated lakes." We shall have Welsh, to signify that the war should be one of exterin another place to speak of this stone circle and mination. The dragon is still the crest of the king as mount; at present we must remark, that a living sez- sovereign of the principality of Wales : but, as Mr. pent was exhibited, in the opinion of Mr. Davies, as a Deane well observes, “the heraldic dragon is as difsymbol of the god, and permitted to glide from place ferent an animal from the poetic, as the poetic is from to place, to taste the drink-offerings in the sacred ves- the religious—this last being no more than a large sersels. Another remarkable instance of the supposed pent. Ophiolatreia, as a system, fell beneath the sword influence of the serpent was the formation and virtues of the Romans when they took possession of Britain ; of the imaginary anguinum, or snake-stone. Pliny says, but it was so interwoven with the religion of the con“ an infinite number of snakes, entwined together in querors, and so consecrated by tradition, that its vesthe heat of summer, roll themselves into a mass, and tiges are not even yet extinct. The natives of Cornfrom the saliva of their jaws and the froth of their wall still believe in the magic powers of the anguinum; bodies is engendered an egg, which is called anguinum: ) and their account of its formation is not much less by the violent hissing of the serpents, the egg is forced marvellous than that of Pliny. Dr. Borlase, in his into the air ; and the Druid destined to secure it must Antiquities of Cornwall," observes : “The countrycatch it in his sacred nest before it reaches the people have a persuasion that the snakes here, breathground.” The egg thus produced became almost im- ing upon a hazel-wand, produce a stone ring of a blue mediately hard as a stone, and put on the appearance colour, in which there appears the yellow figure of a of glass (of which substance the anguina sold were snake; and that beasts bit and envenomed, being probably composed). It was worn round the neck as given some of the water to drink wherein this stone a charm, and was supposed to ensure success to its has been infused, will perfectly recover of the poison" owner, even under the most difficult and discouraging (p. 137). In the time of Camden, however, the vercircumstances. Pliny relates an anecdote of a Roman sion of Pliny prevailed; for in bis “ Britannia" knight, who was put to death by order of Claudius (p. 815) he says—" In most parts of Wales, throughCæsar for entering a court of justice with an angui- out all Scotland, and in Cornwall, we find it a common num round bis neck, believing that its magic proper- opinion of the vulgar, that about Midsummer-eve it is ties would ensure the gaining of his cause. It is the usual for suakes to meet in company, and that by their opinion of Mr. Faber, that the many legends extant joining heads together and hissing, a kind of bubble is concerning the destruction of huge serpents relate to formed, which the rest, by continual hissing, blow on the slaughter of those which were really objects of till it passes quite through the body, and then it imadoration among the Druids. There is an obelisk mediately hardens and resembles a glass ring, which near Dundee, which is described by Mr. Deane whoever finds will prosper in all his undertakings.

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The rings thus generated are called gleinen radroeth ; with greater magnificence, temples were erected ; in English, snake-stones. They are small glass amu- and the first temples were a number of the baitulia lets, commonly half as wide as finger-rings, but much collected into the shape of the god's anagramthicker, and of a green colour usually, though some- those erected to the sun in the form of a circle, times blue, and waved with red and white." This sin- those to the serpent in the serpentine form. The gular tradition prevailed in Scandinavia as well as in same principle has been carried out in later times; for Britain ; for Olaus Wormius observes: “Serpents are a Christian cathedral is always built in the form of said by the traditions of the ancients to produce by a cross; and that remarkable monument of Spanish their breathing a stone" (Hist. Gent. Sept. lib. xxi. magnificence, the Escurial, dedicated to St. Lawrence, cap. 48). There was, however, another serpent-stone, is built in that of a gridiron. The greatest serpentwhich must not be confounded with the anguinum, and temple, or dracontium, that perhaps ever existed, is of which Pliny thus speaks : " It must be cut out of that of Carnac, in Brittany. This was visited in the the brain of a living serpent, where it grows; for if | spring of 1832 by Mr. Deane, who caused an accurate the serpent die, the stone dissolves. The natives, survey of it to be made ; and has given, in his work on therefore, first charm the serpent to sleep with herbs, serpent-worship, a full and extremely interesting acand when he is lulled make a sudden incision in his count of it. The whole length of this gigantic drahead and cut out the stone." This is very like a tra- contium is about eight miles. It consists, or rather dition which prevailed about the toad, and to which did consist, of eleven rows of upright stones, more than Shakespeare alludes in the oft-quoted lines

