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by that race of expectants who are always

apologizing for kingly errors, that there is |

now a period arrived, when the ambition of monarchs is not tarnished with injustice; when the sceptre is not supported by blood, but by the free, and generous applause of the people; when the Liberators of France will give peace to the world, and establish the general tranquillity upon a basis too firm to be shaken. However ridiculous might appear the assimilation of absolute monarchy and impartiality, of policy and justice, we were still disposed to give them credit for generally meaning well; and we augured from their intentions what we might have doubted from their capacities. The Courier, and its satellites, now say that we were deceived; that the deliberations of Vienna have unveiled their motives, and that personal advantage seems the general and the only point on which they proceed to argue. Whether our newspaper press be correct or not in ascribing these motives to the Allied Sovereigns, it is not my province to decide. To time, which tries all things, it must be left to settle this. I cannot, however, refrain from remarking, that the infamous partitioning of Poland in the first instance, gave to the revolutionary leaders of France an example ..". fair justification for proceeding in a similar manner; and I should not be suprised if the seeds of another, and . . . a more tremendous revolution, were ... now sowing upon the continent, by the legitimate monarchs of the day, again forming treaties, of convenience, and chemes of ... personal aggrandisement and private advantage. , Napoleon really #o: o right to Spain, with

Russia, to Poland, or Prussia to Saxony. - of these projected annexations shall take place, it us hearing more of the ty... o. ofaany; or the "ijustice of the Empe

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w" of France.” thas been very well re

irked, that Calvin was far more cruel o.". he so abused; because, alive to the condemnàtion.of theif eruelty, he equalled its

vilest enormity. Why then, if what is said of these sovereigns. be true, ‘aré

they less too. the victim of their efforts? Why is; the conduct which in Buonaparte was so universally execrated to be tolerated, or approved, in them? . . . This cannot be justiée; this surely is not

, tenerosity. But why must Prussia hars;

Saxony? Poes Saxony wish for the union 7 No. Directly the reverse. Do these liberators of the world, fulfil their promise respecting national rights by outraging them? Could Buonaparte have done more than force upon a country a sovereignty which it hated? Have not these liberators, according to the Times and Courier, done still more? Have they not deprived Saxony of a monarch which it loves? Whom has the King of Saxony offended? his people? they forgive him. The nations of Europe? What, by entering into treaties with Buonaparte? They have all dome the same. By adhering to the faith of those treaties? Yes. Here lies the real grievance: his adherence to his word, his treaty, reproached, many of them with the breach of theirst he had received benefits from the hands of Napoleon, and did not think it consistent or honest to betray him. The example he had before his eyes, did not convince. He exhibited the phenomenon of a sovereign who did not think convenience a 'sufficient reason for falsehood. The Times, l observe, talks of conquest, as giving the negotiating momarchs the right of disposing of the fate of Saxony, and of transferring the Saxons, like cattle, to a master they dislike. Would it have been advisable to talk of the conquest of their country to those Saxon soldiers who joined the ranks of the allies at the battle of Leipsig? Would Bernadotte, who placed himself at their head, and called upon them to follow him in the cause of the liberties of Europe; would he have thought it the best method of securin their aid, by telling them that their country would be treated as a conquered province? But Prussia must have indemnity? Indemnity for what? For the loss of Hanover, which she received from Buonaparte to wink at the ruin of Austria? For the loss of her own provinces in the war with Buonaparte which she herself provoked? Are these the clahns 'of Prussia to the annexation of Saxony?"Cáň her best friends assign any other?. Would the worst of her enemies desire any more? Have the Times. and Coûrièro not recollection of their own eansolition: át the ruin of the injodel House of Brandeñburgh? Have they so soon forgot their pious remarks,

upon the judgment which attended the


o of the Deist Frederick. Has t Christianity of the present monarch retrieved its destiny? I shall not notice the pretext of arrondisement: It would be only the plea of universal monarchy in its extreme; no arrondisement could be complete, but the circumference of the globe. In my next I shall offer with your permission, a few marks on the pretension of Russia to #. JUVENIs. . *—r

