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The Congregationalists answer to the Independents, and of the overflowings of benevolence; although it of England, and are sympathetically, and to a great might have been anticipated, that the power of the extent lineally, descendants of the Puritans. The will, advocated by this new doctrine, and backed by American Presbyterians adopted the faith and dis- the workings of human depravity, would be quite as cipline of the Kirk of Scotland. Both bodies have likely to present obstacles as to furnish facilities to ever been accustomed to regard themselves as chief the immediate attainment of this end. among the religious sects of the country, and as having But the Presbyterians of the old school, not partia sort of patrimonial title over the public mind, to cularly desirous of having the whole world fall so soon dictate belief, and to give advice to “ the powers that upon their hands, or not ambitious of assuming so be." The early and long-continued political ascend- great an enterprise, preferred the easy chair of the old ancy of the Congregationalists of New England dis- system; or else, peradventure, were deeply concerned, posed them especially to assert this right, till the lest some should be saved who were not elected. But rudeness of democracy finally silenced and drove the seeds of the new doctrine had been sown, and had them from the field. The Presbyterians have been taken root extensively within these bounds, by the somewhat more diffident on this point, though exten- amalgamation of so many Congregationalists from sively influential. The two sects together are fairly New England, whence these pestilent errors were supentitled to great praise for their zeal and efficiency in posed to be derived. The contest, stoutly maintained promoting education in its lower and higher spheres, for many years, resulted in May 1838 in a violent and in the general advancement of academical and schism of the Presbyterian Church of the United theological learning. They have also taken a leading States, dividing it into two nearly equal parts, both part in the great religious and benevolent societies of
claiming the style, property, and public seminaries of the age. These institutions may be said to owe their the sect-- a question yet to be settled by the civil existence to them as prime movers, and they are principally under their guidance and control. Their This great and influential denomination, therefore, clergy have generally been educated men-first, in originally comprehending the Congregationalists and academical learning, and next in a course of profes- Presbyterians, now exists in three principal parts, not sional study; and a large number could always be to speak of the Unitarians, who went off from the found among them of eminent attainments. Heads Congregationalists, still bearing the same name eccleof colleges, and the various corps of professors in siastically, one being called orthodox, and the other literature and science, have been extensively selected as above; or of the Cumberland Presbyterians of the from these denominations. In a word, the Presby- west, a numerous body, and a defection from the Presterian religion, including that of the Congregational- byterian Church. The distinction of old and new ist3—which has generally been of the same theological school divides them theologically into two classes; and type - may be said to have been the most influential the agitation of these theological points seems likely to religion of the country. They are far, however, from rend them into several parts in the final issue, as some being the most numerous.
of the new school liave run far a-liead of their masters, The ever-active and practical character of the and enacted some very extravagant scenes in the American mind, aiming at productiveness and results, American religious world. felt itself, as we imagine, somewhat trammelled by The Baptists, according to the statistical accounts, the Puritan and Presbyterian theology, and uncom- would seem to be the most numerous sect of religionfortable under the severities of its discipline. Hence ists in America ; although we have never been able to that revulsion and important defection which started see how it is made out. They seem to have a faculty up, first in England, and afterwards in New England, for taking a census of themselves, which apparently in the form of the Unitarian body. We might trace exceeds their other modes of demonstration before the it to Geneva, and find it forced into being by the same public. They are certainly not usually visible in the cause; and to Germany, and find it in the garb of a
country in that proportion which these tables of enuphilosophy of a still looser character, and of a wider meration would lead us to expect. It is to be conrange.