10,000 in number, and represents the figure of " Sweet are the uses of adversity,

enormous serpent moving over the ground.” “But Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous,

this resemblance," continues Mr. Deane, “is more Wears yet a precious jewel in its head

striking upon an actual inspection of the original : lines commonly but erroneously supposed to refer to then the alternations of the high and low stones, the toad's eye, which is not remarkably beautiful, and regularly disposed, mark with sufficient accuracy the would never have been thought so, had it not been for swelling of the serpent's muscles as he moves along ; the misunderstanding of the passage above cited. In and a spectator standing upon one of the cromlechMalabar there is still supposed to be a precious stone hills, round which the serpent sweeps, cannot but be in the head of the cobra di capello, which, when con- struck with the evidence of design which appears in secrated by the priests, operates as a charm against the construction of the avenues' (p. 370). In the venomous animals.

course of the avenues are several areas : one in the The traces of ophiolatreia in Ireland are much shape of a bell; another in that of a horse-shoe ; and slighter than those to be met with in England, Wales, some, the form of which cannot be distinctly traced, in and Scotland, for which a reason may be found in the the present mutilated condition of the temple. In legend of St. Patrick. He is said to have banished all Britain we have that wonder of ancient times, Stonevenomous reptiles from Ireland by his prayers. Now, henge: but though the Druids were unquestionably when we find such legends in other countries inter- ophites, and ophite ceremonies were performed within preted to signify the suppression of ophiolatreia, it will the limits of this mighty temple, still there appears be difficult to say why the same system should not never to have been any avenues to it, and consequently be pursued in this instance ; and from the circum- it cannot be called a dracontium. Abury, in Wiltshire, stance that Christianity, and not any other form of is a regularly formed serpent-temple ; and this bas heathenism, succeeded serpent-worship, we are at no met with the attention it deserves. Dr. Stukely, Sir loss to ascertain why so few relics remain. The saint Richard Colt Hoare, and Mr. Deane, lave succesis said to have enclosed the last serpent, when all the sively and successfully examined and illustrated it. rest were gone, in a chest or ark. There are, however, The dracontium, which is both described and engraved evidences that Ireland was not free from this widely- | in Mr. Deane's work, consists of a circle of upright spread species of idolatry. Their chief god, Ognicus stones (without imposts): within this were four other or Ogham, bore a caduceus like that of Mercury, sur- circles, two and two, ranged round two centres, premounting a club; and Aylett Jammes, in his Britannia

senting altogether this figure (OO). From the points Antiqua Illustrata, has a figure of this deity as worshipped in England, and attended by a dragon. of the great circle nearest the smaller ones issued two

We shall now close our account of ophiolatreia; avenues, each a mile in length, representing the seradding only one more article on the dracontia, or

pent, whose head was formed by two concentric ovals serpent-temples, of which some of the most remark- on the top of a small bill. The great circle enclosed able are to be found in these kingdoms.

an area of more than 28 acres, and this was originally

encompassed by a mound and moat. This temple is Serpent-Temples.

fast falling into ruin ; some of the stones have been From the worshipoffered to the serpent, and the rites taken away for purposes of building, some to mend by which it was celebrated, we naturally turn to the the roads, some have sunk into the earth; and it structures erected in honour of the serpent-god. The is now very difficult to trace the avenues. In the connexion between the worship of the sun and that of neighbourhood of Abury many anguina, celts, and the serpent, will materially aid us in investigating other Druidic remains, have been discovered ; and in this part of our subject. The images of the solar god the time of Dr. Stukely the peasants had a tradition in the earliest periods were rude stones of a somewhat that no snakes could live within the circle,-a notion conical figure, and these were called baitulia, or pelre which, as Mr. Deane observes, “ may have descended ambrosie. When, in after-ages, worship was celebrated from the times of the Druids, through a very natural