* - THE PHLH.ORY. SIR.—The remarks which lately appeared in your journal on the subject of the pillory, do equal credit to the head and to the heart of Benevolus. It is rather extraordinary in these enlightened times, when we hear so much about converting the heathen, emanciating the slaves, and encouraging the Bible Societies, that scarcely one public writer should be found, who possessed the courage, or the inclination, to reprobate a practice so disgraceful to our law, and marked with so many satures of a barbarous policy. The public press every where terms with idle ins contradictory speculations as !. the "probable result, qf the discus

#19as. at Vienna; - whether the system

of aggrandisement attributed to the Emperor Napoleon, is to be adopted

as the lay of o or whether that state of things which existed previous to the French Revolution, is to be restored. * and some, contemptible jo as to a new order of knight

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le people of this highly - ho at present to

elish, 9 gh wo the

fanthiopist or of the philosopher is en: he almélioration of our laws,

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cultitated aVé any

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ment of prison discipline; but I have

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which, it was formed have been abandoned. No notice, as far as I have been able to discover, has been taken of it in any of our newspapers, or other periodical publications. A society with such liberal and enlarged views, could not fail, in my opinion, to meet with generous support were its intentions made sufficiently public, and why these should be kept in reserve, if the association now exists, is a problem that seems very difficult to solve. It would gratify many of your readers, if any of your correspondents could give some information respecting this society, which night, with great propriety, and without any departure from its original views,connect the subject of the pillory with the other important reforms for which it was instituted. While, however, it may be said, that "I have been liberal in my censure of our public writers for neglecting this vital subject, let me not be aco. cused of partiality.—From this general reprehension I am glad to find there is one exception, who has done the subject ample justice, though his modesty, which is always a proof of talent, has led him to conceal his name. I allude to the observations on the , pillory, which—appeared in the last number of th eriodical work, entitled the Pamphleteer. They appear to me- so excellent, and the writer has discussed the subject in so masterly a manner, that I should like to see the whole of his remarks published in your. Register. But as this may not be altogether consistênt with your other arranguments, I have subjoined to this letter a short oštúct, to which I, hopes you will the more readily give insertion that its whole odocy is to inforce and illus. to ille.ogising its of Benevalus, who $9 soly and so laydably.contended *çoilst the existence of a mode of pu*holent, possessing so many features of savage cruelty and bárbarity...... . . . . . . . Yours, &c. A. Be; ++, “... . . . . ;

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be made up by the assistance of so tumult, or its necessities supplied by violence and outrage. In short, the pillary is in direct opposition to the principle upon which all laws are founded, and must serve, as far as its influence extends, to undermine the founda

tian of their authority. They were erectedito, control... the unbridled passions of

man, to take from individuals the power of revenge, to render punishments the determinate effect of firm and substantial, enactments, instead of fluctuating with the rage and the sympathies of individuals, to , prevent parties from being judges of their own injuries, to humanize, society by taking from the strongest, the power of inflicting arbi; trary penalties by which it was reduced to a state of perpetual warfare, and to impress the mind with awe by the weight and the solemnity of their decisions... But this strange infliction ač. dually reverses all these benign intentions which the collective wisdom of ages has gradually matured ; it proceeds on antisocial principles, and tends to bring us back to our state of original barbarism. We hare all been taught that the sacred throne of justice should be eralted far above the passions and the eter-fluctuating sympathies of man; that its voice should be as certain as it is ausful, and its sentences untainted with any of the grosser particles that move in a lowlier atmosphere. We have learnt that while increasing wisdom should improve our laws, their actual dictates should be reeeived during their eristence with a noble and gonerous obedience. But here, in opposition to all these marins, we see in them a principle which tends to their own destruction, a secret cancer which b insensible degrees is eating away th vital principle on which their vigor. and their majesty depend. A judgonent of the pillory is the worst. # their enemies. of the mob applaud,

they are set openly at defiance; and if

on the other fiand they break out into violence, the peoce they should preserve is broken, the personal feelings they

should subdue are excited, and the bar-f.