sidered, however, that all who baptise by immersion, These difficult theological problems, fermenting in are ranked in this class; and these sects are very nuthe mind, have driven American divines from time to merous. Besides the two leading and principal denotime into the philosophy of metaphysics for interpre- minations of Calvinistic and Freewill Baptists, there tation and relief. The successive mutations and dif- are many others which it would be difficult to characferent phases which this school of theology has passed terise. through in America, from President Edwards down- The great proselyting power of this body seems to ward, it would be difficult to represent. Suffice it to be vested in the one idea of immersion, which has say, that a system has at last been formed, called the
much argument in it with those who are religiously theology of the new school, which stands accused by disposed, but not sufficiently enlightened to separate the old of corrupting the true faith, and running into principle from mode, or to distinguish between a dangerous heresy. It doubtless, a very consider- symbol and the thing signified. Hence the ignorant able modification, not to say a radical change, of the and the less conspicuous in the community are brought high Calvinistic system, bringing all men within the in to swell these numbers, which may account for the pale of salvability on certain contingencies or condi- fact, that they are more numerous than they appear to tions. Of course, the very idea of contingency or the eye of common observation. It is, however, to be condition in the way of salvation would throw a true observed, that the census of religious sects in America Calvinist into spasms, and draw from him the most un- is always made up from their own reports; and that answerable argument of horresco referens. The advo- large abatements are generally required as a balance cates of this new system profess not to have changed for the exaggerations of that sectarian pride which their ground, but only to have introduced a theory to gratifies itself in attempts to demonstrate a comparaexplain the difficulties of the old. Certainly they have tive importance. A minister's reputation in America made of the system a very practical affair, and adapted depends much on the number of converts he is able to it well to American taste and habits. It encourages report; and the comparative importance of the difmankind to work as well as to believe. Let loose from
ferent sects is measured by the same rule. Hence the the chains of predestination, and in accordance with great efforts in making converts, and the temptation this new light, the scheme has been set on foot in to count them before they are well made; not, howAmerica of converting the world at once, and of for- ever, to detract from a reasonable amount of disintercing mankind to be saved, whether they would or not- ested zeal and love for souls ; and hence also the a very natural excess of such emancipation of the mind, inducement to swell the general reckoning.
There is a numerous and active set of American mind be left to follow its own bent, it will regulate the Baptists, calling themselves Christians, commonly temporal and spiritual institutions of society upon one called Christ-ians, who are Unitarians, but a very uniform principle; and man will endeavour, if I may ignorant and boisterous class, who may be heard use the expression, to harmonise the state in which he preaching and praying at a great distance off. They lives upon earth with the state he believes to await him flourish in the back-woods; and their converts are in heaven." greatly addicted to apostacy, when the earlier excite- Hence, the political opinions of America having ments of their religious zeal are past. But their been before determined, those forms of religion best ministers baptise in great numbers, which are of course adapted to harmonise with them were likely to preput down in the list of converts.
vail most; and hence the religious democracy of the The Calvinistic Baptists of the United States are baptists and Wesleyans has acquired to itself by far by far the most respectable, among whom is to be the greatest numbers. The ecclesiastical organisation found President Wayland, of Brown University, the of the Baptists is a pure democracy, the priests and the Robert Hall of America, and other divines of consider people being all upon the same level. The priest has able eminence. This denomination has entered with no orders, except the democratic authority of his lay zeal into the field of foreign missions, and has a Bible brothers and sisters-a state of things for which the Society of its own, with the special object of protecting | poverty of language and former usages have not yet and propagating their own views as to the mode of furnished a name. That power which elevates to this baptism, in translations of the Scriptures into foreign honour, can at any time and at will reduce to the languages-the genuine esprit du corps.
