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AMERICAN Govern Mexit. is an Act, passed by the representative: of the people. The President can give no pension, nor. even with the consent of the Senate, make any grant whatever of the public moneynot even to the amount of a dollar. Every thing of this sort is done by the Congress. comprising the whole of the representatives of the people.
The SENATE consists of two Members from each of the States in the Union. They are elected by the State Legislatures, who have been elected by the peopleThey serve for four years. The Constitution positively forbids the granting of any title of nobility. Every Senator is to be not under thirty years of age when elected, and is to be a resident in the State for which he is elected.
The HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES consists of Members from the several States, in number proportioned to the population of the States, according to actual enumeration. They are elected for two years.
The qualifications for members is mereIy that of having attained the age of 25 years, and having been 7 years a citizen of the United States.
As to the qualification of voters, it is simply that of having paid taxes, and being in a state to be called on for taxes. There are, in the different states, slight differences in the regulations as to voting; but, generally, and substantially, the paying of taxes, small or great in amouni, gives a right to vote. Of course, as the President, Senate, and Representatives, are all chosen from this source, they are all really the representatives of the people. It is manifestly a government carried on by the people, through their delsgates.
was ordered to be printed by the House of
Commons, there were 76 persons in that House, who received, amongst them, 178,994 pounds sterling a year of the public money. What was received, in this way by the Peers and their families I have no means of knowing. But, not only can Members of either House enjoy the profits of places, er of grants; they can receive appointments and grants while they are members. They frequently take part in voting money to themselves. But, there is this safeguard, that in some cases, at least, when a member receives a lucrative appointment, he vacates his seat, and must, if he continue a Member, be reelected? It is, however, very rarely, that his “ constituents” refuse to re-elect him! Oh! labelle chose!.
The king can dissolve the Parliament whenever he pleases; and the Parliament has been dissolved at every change of ministry for some time past. . He can also prorogue the Houses at hispleasure.
No person holding an office under the government can be a Member of either House; and no one can be appointed to any place (during the time for which he was elected), if such place has been created during the time he was in the Legislature.
The President has no power to dissolve the Congress, or either of the Houses; nor to adjourn their meetings, unless they disagree upon the subject. Nor can he call them together at any but at periods fixed by law, except on extraordinary occasious,
ENGLISH Gov ERNMENT.
If the king disapproves of a Bill, he rejects it, at once, without assigning any reasoils.
The king alone coins money, raises troops, and fits out navies.
The privilege of habeas corpus was suspended in England for several years, during Pitt's administration, when there was neither rebellion nor invasion.
It is treason to compass the death of the king; and this may be by writing or talking, and indirectly as well as directly. The crime of treason here is against the king : in America it is against the United States; that is to say against the people. By an act of this king's reign (to last ’till his death, and a year longer) it is declared to be high treason to endeavour to overawe the king, or either house of parliaonent, into a change of measures or counoils; and, at one time, it was high freqson to send to any person in the dominions of France, a bag of flour, a flitch of bacon, or a bushel of potatoes.
In England the Church Establishment receives in rents and tythes about an eighth part of the amount of therental of the whole ¥ingdom. All the Bishops, Deans, Prebends, and the greater part of the beneficed priests are appointed by the Crown. There are test laws, which shut out from political and civil privileges great numbers of the people; and men are frequently severely punished, put in felon's jails, and fined, and pillored into the bargain,
AMERICAN Gover NMENT. If the President does not approve of a Bill, passed by the two Houses, he sends it back with his objections; but if two thirds of both Houses persevere, the Bill becomes a Law.
The Congress alone has power to coin money, to raise troops, to build and equip ships.
The privilege or writ of habeas corpus cannot be suspended, unless, when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. America has lately been invaded in several parts, has had her towns burnt and plundered, her coast ravaged and devastated; and yet, the habeas corpus was not suspended.
Treason consists only in levying war against the UNITED STATES, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.
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“No law shall be made by Congress “ respecting an established religion, or “ prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” No religious test is required of any man to qualify him for any office. Any man may publish what he pleases about religion. No tythes in America. , Marriages are settled under the eye of the civil Magistrate, if the parties choose,
for writing, printing, or publishing their
opinions about religion. have seats in the House of Peers. Marriages are not legal unless sanctioned by the priests of the established church.