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arrayed against their authority; and a competition is excited where it is the noblest policy to conciliate. In the latter, the people act the part of un

miliar with the most brutal of pleasures, the delight in pain, the horrible laugh

of a fellow being. They who look on the fortures # to at a bull-baiting or a-cock-fight with a virtuous horror, unless they measure out their disgust according to law, should feel a much stronger indignation at the sight y a fellow creature set up to be pelted al. most to death amidst the drunken accla mation and infernal revelry of the low est and most deprared of our species And if thus pernicious in its immedi. ate influence, it is not less dangerous in its example. Those whom you suffer to riot on the side of the laws may soon learn. to oppose them with similar outrages, By allowing them thus to deficiency of the lairgiver, we educate them for revolution and carnage. #. give them arms to be awakene winst

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The Ancient, earched for Truth; the Moderns

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authorized erecutioners, and become fa-.”

of demoniac erultation at the sufferings

supply the

our bosoms, whenerer, the breeze a #. o The

hands that have learned to throw bricks '' and filth on the criminal, may' erercise

should be so unfortunate as to incur

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- in a well regulated state; but we are doubly

my two former letters, I endeavours!

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to call your readers, not only to con-
sider the situation of Mr. G. Houston,
bui also to request they would examine
into the liberty of the press in this
country; on whose altar that writer is
now a victim; for until this “thinking
“ nation” really understand his situation,
and the motives for which he is punished,
he will not be the last that will suffer in
its cause. -
I knew I touched a sore place, when
I attempted to shew to your readers
the discordant opinionis entertained of
that old book for which Eaton, Hous-
ton, and thousands more may be sent
to prison.
trimitarian, a unitarian, a Southcotearian,
or any other footarian ; but that I must
not bring the contradictions, and (what
they cally the arguments of one tribe to
combat the whims of the other,without
exciting the suspicions of those who
call themselves Jitst! But I have done
to; and while I delight in the deed, I
smile at their suspicions and contempt.
'Before I reply to your correspondent
justus, permit me to introduce the origin
of my o: ance with the work in
question. You', most know ea is a
own designated, by one of the most
corrupt of his time as, “ the toyshop
of Earope; whose inhabitants, (; speak
generally) in my estimation, rank lower
for liberality of sentiment, general in-
formation, and Christian charity, than
any other on the surface of the globe.
The scale by which I estimate then is,
that in and about the place, there are
the remains of half-mutilated, houses,
because their inhabitants opposed the
ofígin of our war with the French Re-
pnisie, burnt by Church' and King
inobs; and that in those receptacles of
resort, where its people, go to drink
mild ale and talk wisdom, there are
scrolls inscribed with legible English
characters No Jacobins admitted
“here.” I was leaying this town last
Summer in the Mail, and in passing
- one of those houses whose iniserable
appearance appeals, in silent and par
thetic language, to the frigid faculties,
and would hush to silence their un-
• manly prejudices, if reflection ever an-
imated their torpid brains; when I
1 soon discovered from the observations
of a gentlemán in the coach, that he
was the Father of the engraver of the
plates, in the GEdipus Judaicus. He

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* †, , , , , *

I knew that I might be a:

explained to me the design and inten-
tion of its author; since which I have
had a sight of the book. . . It has fully
answered my expectation, and again
I say displays a fund of prodigious
erudition. The following, short ex-

| tract will shew its intention, and de

'sign, “I contend (preface page ii.) that, the Ancient Jews, like other nations of , antiquity, had their esoteric, and their exoteric doctrines; they, concealed the former under influmerable §. and symbols, the meaning of which is generally unknown among their descendants. It is the object of my book to explain the hidden sense of many passages in the Hebrew Scrip-. ture.” Page 22, he says, “I recollect “that Moses was learned in all the wis“dom of the Egyptians, and I expect to “find traces of that wisdom in his works. “The learned among the ancient Egyp“tians were pure theists, as Cudworth “has proved. They were deeply skilled “in the sciences: but they carefully “concealed their mysteries under innu“literable symbols and allegories. May “we mot look then for the same thing “in the writi

“ the Jewish . -
to have done, and I submit to the judg-
“ment of a few individuals, the result of
my researches.” . . . . -
Of the 250 copies only, which I stated
to have been printed, 100 uow remain
in the hands of the publisher. You will,
therefore, judge whether I have been un-
fair in my former communication. As to
quibbling about its method of publication
and circulation, it would be a ridiculous
waste of time, I wish a copy was,in the
-hands of every person, in the kingdom; *
for Sir Wm. Drummond would then thake"
a better and more practical use of his

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s which are ascribed to wgiver. it is what I

abilities and learning. With regard to
D. J. Faion, will receive more praise, ..

titles by every King in Christendon.
O, Sir, it is cruel! You know it is, to .