original and common level. The Wesleyans are a notable sect all the world over, Not so, however, the Wesleyan system. Nevertheand have distinguished themselves greatly in America. less it is democratic, for the same reason that papacy In numbers they are next to the Baptists; but having is, and on the same principles; and like papacy in suffered but little by schism, they may be set down as America, it always proves itself democratic. It is a by far the strongest body in consideration of their singular fact, that the Roman Catholic Church in unity and numerical integrity. The habits and doc- America is the most thoroughly democratic of all. trines of this sect are well known in England, whence As the burnt child dreads the fire, so the Protestant they originated. The powerful and creative mind of Episcopal Church of the United States, having suffered their founder has cast the body into a mould, which more than any other from the jealousy and early legis. exhibits the same features in all parts of the world, lation of American democracy, in consideration of the and endowed it with a spirit which breathes the same fact that she was originally the established Church of animation in every member. Dashing aside the over- Great Britain in the colonies, has been extremely caregrown excrescences, and ejecting the overcharged in- ful not to meddle with the politics of the country. It gredients of the schools, John Wesley prescribed to took a full half-century, from the data of the American liis followers a plain, common-sense theology, which revolution, for the Church to recover a comfortable required little thinking, which might be comprehended state of existence, and begin to feel that her breath by the feeblest intellect, and easily propagated by un- was her own. The reorganisation of her ecclesiastical educated, but ardent and aspiring men. The disci- polity, a thing apart from episcopacy proper, and which plinary principles of the sect, as invented and estab- inay be adapted to the state of society in any country lished by the founder, are essentially democratic, like at discretion, was a duty which necessarily devolved those of the Church of Rome, in the organisation of upon this Church after the establishment of American the popular mass; and, like papacy, monarchical and independence ; and it was so prudently devised as to despotic in the organisation of the priesthood. It is be adapted to the popular institutions of the country, exactly that state of society to which democracy seems as originally set up, not democratic, but republican. every where to be tending, -the consolidation of the The American Episcopal Church, therefore, is properly people under the despotic sway of their leaders. and thoroughly republican in the construction and
“I think,” says M. de Tocqueville, “ that the Ca- operation of its polity. tholic religion has erroneously been looked upon as By a scrupulous avoidance of all intermeddling with the natural enemy of democracy. Among the various the politics of the State, and a steady adherence to her sects of Christians, Catholicism seems to me, on the own principles, the Episcopal Church has silently contrary, to be one of those which are most favourable worked hier way into a prominent rank among the reli. to equality of conditions. In the Catholic Church, the gious denominations of the country; and though not as religious community is composed of only two elements, yet numerous, as compared with those already noticed, the priest and the people. The priest alone rises yet it is rapidly increasing in numbers, and growing in above the rank of his flock, and all below him are public favour. What she lacks in a numerical point of equal. On doctrinal points, the Catholic faith places view, she enjoys in the respectability and wealth of all human capacities upon the same level. It subjects her members. Her present relative position to the the wise and the ignorant, the man of genius and the community and to other sects is peculiarly advanvulgar crowd, to the details of the same creed ; it im- tageous to herself. Compact in her organisation, conposes the same observances upon the rich and the sistent in her principles, unimpeachable as to the needy; it inflicts the same austerities upon the strong charge of meddling with politics, and aloof from the and the weak; it listens to no compromise with mortal common religious agitations of the country, she is well man; but, reducing all the hu:nan race to the same prepared to endure the shock which the premature and standard, it confounds all the distinctions of society at forced attempts at moral and religious reformations the foot of the same altar, even as they are confounded have brought upon the American public, and to profit in the sight of God. If Catholicism predisposes the by it. Tired of the religious squabbles, and disgusted faithful to obedience, it certainly does not prepare with the fanaticism, which have sprung up in so many them for inequality ; but the contrary may be said of quarters to interfere with civil rights, to disturb the Protestantism, which generally tends to make men public peace, and invade the domestic sanctuary, the independent, more than to render them equal.” more sober and reflecting, according as their relations
The disciplinary habits, the political opinions, and in society will permit, are turning their eyes to the theological tenets, both of the Baptists and Wesleyans, decent order and quietude of the Episcopal Church, as are more congenial to American democracy, than those an inviting place of repose. of the better educated and more accomplished religious There are other Protestant denominations of Chris. sects. "Every religion,” says the above-named author, tians in America, of respectable character and of con" is to be found in juxtaposition to a political opinion siderable importance, as the Reformed Dutch, the which is connected with it by affinity. If the human Lutheran Reformed, the Unitarians, Quakers, &c. &c.