A to the liberty of SPEECH and of
the PRESS, many acts have been passed to abridge both ; but, particularly one on the 12th of July, 1799, which suppressed all political societies, and all societies for debating and lecturing ; except under
olicences from the King's Justices of the oage, or police Magistrates. Even lodges o is poo &ldish Freemasons were
Ex GLISH GOVERNMENT. AMERICAN GOVERNMENt. compelled to have a licence to meet, and to be registered; and, even after this, the King's Justices might order any lodge to be discontinued; that is to say, broken up. . The King's Justices, in case of disobedience of this law, might punish, at once, by a fine of £20, or three months imprisonment; or if the offenders were convicted on indictment, they were to be transported for seven years. Public- * * : ** house keepers were to lose their licences - if they permitted such meetings at their houses. Every place for lecturing, debating, or reading newspapers, where money shall be paid, is to be deemed a disorderly house, unless previously licensed. The King's Justices were authorized to take -the licence from any publican; that is to * . . . . say, to put an end to his trade, upon re- - ... . *: ceiving information, that seditious or in- - moral publications were read in his house. . . . —As to the PRESS, every Printer is, by .. x the same act, compelled to give notice to - * the clerk of the King's Justices, that he . . . . keeps a press or presses for printing, and - ---- - he is to receive a certificate of having - given such notice. The Justice's clerk - . . is to transmit a copy of the notice to the - King's Secretary of State, in whose office . . - - . . . . the names and places of abode of all the printers, and the number of the presses, &c. &c. are all nicely registered. Let- ter Founders are to do the same; and, - - moreover, they are to keep an account of the types and printing presses that they sell, and are to produce them, whenever .* . required, to any Justice of the peace.— . o * - - Then, again, the name and place of abode - - of the printer must be printed on every paper, or book; and any one issuing forth, dispersing after published, any paper, or book, without the name and place of abode of the printer, to be punished by the forfeiture of £20.-The printer is compelled to keep a copy of every thing he prints ; he is to write on it the name and abode of the person who employed him to print it, under the penalty of £20. Persons selling or handing about papers may be seized and carried before a justice to have it deter- mined, whether they have been offending ". . the law. Any justice may empower - peace officers to search for presses and - * * * * . . . types HE'suspects to be illegally used, and . . . . to seize them and the printed papers . * . . . . . . . . found.—As to newspapers, the Proprietors, . . . . . . Printers, and Publishers are all compelled o
to go to the Stamp-Office, and make an affidavit of their being such, and also of their place of abode. They are compelled to deposit one copy of each paper at the office; and this copy with their own affidavits is all that is called for in proof of their being all guilty of any libel found in the paper. An act was passed on the 18th of December, 1795, making it death for any part of the people above 50 in number, to meet for the purpose of petitioning, unless notice and authority for holding such Meeting be given to and obtained from the King's justices. The penalty of DEATH, without benefit of Clergy, occurs no less than nine times in this act. This act, not to spin out its details, puts all political meetings wholly under the absolute authority of the Justices, Sheriffs, and other Officers; who can in some cases prevent their taking place at all; and, n all cases, put an end to them at their sole discretion.—First a written notice, signed by 7 householders of the place, is to be given of a meeting ; this notice is to be
conveyed to the clerk of the Justices. The
Justices, thus apprized of the meeting, arrive. And, if they hear any body propounding, or maintaining, propositions for altering any thing by law established, except by the authority of King, Lords, and Commons, they may order the offending parties into custody.” There needs no more. This is quite clear. It may be excellent; but it is impossible to find any thing like it in America. According to the amount, ordered to be printed by the House of Commons in 1808, the following are a few of our Sinecure:Auditor of the Exchequer, Lord Grenville . . . . . . [2.4,000 Teller, Earl Camden .... 23,117
Earl Bathurst.... 2,700 Clerk of the Pells, Hon.
H. Addington ........ 3,000 Chamberlains, Hon. F.
North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,755
* This Mr. BURGoyNE has just written a circular letter to his neighbours in Essex, calling upon them to spend their last shilling, if neces: sary, in a war against ths Emperor of France, whom he calls everything but an honest man.—: N. B. Mr. Burgoyne has had this place for more than 30 years! Will he now give it up, seeing that mouey is so much wanted for this just j necessary war? - - - - - ... ts.- ". . . . .