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o a Ricked jury may be chosen y

“I guess no man in his senses will main“tain so wild a position.”---Indeed, from the wording of your Correspondent's letter, I do not believe he is serious' in his assertion. But I challenge him to the proof; for Candidus, one of the three, tells Sir Wm. Drummond that he, prefers the old version best, and censures him for ridiculing the Bible. Suppose, however, I am wrong in my opinion of the author of the GEdipus Judaicus; suppose he is the story teller, the fool, and the rain jackdaw, they wish to represent him, what “necessity” was there for this great and mighty parson, the Christian Advocate, to notice his production? Why did he make such endeavours to obtain a copy, he best knows how? Surely, the “pious, think“ing people of this country,” could not have their “minds tainted” by an octavo book of not quite 500 pages, “ of “ the most hollow and fallacious de“ scription.” But these are the rules the hypocrites act upon. I was a boy when Thomas Paine's works were published; but I recollect the writer was at first held too contemptible for notice, and the “friends to social order, “ and our holy religion,” were told they had nothing to fear. After a while, the AttorneyGeneral interfered, who got a jury to condemn!’aine's books, and then the cafiting juntô asserted they were answered and refuted. “Read our side, (said they,) “see what Bishop Watson says.” *So says Justus; he . the author of the GEdipus Judaicus a vain jackdaw; tells the people to read the book; (which he knows cannot be had), exhorts them to attend to the Christian Advocate; and censures those who take part against him. Come, come, Justus, ive up your prejudices. Let the “Si* cilian:Knight and British Privy Coun“ cellor,” itsterpret the Bible his own way....You may depend on it I will let the Archbishop's Chaplain, (who appeats: blessed. with all those amiable qualities that oddorned his predecessor in the ever, memorable time of William Peñny pit what interpretation on it he pleases. o Every one that reads the bible inay undinbiedly find both instruction and delight; but he will be more likely to become a rātional being, if he be allowed to put his own con: struction upon it, ańd interpret it his owa way. I should like to know by:

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what principle of rule or right any one dares to interfere and prescribe, the method by which another is to exercise his judgment. That a deal of mischief has been the result of this interference, no one, acquainted with the history of his own country, much more with the history of the world, can deny; and whether the same quantum of nuischief would have taken place provided the bible had never been known, is, in my opinion, , difficult to prove. At , any rate, the system of priestcraft has had a sufficient trial; and it would be more becoming in those who profess such anxiety for the circulation of the bible, to let it take its chance. Let them, at any rate, shew their disinterestedness, by giving up the pounds, shillings, and pence it produces; or take pay only in that manner, and in those quantities, which those who receive their assistance can agree and afford to give. If they should find that they do not thrive so well under this system, . I hope they will recollect, there will be more man. liness in their adopting the following maxim, than in returning to the old practice: Some other scheme must occupy their brain ;

For those who once have cut must eat, again.


ON RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION." LETTER V. “ Advisc, but force not.” - St. BERN and’s Letters. SiR.—-Marmontel, in his Bellisarius, [the fifteenth chapter of which, I would . particularly recommend to the perusal of every person who has not read it] says, “Truth cannot fail to triumph, but “it must not be by the arm of flesh. “By putting the sword of WENGEANee “into the hand of TRUTH, you entrust “ERRoR with it also. The very pos“session of that sword, will always be “deemed a sufficient authority to wield “it without mercy, and PERsecution “will always be on the side df the “strongest.”. - . . . . . . . How simple, and yet how forcible is the mode of reasoning adopted by this - . . If kings were su posed to be God's vicegerents upon ei.

and, in that capacity were allowed to

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