The first of these are principally in the city and state troversy. He will perceive how unfounded is the of New York; the second in Pennsylvania ; the third at assertion, that, amidst the jarring of Protestant sects, Boston and vicinity ; the fourth here and there, but the Romish Church presents the beautiful spectacle of more especially at Philadelphia, the city of William a city at unity within itself; that this unity is an eviPenn. The et cæteras, including all the minor sects, dence of its being built upon the true foundation ; that are neither to be counted nor described.
its doctrines are to be embraced with implicit faith, The Roman Catholic Church bids fair to rise to im- its decrees to be regarded as infallible, and its requireportance in America. Thoroughly democratic as her ments, however revolting to common sense, or the members are, being composed, for the most part, of the notion of a pure and spiritual religion, are yet to be lowest orders of European population, transplanted to attended to, and complied with, under pain of eternal the United States with a fixed and implacable aversion damnation, to every thing bearing the name and in the shape of In presenting to our readers a brief sketch of Janmonarchy, the priesthood are accustomed studiously to senism, it may be well, in the first place, to give some adapt themselves to this state of feeling, being content account of its illustrious founder, who testified, even with that authority that is awarded to their office by while acknowledging, as we shall find, to its unlimited their own communicants and members. Aware of the extent, the supremacy of the papal see, that he was silent and insidious progress of papacy on American under the influence of vital religion, and that God was ground, certain of the more pugnacious Protestants pleased, amidst the darkness of popery, to enlighten, have attacked the Roman Catholics furiously, and to a great extent, the eyes of bis spiritual understandabused them so outrageously, that public sympathy ing, and to impress his heart with a sense of the value has rather turned in their favour; shewing the import- of the Gospel. ance of fighting the beast with suitable weapons and a Cornelius Jansenius, who was called for a short seaskilful hand, and illustrating the truth of the maxim, son to fill the see of Ypres, was the son of John Orto, that “discretion is the better part of valour."
and born at Acquoy, near Leerdam in Holland, Oct. 28, 1585. His parents were strict Romanists. He studied first at Utrecht, and afterwards at Leyden,
where he received the name of Jansen, or son of John, JANSENISM.
and which being Latinised, as was then customary No. I.
among authors, be was usually called Jansenius.
Naturally of a feeble constitution, he suffered much "The unity and antiquity of Romanism have been
from hard study, and was consequently recommended often contrasted by its partisans with the diversity to travel through France. He went to Paris, where and novelty of Protestantism. The topics supply the
he became intimately acquainted with M. du Vergier votary of papal superstition with fond occasions of
de Hauranne, afterwards Abbé of St. Cyran. Both exultation, triumph, and bravado. Romanism, ac
had been students at Louvain (whether at the same cording to its friends, is unchangeable as truth, and time, however, is disputed); and now they applied old as Christianity. Protestantism, according to its
closely 10 classical and philosophical learning, and enemies, is fluctuating as falsehood, and modern as
soon became remarkable for their progress in theology. the Reformation. The Bishop of Meaux has detailed
The health of Jansenius not improving, he accomthe pretended variations of Protestantism, and col
panied his friend to Bayonne, and resided in his house lected, with invidious industry, all its real or imaginary six years. M. de Iauranne became canon of the alterations. The religion of the Reformation, in the cathedral, and Jansenius master of a newly-founded statements of this author, is characterised by muta
college. Their leisure time was devoted to the study bility.".
of the Fathers, especially St. Augustin, whose views As to the antiquity of Romanism, it may easily be
on the doctrines of grace appeared to them to be conshewn how unfounded are the assertions that are so sistent with the word of God. An old-fashioned chair, boastingly made on this point; that Christianity existed
fitted up with cushions, and a writing-desk, was long even in our own country long before the supremacy of afterwards shewn as his study. In this he was accusthe see of Rome was heard of, or its false doctrines
tomed to read, write, and sleep, as it generally formed had obscured the light of Gospel-truth. Its unity is
his bed. His sleep was usually limited to four hours that which bears more directly upon the present sub.