superstition, that the unhallowed (i. e. unconsecrated) reptile was divinely restrained from entering the sanctuary through which the mystic serpent passed." Another British dracontium is that of Stanton Drew, in Somersetshire: it is near Pensford, about five miles west of Bristol. It differs from that of Abury, in having a small circle at the end of each avenue; and cons quently represented the circle and two serpents, probably typifying the good and evil principles. This temple is a small one, the great circle being only 126 yards in diameter; the smaller ones respectively 43 yards and 11 yards. A tradition, like that of St. Patrick, is preserved here, viz. that Keyna, the daughter of a Welsh prince, having settled at Keynsham, and finding herself annoyed by the serpents in her neighbourhood, changed them all by her prayers into stone. On Dartmoor are many similar temples; and some, of which the avenues are straight-two such are to be seen at Merivale: they run parallel to each other, the longer measuring 1,143 feet in length, the shorter 792; the longer has, like that at Stanton Drew, a smaller circle at the end of each avenue; the shorter, like that at Abury, at the end of one only. In Greece and Asia dracontia are also to be found; and, indeed, wherever roofless avenues of stones present themselves, there seems reason to suppose that the building to which they belong, or which they compose, was a serpent-temple. Such was the temple at Palmyra, which, though called the temple of the sun, was evidently a solar-ophite temple. A long avenue of two double rows of columns connected the portal with the sanctuary, which was in the shape of a parallel

logram. From instances such as these, the meaning of those traditions may be gathered which speak of serpents covering acres of ground. These could be nothing less than dracontia. Stukely thus explains Python, of whom Ovid speaks as "tot jugera ventre prementem" (Met. i. 459); and Tityus, whose bulk is similarly described by Virgil

"Per tota novem cui jugera corpus


Pausanias speaks of a "place encircled by select stones, which the Thebans call the serpent's-head" (p. 570). “Iphicrates related,” says Bryant, "that in Mauritania there were dragons of such an extent, that grass grew upon their backs. What," adds he, can be meant under this representation, but a dracontium, within whose precincts they encouraged verdure?" Many similar instances might be found of ophite temples in Greece and Asia.

It will be necessary, before concluding, to refer once more to the solar-ophite hierogram, which has been before mentioned. This is the circle, the wings, and the serpent. Of the various parts of this hierogram, the wings were the least important; and we find that the wings are never represented in the dracontiumthe serpent and the circle are singly or jointly introduced. In Mexico, the temple of Quetzalcohuatl, which was circular itself, and had no avenue, was entered through a gate made to represent the mouth of a serpent; and thus the emblems of the solar and ophite worship were remarkably combined.

We have now brought this subject to a close: it has of necessity been briefly treated; but the reader de

sirous of more fully investigating it, is referred to Mr. Deane's work, from which the information contained in these articles has been almost entirely derived.



A Sermon,

Chaplain of Heywood, Westbury, Wilts.

MATT. xvi. 26.

"What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?”

CHRISTIANITY is eminently calculated to pro-
mote the temporal happiness, and to improve
the temporal condition of man. A compa-
rison of any society or nation, to a consider-
able extent under the influence of Christian
principles, with any other society or nation,
would clearly establish this. But though a
Being of infinite benevolence has not over-
looked the temporal good of his creatures in
the Christian scheme, the objects he designs
have an incomparably wider range. They
embrace our whole condition as immortal
beings, and seek chiefly to secure our safety
and happiness in our future and ultimate
and unchangeable state. And it is because
the vital influence of Christianity alone upon
us can accomplish this, that its claims are so
imperative. To our present happiness we
cannot be indifferent; but the most import-
ant business of a state of trial, such as is our
present condition, is to prepare for our final
state, and to save our souls. If this blessed
end be accomplished, though it be at the loss
of all temporal good, and the endurance of
all temporal evil, we are happy; but if this
end be missed, though the utmost of earthly
advantages be acquired, we are the most
unfortunate beings in the universe. To de-
clare this, is the object of my text.
solicit, my brethren, your earnest and devout
attention to the three following considera-

Let me

I. The gain of the whole world.
II. The loss of the soul.

III. The question which the Saviour asks. I. By the gaining of the whole world, we mean the possessing all the advantages which this world is capable of supplying. I would consider the condition of a man thus placed. We will not direct our thoughts to the cases of those whose eager desires, though gratified, find their punishment in their gratification:-as the avaricious man, whose lust of gain is satisfied and punished by abundance of wealth; or the man of fortune and pleasure, who withholds not himself from any fancied joy, but finds all to be vanity and vexation of spirit. Let us rather suppose a

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