out of the twenty-four. After six years the two friends ject; and how utterly false are the statements usually returned to Paris ; and in 1617 Jansenius went to Louset forth by papists on this point, will clearly be per- vain. Two years afterwards he obtained a doctor's ceived by a reference merely to those disputes which
degree, and was inade director of the college of St. Pularose within the pale of the Romish Church during cheria, which was completed under his inspection, and the latter part of the seventeenth and earlier part of
its rules drawn up by him. He visited the Spanish the eighteenth centuries, in which the Jesuits and the
court in 1624, and also 1625, for the purpose of opposJansenists distinguished themselves by an avowal of ing the Jesuits, who had attempted to establish proopinions utterly at variance on some most vital doc
fessorships of their own at Louvain, to grant degrees trines. Not that such disputes were confined to the
independent of the university. His mission was sucperiod here adverted to.
The history of the papacy cessful; to which the hatred of the Jesuits towards him is the history of continual conflicts of opinion, on the may in no small measure be ascribed-a hatred wbich part of persons who pretended that the Church was
extended not only to himself, but to all who were supan infallible guide in matters of faith, and who con
posed to have embraced his doctrines. sequently denounced the right of private judgment,
The fame of Jansenius began now to spread. His and decreed it to be unsafe that the Scriptures should works bore marks of deep research and profound be freely circulated and universally read.
thought: one of these, entitled Mars Gallicus, grieThe rise of Jansenism, the alarm which it caused to its opponents, and the persecutions to which it led, vously offended the Cardinal Richelieu, who is sup
posed at that period to have been aiming at creating form an important feature in the bistory of the Church
France into a patriarchate, and that he himself should of Rome. The doctrines espoused by the followers of be the first to fill the office. Jansenius, after no small Jansenius were utterly repugnant to their adversaries; and the Protestant reader can scarcely fail to derive instruction from an acquaintance with this great con
• The history of this contest is to be found in many authors, who have either given a relation of the whole, or treated apart
some of its most interesting branches. The writers that ought • The Variations of Popery. By Samnel Edgar. 2d edition.
principally to be consulted on this subject are, Gerberon and Du Sceleys. 1838.-This work contains a vast fund of information
Mas - the former espousing the cause of the Jansenists, the telative to the Church of Rome.
latter favouring the Jesuits.-Mususim, nole.
opposition from the Jesuits, was consecrated bishop of as a similar degree of growth in grace, which led them Ypres on his birthday 1636. Advanced to this bis to view the writings of the Fathers in the same light. honourable station, he endeavoured to adorn it to the However this may be, at that period it was they muutmost, and to perform its various functions. His tually adopted that system, afterwards so well known time was spent as became one appointed not only to under the name of Jansenism. With which of them it rule others, but to display in his life and conversation originated, would be difficult to decide. By the world the power and beauty of the Gospel. His days were it was ascribed to Jansenius, because it was first made devoted to religious instruction, the affairs of his dio- public by his commentary on St. Austin."
Y. cese, and deeds of charity and mercy; his nights to study and prayer. It was his earnest desire to reform the abuses too prevalent amongst his clergy; but he was intercepted in his career of usefulness. The
GOD'S INSPECTION OF THE RIGHTEOUS plague broke out in Flanders, and was peculiarly fatal
AND THE WICKED: in the neighbourhood of Ypres; the inhabitants who
a Serman, were not seized with it fled in the most fearful alarm. The good bishop now testified the soundness of his
BY THE Rev. Edw. Hanson, B.A. principles. He ministered most sedulously to the
Curate of Thorney, Notls. sick and the dying, unappalled and without dismay. He was found ever ready to administer to bodily as
1 Pet. iii. 12. well as to spiritual wants. It pleased God that he " The eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his should himself fall a martyr to the malady. He died, ears are open unto their prayers : but the face of after a very short illness, May 6th, 1638, and was the Lord is against them that do evil.” buried in the cathedral of Ypres, his tomb being in some few verses preceding the text, St. placed in the centre of the choir, and a monument, with a suitable inscription, erected to his memory.
Peter had been exhorting the Christian conThe character of Jansenius has been thus drawn. verts to be “all of one mind, having compas“He was a man of remarkably abstemious and ascetic sion one of another ;" to love as brethren, to habits. Grace had entirely subdued his naturally warm temper, and had converted the impetuosity of a lion
be pitiful and courteous ; not to be quarrelinto the patience and gentleness of a lamb. He was a ling amongst themselves, " rendering evil for man of primitive integrity, fervent faith, and a solid evil,” and injury for injury, and " railing for understanding. His learning was not unworthy com- railing ;” but to follow the advice of Him parison with that of the doctors of the Christian Church, and his piety was worthy a successor of the
who said, “ Love your enemies, bless them apostles; yet the quality for which he was most pecu
that curse you, do good to them that hate liarly distinguished was Christian watchfulness and you, and pray for them which despitefully circumspection. His piety attained to its uncommon growth and depth, not so much from any superior the children of your Father which is in hea
use you and persecute you ; that ye may be brightness of Divine illumination, as by his peculiar ven.” He now proceeds to strengthen his assiduity in strictly attending to the light he had. Whilst at Bayonne both himself and M. de St. Cyran exhortations, and to animate them to obehad been peculiarly struck with the character of Abra- dience, from the consideration that God inham. This great patriarch had neither the advantages of the Christian, nor even of the Mosaic institution.
spects The command he received from the Lord was, ' Walk
If this consideration could be deeply imbefore me, and be thou perfect.' Abraham obeyed the pressed upon the heart, it alone would be a command, and became the father of the faithful, and powerful motive for men to lead a godly and the friend of God. Owing to a contemplation of this passage, both M. de St. Cyran and Jansenius were
virtuous life, and a strong inducement to abpeculiarly attentive at all times to entertain a sense of stain from all vicious and immoral courses. ihe Divine presence, and to walk as before God. The For what can be so much desired as the faimmense plenitude of spiritual riches which afterwards distinguished these great men, was almost entirely tirely dependent; who can dispose of us
vour of the Almighty, on whom we are enown spirits, and self-denial in what are termed little according to his good pleasure and wisdom ; things."*
"whose favour is life, and whose loving. kind“To renew the heart by a thorough conversion ness is better than life?” He can preserve from all creatures to the Creator ; to enlighten the
us from all evil, both of body and soul, and spiritual understanding by the study, not of human opinions, but of revealed truth,—these were the two
make us finally and eternally happy beyond grand objects of Jansenius and his friend. These were all that we can ask or think ; for “ their motives in studying the works of men whose not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered reputation for sanctity the Church had so long ac- into the heart of man to conceive the things knowledged. These ends, too, they thought mutually assisted each other. All that knowledge of religious
which God hath prepared for them that love truth which is really spiritually discerned must kindle him.” On the other hand, what is so much divine love in the heart; and whenever divine love is to be dreaded as the Almighty's displeasure ? kindled in the heart, the spiritual understanding will be open to the perception of divine truth. The word
If we offend him by disregarding his authoof God never separates genuine spiritual light from rity, by transgressing his laws, by presumpgenuine spiritual heat. Hence, perhaps, it was
, that tuously daring to lead an ungodly and wicked they adopted their favourite motto, “ Unde ardet, unde life,--who, or what, can save us from his just lucet.” They only wished to be shining lights, from the heat by which they were burning lights.
anger, or turn from us his fiery indignation ? "Perhaps it was the conformity of their minds, as well
If we do not in words, we do in fact say with
Pharaoh, " Who is the Lord, that we should See a Tour to Alet and La Grande Chartreuse by Dom. Claude Lancelot, &c., by Mary Ann Skimmelpenninck.
obey his voice?" or, with the prosperous
wicked of whom Job speaks, “ What is the through Jesus Christ, the only Mediator beAlmighty, that we should serve him ?” What ! tween God and man, to enable him to if we are thus against him, will he not be cify the flesh with the affections and lusts.” against us? and has he not power to “de- And to whatever height in holiness he may stroy both body and soul in hell ?”
attain, he does not arrogate to himself the These are awful and important truths -- praise, but humbly confesses, with St. Paul, truths irrevocable, and which are deducible that it is “ by the grace of God he is what from the words of the text. By God's help, he is.” Of such an one God approves : then, we will endeavour to illustrate their it is upon such an one that the eyes of the meaning, and from thence draw some in- Lord are fixed with approbation and delight, ferences for the regulation of our future We must not suppose, however, when we conduct.
read that God's eyes are over the righteous, First, then, David declares, and St. Peter that he has eyes, ears, and other bodily parts quotes his words, “ that the eyes of the Lord as we have. God is an infinite spirit, diffused are over the righteous.” But the righteous, through all space, and filling heaven and earth who are they? We will endeavour to point with his presence. Our apostolic Church deout, clearly and distinctly, who they are that clares that he is "everlasting, without body, are designated by that character. We may parts, or passions ; of infinite power, wisdom, see many very respectable people around us, and goodness.' But the Scripture writers free from those vices and immoralities which used these expressions in condescension to disgrace and pollute man, the noblest of God's our capacities, and to speak after the mancreation ; they may be kind and charitable to ner of men, that we might the more easily their poorer brethren, courteous and friendly comprehend them. Thus," the eyes of the to their equals, and civil and obedient to their Lord are over the righteous” means God's superiors, yet they may not be righteous : perfect knowledge of them; there is no they may attend regularly at the house of action, no word, no thought, of which he is God, and constantly partake of his ordinances, ignorant. Indeed, there is nothing in all - yet they may not have that love to God in nature which is concealed from his knowtheir hearts which he demands, nor that faith ledge. “ The Lord searcheth all hearts, and in Jesus Christ which is requisite for their understandeth all the imaginations of the justification, nor possess the Holy Spirit of thoughts ;" and the author of the epistle to Christ; and if they “ have not the Spirit of the Hebrews affirms, "all things are naked Christ, they are none of his.” It may only and open unto the eyes of Him with whom be a desire of standing well in the opinion of we have to do." their fellow-men, and to be thought what is The text, however, implies that the rightecalled decent in religion, which induces them ous are the peculiar objects of his care and to abstain from vice, and to do all these attention. As our eyes and thoughts are things; or perhaps they have no disposition, chiefly turned and fixed upon things which no inclination for those pleasures and pur- we most esteem, so the eyes of the Lord are suits which many similarly situated in life particularly directed to the righteous; he with themselves continually follow. The views them as worthy of his love. It is truly righteous man is not such an one as true that they are exposed equally like other these. He is one whose whole delight is in men to want and to woe, to danger and tempthe Lord God of his salvation ; one who feels tations, to troubles and afflictions; but in all his deplorable, and "wretched, and miser- these he watches over them for their good; and able," and lost state by nature ; one who is if any or all of these misfortunes come upon humbled with a sense of his own unworthi-them, they know that they are sent for some ness, and with the knowledge that he has no good purpose ; and if they will place implicit power in himself to save himself; therefore, confidence in him, he will supply their wants, utterly disclaiming any fancied righteousness and protect them in danger, and support them of his own, he comes to Christ, acknowledging in trouble, and with their temptations make himself, like St. Paul," the chief of sinners; a way for them to escape, that they may be he looks for salvation solely through the blood able to bear them. Thus he is " a strength to of Jesus, and through his righteousness; and the poor, a strength to the needy in his disby the help and co-operation of the grace of tress ; a refuge from the storm, and shadow the Holy Spirit, which he knows has been from the heat ;' and we are told that "the promised to every one who will ask for it, Lord careth for the righteous, that he loveth and which was poured out for that purpose, them, and beholdeth the upright with pleahe endeavours to " walk in all the command- sure.' ments of the Lord blameless”--to serve God Secondly, “ His ears are open unto their in spirit and in truth, with a pure heart and prayers." This signifies that he is pleased mind ; and in order to do this, he prays God, with the humble and devout addresses of